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Wolfram Produkt Beschreibung

Tungsten Struktur
7440-33-7
CAS-Nr.
7440-33-7
Bezeichnung:
Wolfram
Englisch Name:
Tungsten
Synonyma:
W;325mesh;W HC 40;Tunsten;ID(mm),7;#turns,9;Ht(mm),7;ID(mm),4;W 005358;W 000390
CBNumber:
CB7854185
Summenformel:
W
Molgewicht:
183.84
MOL-Datei:
7440-33-7.mol

Wolfram Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
3410 °C (lit.)
Siedepunkt:
5660 °C (lit.)
Dichte
19.3 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
Flammpunkt:
-23 °C
storage temp. 
no restrictions.
Aggregatzustand
wire
Farbe
Silver-gray
Wichte
19.3
Widerstand (resistivity)
4.9 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Wasserlöslichkeit
insoluble
Merck 
13,9884
Stabilität:
Stable. Dust is flammable, though not likely to present a hazard if normal good practice is used.
CAS Datenbank
7440-33-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
Tungsten(7440-33-7)
EPA chemische Informationen
Tungsten (7440-33-7)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher F,Xi,N,Xn
R-Sätze: 11-36/38-67-65-62-51/53-48/20-38
S-Sätze: 6-26-36-62-61-36/37-16
RIDADR  UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany  -
RTECS-Nr. YO7175000
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  4.1
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  81011000
Giftige Stoffe Daten 7440-33-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Achtung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H228 Entzündbarer Feststoff. Entzündbare Feststoffe Kategorie 1 Achtung
Warnung
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H315 Verursacht Hautreizungen. Hautreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
Sicherheit
P210 Von Hitze, heißen Oberflächen, Funken, offenen Flammen und anderen Zündquellenarten fernhalten. Nicht rauchen.
P240 Behälter und zu befüllende Anlage erden.
P241 Explosionsgeschützte [elektrische/Lüftungs-/ Beleuchtungs-/...] Geräte verwenden.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.

Wolfram Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

GRAUES BIS WEISSES PULVER.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Kann sich beim Kontakt mit Luft spontan entzünden. Reagiert mit Oxidationsmitteln unter Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr. Reagiert sehr heftig mit starken Säuren.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV: (Metall und unlösliche Verbindungen) 5 mg/m?(als TWA); 10 mg/m?(als STEL); (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: IIb (nicht festgelegt, aber Informationen vorhanden) (DFG 2005).

AUFNAHMEWEGE

Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation.

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Eine gesundheitsschädliche Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann beim Dispergieren schnell erreicht werden.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Reizt möglicherweise die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege mechanisch.

LECKAGE

Verschüttetes Material in Behältern sammeln; falls erforderlich durch Anfeuchten Staubentwicklung verhindern. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Atemschutzgerät, P1-Filter für inerte Partikel.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R11:Leichtentzündlich.
R36/38:Reizt die Augen und die Haut.
R67:Dämpfe können Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit verursachen.
R65:Gesundheitsschädlich: kann beim Verschlucken Lungenschäden verursachen.
R62:Kann möglicherweise die Fortpflanzungsfähigkeit beeinträchtigen.
R51/53:Giftig für Wasserorganismen, kann in Gewässern längerfristig schädliche Wirkungen haben.
R48/20:Gesundheitsschädlich: Gefahr ernster Gesundheitsschäden bei längerer Exposition durch Einatmen.
R38:Reizt die Haut.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S6:Unter . . . aufbewahren (inertes Gas vom Hersteller anzugeben).
S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S62:Bei Verschlucken kein Erbrechen herbeiführen. Sofort ärztlichen Rat einholen und Verpackung oder dieses Etikett vorzeigen.
S61:Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden. Besondere Anweisungen einholen/Sicherheitsdatenblatt zu Rate ziehen.
S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.

