ChemicalBook
Chinese English Japanese Germany Korea

텅스텐

텅스텐
텅스텐 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7440-33-7
한글명:
텅스텐
동의어(한글):
텅스텐;텅스텐(가용성화합물,불가용성화합물);텅스텐분;텅스텐원소;텅스텐, 원소;텅스텐분말
상품명:
Tungsten
동의어(영문):
W;325mesh;W HC 40;Tunsten;ID(mm),7;#turns,9;Ht(mm),7;ID(mm),4;W 005358;W 000390
CBNumber:
CB7854185
분자식:
W
포뮬러 무게:
183.84
MOL 파일:
7440-33-7.mol

텅스텐 속성

녹는점
3410 °C (lit.)
끓는 점
5660 °C (lit.)
밀도
19.3 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
인화점
-23 °C
저장 조건
no restrictions.
물리적 상태
wire
색상
Silver-gray
Specific Gravity
19.3
비저항
4.9 μΩ-cm, 20°C
수용성
insoluble
Merck
13,9884
안정성
Stable. Dust is flammable, though not likely to present a hazard if normal good practice is used.
CAS 데이터베이스
7440-33-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Tungsten(7440-33-7)
EPA
Tungsten (7440-33-7)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 F,Xi,N,Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 11-36/38-67-65-62-51/53-48/20-38
안전지침서 6-26-36-62-61-36/37-16
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK 독일 -
RTECS 번호 YO7175000
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 4.1
포장분류 III
HS 번호 81011000
유해 물질 데이터 7440-33-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
기존화학 물질 KE-35000
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H228 인화성 고체 인화성 고체 구분 1
구분 2
위험
경고
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P240 용기와 수용설비를 접지 및 접합시키시오.
P241 폭발 방지용 장비[전기적/환기/조명/...]을(를) 사용하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.

텅스텐 MSDS


Tungsten

텅스텐 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Tungsten was recognized as a distinct element in 1779 by Peter Woulfe, but not isolated until 1783, by Jose and Fausto d’Elhuyar. The average tungsten concentration in the earth’s crust is ~0.006%. Tungsten occurs naturally as tungstate, mainly in compounds such as wolframites and scheelites.

화학적 성질

Tungsten is a hard, brittle, steel-gray to tinwhite metal or fine powder.

물리적 성질

Extremely pure samples of tungsten are rather soft and can be cut easily with a simple saw.Pure tungsten can be drawn into fine wires (ductile). On the other hand, if there are even a fewimpurities in the sample, the metal becomes very hard and brittle. It is a very dense metal witha whitish-to-silvery-grayish color when freshly cut. It has the highest melting point of all metalsat 3,422°C, making it a useful metal where high temperatures are required. Incidentally,the transition metals on both sides of it in period 6 (73Ta and 75Re) have the second- and thirdhighestmelting points. Tungsten’s boiling point is also high at 5,927°C.

Isotopes

There are 36 isotopes of tungsten. Five are naturally stable and therefore contributeproportionally to tungsten’s existence on Earth, as follows: W-180 = 0.12%, W-182 = 26.50%, W-183 = 14.31%, W-184 = 30.64%, and W-186 = 28.43%. The other31 isotopes are man-made in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators and have halflivesranging from fractions of a second to many days.

Origin of Name

Tungsten was originally named “Wolfram” by German scientists, after the mineral in which it was found, Wolframite—thus, its symbol “W.” Later, Swedish scientists named it tung sten, which means “heavy stone,” but it retained its original symbol of “W.”

출처

Tungsten is the 58th most abundant element found on Earth. It is never found in 100%pure form in nature. Its major ore is called wolframite or tungsten tetroxide, (Fe,Mn)WO4,which is a mixture of iron and manganese and tungsten oxide. During processing, the ore ispulverized and treated with strong alkalis resulting in tungsten trioxide (WO3), which is thenheated (reduced) with carbon to remove the oxygen. This results in a variety of bright colorchanges and ends up as a rather pure form of tungsten metal: 2WO3 + 3C → 2WO + 3CO2.Or, if hydrogen is used as the reducing agent, a more pure form of metal is produced: WO3+ 3H2 → W + 3H2O.
Tungsten ores (oxides) are found in Russia, China, South America, Thailand, and Canada.In the United States, the ores are found in Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, California, Arizona,and Nebraska.