Beschreibung

Tungsten was recognized as a distinct element in 1779 by Peter Woulfe, but not isolated until 1783, by Jose and Fausto d’Elhuyar. The average tungsten concentration in the earth’s crust is ~0.006%. Tungsten occurs naturally as tungstate, mainly in compounds such as wolframites and scheelites.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Tungsten is a hard, brittle, steel-gray to tinwhite metal or fine powder.

Physikalische Eigenschaften

Extremely pure samples of tungsten are rather soft and can be cut easily with a simple saw.Pure tungsten can be drawn into fine wires (ductile). On the other hand, if there are even a fewimpurities in the sample, the metal becomes very hard and brittle. It is a very dense metal witha whitish-to-silvery-grayish color when freshly cut. It has the highest melting point of all metalsat 3,422°C, making it a useful metal where high temperatures are required. Incidentally,the transition metals on both sides of it in period 6 (73Ta and 75Re) have the second- and thirdhighestmelting points. Tungsten’s boiling point is also high at 5,927°C.

Isotopes

There are 36 isotopes of tungsten. Five are naturally stable and therefore contributeproportionally to tungsten’s existence on Earth, as follows: W-180 = 0.12%, W-182 = 26.50%, W-183 = 14.31%, W-184 = 30.64%, and W-186 = 28.43%. The other31 isotopes are man-made in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators and have halflivesranging from fractions of a second to many days.

Origin of Name

Tungsten was originally named “Wolfram” by German scientists, after the mineral in which it was found, Wolframite—thus, its symbol “W.” Later, Swedish scientists named it tung sten, which means “heavy stone,” but it retained its original symbol of “W.”

Occurrence

Tungsten is the 58th most abundant element found on Earth. It is never found in 100%pure form in nature. Its major ore is called wolframite or tungsten tetroxide, (Fe,Mn)WO4,which is a mixture of iron and manganese and tungsten oxide. During processing, the ore ispulverized and treated with strong alkalis resulting in tungsten trioxide (WO3), which is thenheated (reduced) with carbon to remove the oxygen. This results in a variety of bright colorchanges and ends up as a rather pure form of tungsten metal: 2WO3 + 3C → 2WO + 3CO2.Or, if hydrogen is used as the reducing agent, a more pure form of metal is produced: WO3+ 3H2 → W + 3H2O.
Tungsten ores (oxides) are found in Russia, China, South America, Thailand, and Canada.In the United States, the ores are found in Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, California, Arizona,and Nebraska.

Charakteristisch

Tungsten is considered part of the chromium triad of group six (VIB), which consists of24Cr, 42Mo, and 74W. These elements share many of the same physical and chemical attributes.Tungsten’s high melting point makes it unique insofar as it can be heated to the point thatit glows with a very bright white light without melting. This makes it ideal as a filamentfor incandescent electric light bulbs. Most metals melt long before they reach the point ofincandescence.
Chemically, tungsten is rather inert, but it will form compounds with several other elementsat high temperatures (e.g., the halogens, carbon, boron, silicon, nitrogen, and oxygen).Tungsten will corrode in seawater.