Characteristics

Tungsten is considered part of the chromium triad of group six (VIB), which consists of24Cr, 42Mo, and 74W. These elements share many of the same physical and chemical attributes.Tungsten’s high melting point makes it unique insofar as it can be heated to the point thatit glows with a very bright white light without melting. This makes it ideal as a filamentfor incandescent electric light bulbs. Most metals melt long before they reach the point ofincandescence.
Chemically, tungsten is rather inert, but it will form compounds with several other elementsat high temperatures (e.g., the halogens, carbon, boron, silicon, nitrogen, and oxygen).Tungsten will corrode in seawater.

역사

In 1779 Peter Woulfe examined the mineral now known as wolframite and concluded it must contain a new substance. Scheele, in 1781, found that a new acid could be made from tung sten (a name first applied about 1758 to a mineral now known as scheelite). Scheele and Berman suggested the possibility of obtaining a new metal by reducing this acid. The de Elhuyar brothers found an acid in wolframite in 1783 that was identical to the acid of tungsten (tungstic acid) of Scheele, and in that year they succeeded in obtaining the element by reduction of this acid with charcoal. Tungsten occurs in wolframite, (Fe, Mn)WO4; scheelite, CaWO4; huebnerite, MnWO4; and ferberite, FeWO4. Important deposits of tungsten occur in California, Colorado, Bolivia, Russia, and Portugal. China is reported to have about 75% of the world’s tungsten resources. Natural tungsten contains five stable isotopes. Thirty-two other unstable isotopes and isomers are recognized. The metal is obtained commercially by reducing tungsten oxide with hydrogen or carbon. Pure tungsten is a steel-gray to tin-white metal. Very pure tungsten can be cut with a hacksaw, and can be forged, spun, drawn, and extruded. The impure metal is brittle and can be worked only with difficulty. Tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals, and at temperatures over 1650°C has the highest tensile strength. The metal oxidizes in air and must be protected at elevated temperatures. It has excellent corrosion resistance and is attacked only slightly by most mineral acids. The thermal expansion is about the same as borosilicate glass, which makes the metal useful for glass-to-metal seals. Tungsten and its alloys are used extensively for filaments for electric lamps, electron and television tubes, and for metal evaporation work; for electrical contact points for automobile distributors; X-ray targets; windings and heating elements for electrical furnaces; and for numerous spacecraft and high-temperature applications. High-speed tool steels, Hastelloy?, Stellite?, and many other alloys contain tungsten. Tungsten carbide is of great importance to the metal-working, mining, and petroleum industries. Calcium and magnesium tungstates are widely used in fluorescent lighting; other salts of tungsten are used in the chemical and tanning industries. Tungsten disulfide is a dry, high-temperature lubricant, stable to 500°C. Tungsten bronzes and other tungsten compounds are used in paints. Zirconium tungstate has found recent applications (see under Zirconium). Tungsten powder (99.999%) costs about $2900/kg.