History

In 1779 Peter Woulfe examined the mineral now known as wolframite and concluded it must contain a new substance. Scheele, in 1781, found that a new acid could be made from tung sten (a name first applied about 1758 to a mineral now known as scheelite). Scheele and Berman suggested the possibility of obtaining a new metal by reducing this acid. The de Elhuyar brothers found an acid in wolframite in 1783 that was identical to the acid of tungsten (tungstic acid) of Scheele, and in that year they succeeded in obtaining the element by reduction of this acid with charcoal. Tungsten occurs in wolframite, (Fe, Mn)WO4; scheelite, CaWO4; huebnerite, MnWO4; and ferberite, FeWO4. Important deposits of tungsten occur in California, Colorado, Bolivia, Russia, and Portugal. China is reported to have about 75% of the world’s tungsten resources. Natural tungsten contains five stable isotopes. Thirty-two other unstable isotopes and isomers are recognized. The metal is obtained commercially by reducing tungsten oxide with hydrogen or carbon. Pure tungsten is a steel-gray to tin-white metal. Very pure tungsten can be cut with a hacksaw, and can be forged, spun, drawn, and extruded. The impure metal is brittle and can be worked only with difficulty. Tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals, and at temperatures over 1650°C has the highest tensile strength. The metal oxidizes in air and must be protected at elevated temperatures. It has excellent corrosion resistance and is attacked only slightly by most mineral acids. The thermal expansion is about the same as borosilicate glass, which makes the metal useful for glass-to-metal seals. Tungsten and its alloys are used extensively for filaments for electric lamps, electron and television tubes, and for metal evaporation work; for electrical contact points for automobile distributors; X-ray targets; windings and heating elements for electrical furnaces; and for numerous spacecraft and high-temperature applications. High-speed tool steels, Hastelloy?, Stellite?, and many other alloys contain tungsten. Tungsten carbide is of great importance to the metal-working, mining, and petroleum industries. Calcium and magnesium tungstates are widely used in fluorescent lighting; other salts of tungsten are used in the chemical and tanning industries. Tungsten disulfide is a dry, high-temperature lubricant, stable to 500°C. Tungsten bronzes and other tungsten compounds are used in paints. Zirconium tungstate has found recent applications (see under Zirconium). Tungsten powder (99.999%) costs about $2900/kg.

Verwenden

Tungsten, also known as wolfram, occurs as wolframite (FeWO4). It can be found in the earth’s crust but not in its pure metal form. It combines with other chemicals and compounds within the rocky earth’s crust. It is a transitional hard metal with physicochemical properties and can also be manufactured commercially (Lassner and Schnubert, 1999; Gbaruko and Igwe, 2007; Stefaniak, 2010; Strigul et al., 2010).
Tungsten is most commonly used to increase the hardness of steel. It is available commercially in the form of powder, single crystal, and ultrapure granule grades. It is also used in the manufacturing of alloys, light filaments, and X-ray tubes. A recent use for tungsten is as a lead substitute during the manufacturing of ammunition and sporting good products. Another recent commercial use for tungsten is in the production of wedding bands. It is also used as a catalyst in chemical reactions (Lassner and Schnubert, 1999; Gbaruko and Igwe, 2007; Stefaniak, 2010; Strigul et al., 2010).
To increase hardness, toughness, elasticity, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of alloys; manufacture of filaments for incandescent lamps and in electron tubes; in contact points for automotive, telegraph, radio and television apparatus; in phonograph needles. Tungsten carbides (W2C, WC) used in rock drills, metal-cutting tools, wire-drawing dies. WC used as catalyst instead of platinum: Bennett et al., Science 184, 563 (1974).

Verwenden

Since its melting temperature is over 3,400°C, tungsten is one of the few metals that canglow white hot when heated without melting. This factor makes it the second most frequentlyused industrial metal (the first is iron). Tungsten is used in the filaments of common lightbulbs, as well as in TV tubes, cathode ray tubes, and computer monitors. Its ability to be“pulled” into thin wire makes it useful in the electronics industry. It is also used in solarenergy products and X-ray equipment. Its ability to withstand high temperatures makes itideal for rocket engines and electric-heater filaments of all kinds. Tungsten carbide is used as asubstitute for diamonds for drills and grinding equipment. This attribute is important in themanufacture of exceptionally hard, high-speed cutting tools.

Verwenden

Ferrous and nonferrous alloys, filaments in incandescent lamps, heating elements, welding electrodes, manufacture of abrasives and tools, manufacture of textiles and ceramics.

Vorbereitung Methode

Tungsten occurs principally in the minerals wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4, scheelite (CaWO4), ferberite (FeWO4), and hubnerite (MnWO4). These ores are found in China, Russia, Canada, Austria, Africa, Bolivia, Columbia, and Portugal. Wolframite is the most important oreworldwide; scheelite is the principal domestic U.S. ore. Scheelite, when pure, contains 80.6% WO3, the most common impurity being MoO3. The percentages of FeO and MnO in wolframite vary considerably; hubnerite is the term applied to ore containing more than 20% MnO and ferberite and to ore containing more than 20% FeO. Intermediate samples are called wolframite.

Definition

A transition metal occurring naturally in wolframite ((Fe,Mn)WO4) and scheelite (CaWO4). It was formerly called wolfram. It is used as the filaments in electric lamps and in various alloys. Symbol: W; m.p. 3410 ± 20°C; b.p. 5650°C; r.d. 19.3 (20°C); p.n. 74; r.a.m. 183.84.

Definition

tungsten: Symbol W. A white orgrey metallic transition element(formerly called wolfram); a.n. 74;r.a.m. 183.85; r.d. 19.3; m.p. 3410°C;b.p. 5660°C. It is found in a numberof ores, including the oxides wolframite,(Fe,Mn)WO4, and scheelite,CaWO4. The ore is heated with concentratedsodium hydroxide solutionto form a soluble tungstate. Theoxide WO3 is precipitated from thisby adding acid, and is reduced to themetal using hydrogen. It is used invarious alloys, especially high-speedsteels (for cutting tools) and in lampfilaments. Tungsten forms a protectiveoxide in air and can be oxidizedat high temperature. It does not dissolvein dilute acids. It forms compoundsin which the oxidation stateranges from +2 to +6. The metal wasfirst isolated by Juan d’Elhuyer andFausto d’Elhuyer (1755–1833) in1783.

Reaktivität anzeigen

Tungsten is stable at room temperature. Very slowly attacked by nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and aqua regia. Dissolved by a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. No reaction with aqueous bases. Attacked rapidly by motlen alkaline melts such as Na2O2 or KNO3/NaOH. Vigorous reactions with bromine trifluoride and chlorine trifluoride. Becomes incandescent upon heating with lead oxide; becomes incandescent in cold fluorine and with iodine pentafluoride. Combustible in the form of finely divided powder and may ignite spontaneously.

Hazard

Tungsten dust, powder, and fine particles will explode, sometimes spontaneously, in air.The dust of many of tungsten’s compounds is toxic if inhaled or ingested.

Health Hazard

The soluble compounds of tungsten are distinctly more toxic than the insoluble forms.

Sicherheitsprofil

An inhalation hazard. Mildly toxic by an unspecified route. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. A skin and eye irritant. Flammable in the form of dust when exposed to flame. The powdered metal may ignite on contact with air or oxidants (e.g., bromine pentafluoride, bromine, chlorine trifluoride, potassium perchlorate, potassium dichromate, nitryl fluoride, fluorine, oxygen difluoride, iodine pentafluoride, hydrogen sulfide, sodlum peroxide, lead (IV)oxide). See also TUNGSTEN COMPOUNDS and POWDERED METALS.

mögliche Exposition

Tungsten is used in ferrous and nonferrous alloys, and for filaments in incandescent lamps. It has been stated that the principal health hazards from tungsten and its compounds arise from inhalation of aerosols during mining and milling operations. The principal compounds of tungsten to which workers are exposed are ammonium paratungstate, oxides of tungsten (WO3, W2O5, WO2); metallic tungsten; and tungsten carbide. In the production and use of tungsten carbide tools for machining, exposure to the cobalt used as a binder or cementing substance may be the most important hazard to the health of the employees. Since the cemented tungsten carbide industry uses such other metals as tantalum, titanium, niobium, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in the manufacturing process, the occupational exposures are generally to mixed dust.

Carcinogenicity

Tungsten has been suspected to be involved in the occurrence of childhood leukemia, with the discovery of a cluster of diseases in Fallon, Nevada, associated with elevated levels of tungsten in urine and drinking water. The exact environmental source of exposure to tungsten was not clearly identi?ed and there is little evidence for an etiological role of tungsten in eliciting leukemia.

Environmental Fate

Tungsten in the environment largely exists as ions in compounds and primarily insoluble solids. The potential for particulate matter to spread is low as wet and dry deposition removes it from the atmosphere. If released to air, most tungsten compounds have low vapor pressures and are expected to exist solely in the particulate phase in the ambient atmosphere. Volatization is not expected to be an important fate process.

Versand/Shipping

UN3089 Metal powders, flammable, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN3189 Metal powder, self heating, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.2; Labels: 4.2-Spontaneously combustible material.

läuterung methode

Clean the solid with conc NaOH solution, rub it with very fine emery paper until its surface is bright, wash it with previously boiled and cooled conductivity water and dry it with filter paper. [Hein & Herzog in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol II p 1417 1965.]

Toxicity evaluation

Reported inhalation effects are probably due to cobalt in exposures, a competitive inhibitor of molybdenum utilization.

Inkompatibilitäten

Tungsten: The finely divided powder is combustible and may ignite spontaneously in air. Incompatible with bromine trifluoride; chlorine trifluoride; fluorine, iodine pentafluoride.

Waste disposal

Recovery of tungsten from sintered metal carbides, scrap and spent catalysts has been described as an alternative to disposal.

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7440-33-7(Wolfram)Verwandte Suche:


  • TUNGSTEN, POWDER, <10 MICRON, 99.99+%
  • TUNGSTEN, WIRE, 1.0MM DIAM., 99.99%
  • TUNGSTEN, FOIL, 0.5MM THICK, 99.9+%
  • Tungsten, monocrystalline powder, 0.6-1 micron, 99.9+% metals basis
  • Tungsten wire
  • Tungsten wire 99.95%
  • Tungsten1
  • Tungsten2
  • Tungsten3
  • Tungsten4
  • Tungsten5
  • Tungstenpowdermicron
  • TungstenpowderNmesh
  • TungstenpowderNmicron
  • TungstenrodannealedNmmdiacagcm
  • Tungstenrodmmdiameter
  • TungstenwireN
  • TungstenwireNmmdia
  • TUNGSTEN GAUZE, 100 MESH WOVEN FROM 0.0254MM (0.001IN) DIA W
  • TUNGSTEN PLATE 99.9%
  • TUNGSTEN WIRE (99.95%) 0.25MM DIA
  • TUNGSTEN WIRE, CHROMIUM PLATED, 1.8MM (0.07IN) DIA, W 96.5+%
  • TUNGSTEN DISCS 99.95%
  • TUNGSTEN ROD 99.95%
  • TUNGSTEN GAUZE, 100 MESH WOVEN FROM 0.0509MM (0.002IN) DIA W
  • TUNGSTEN WIRE, PLATINUM COATED, 0.25MM (0.01IN) DIA, 99.99%
  • TUNGSTEN POWDER 99.9% 100NM
  • TUNGSTEN - NITROGEN BET SURFACE AREA (0.181 M2/G)(CRM STANDARD)
  • TUNGSTEN CRUCIBLE
  • TUNGSTEN WIRE (99.95%) 0.05MM DIA
  • TUNGSTEN BAR 99.50+%
  • TungstenPowder99%(325Mesh)
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  • rods,wire,powder,sheet,balls,sintered,granule
  • 325mesh
  • Tungsten, powder, 12 micron, 99.90%
  • TUNGSTEN 99.98%
  • ID(mm), 7
  • ID(mm),7
  • Wire dia(mm), 0.51
  • Wire leads(cm), 5.0
  • Wiredia(mm),0.51
  • Wireleads(cm),5.0
  • # turns, 9
  • #turns,9
  • Ht(mm), 7
  • Ht(mm),7
  • ID(mm), 4
  • ID(mm),4
  • Wire leads(cm), 3.5
  • Wireleads(cm),3.5
  • TUNGSTENMETAL,POWDER
  • SOLUBLETUNGSTEN
  • INSOLUBLETUNGSTEN
  • TUNGSTEN: 99.995%, POWDER, -90 MICRON
  • TUNGSTEN WIRE: 3N5
  • TUNGSTEN METAL POWDER W HC 40
  • TUNGSTEN ROD ANNEALED: 99.98%, 3N8
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