용도

Tungsten, also known as wolfram, occurs as wolframite (FeWO4). It can be found in the earth’s crust but not in its pure metal form. It combines with other chemicals and compounds within the rocky earth’s crust. It is a transitional hard metal with physicochemical properties and can also be manufactured commercially (Lassner and Schnubert, 1999; Gbaruko and Igwe, 2007; Stefaniak, 2010; Strigul et al., 2010).
Tungsten is most commonly used to increase the hardness of steel. It is available commercially in the form of powder, single crystal, and ultrapure granule grades. It is also used in the manufacturing of alloys, light filaments, and X-ray tubes. A recent use for tungsten is as a lead substitute during the manufacturing of ammunition and sporting good products. Another recent commercial use for tungsten is in the production of wedding bands. It is also used as a catalyst in chemical reactions (Lassner and Schnubert, 1999; Gbaruko and Igwe, 2007; Stefaniak, 2010; Strigul et al., 2010).
To increase hardness, toughness, elasticity, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of alloys; manufacture of filaments for incandescent lamps and in electron tubes; in contact points for automotive, telegraph, radio and television apparatus; in phonograph needles. Tungsten carbides (W2C, WC) used in rock drills, metal-cutting tools, wire-drawing dies. WC used as catalyst instead of platinum: Bennett et al., Science 184, 563 (1974).

용도

Since its melting temperature is over 3,400°C, tungsten is one of the few metals that canglow white hot when heated without melting. This factor makes it the second most frequentlyused industrial metal (the first is iron). Tungsten is used in the filaments of common lightbulbs, as well as in TV tubes, cathode ray tubes, and computer monitors. Its ability to be“pulled” into thin wire makes it useful in the electronics industry. It is also used in solarenergy products and X-ray equipment. Its ability to withstand high temperatures makes itideal for rocket engines and electric-heater filaments of all kinds. Tungsten carbide is used as asubstitute for diamonds for drills and grinding equipment. This attribute is important in themanufacture of exceptionally hard, high-speed cutting tools.

용도

Ferrous and nonferrous alloys, filaments in incandescent lamps, heating elements, welding electrodes, manufacture of abrasives and tools, manufacture of textiles and ceramics.

생산 방법

Tungsten occurs principally in the minerals wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4, scheelite (CaWO4), ferberite (FeWO4), and hubnerite (MnWO4). These ores are found in China, Russia, Canada, Austria, Africa, Bolivia, Columbia, and Portugal. Wolframite is the most important oreworldwide; scheelite is the principal domestic U.S. ore. Scheelite, when pure, contains 80.6% WO3, the most common impurity being MoO3. The percentages of FeO and MnO in wolframite vary considerably; hubnerite is the term applied to ore containing more than 20% MnO and ferberite and to ore containing more than 20% FeO. Intermediate samples are called wolframite.

정의

A transition metal occurring naturally in wolframite ((Fe,Mn)WO4) and scheelite (CaWO4). It was formerly called wolfram. It is used as the filaments in electric lamps and in various alloys. Symbol: W; m.p. 3410 ± 20°C; b.p. 5650°C; r.d. 19.3 (20°C); p.n. 74; r.a.m. 183.84.

정의

tungsten: Symbol W. A white orgrey metallic transition element(formerly called wolfram); a.n. 74;r.a.m. 183.85; r.d. 19.3; m.p. 3410°C;b.p. 5660°C. It is found in a numberof ores, including the oxides wolframite,(Fe,Mn)WO4, and scheelite,CaWO4. The ore is heated with concentratedsodium hydroxide solutionto form a soluble tungstate. Theoxide WO3 is precipitated from thisby adding acid, and is reduced to themetal using hydrogen. It is used invarious alloys, especially high-speedsteels (for cutting tools) and in lampfilaments. Tungsten forms a protectiveoxide in air and can be oxidizedat high temperature. It does not dissolvein dilute acids. It forms compoundsin which the oxidation stateranges from +2 to +6. The metal wasfirst isolated by Juan d’Elhuyer andFausto d’Elhuyer (1755–1833) in1783.

반응 프로필

Tungsten is stable at room temperature. Very slowly attacked by nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and aqua regia. Dissolved by a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. No reaction with aqueous bases. Attacked rapidly by motlen alkaline melts such as Na2O2 or KNO3/NaOH. Vigorous reactions with bromine trifluoride and chlorine trifluoride. Becomes incandescent upon heating with lead oxide; becomes incandescent in cold fluorine and with iodine pentafluoride. Combustible in the form of finely divided powder and may ignite spontaneously.

위험도

Tungsten dust, powder, and fine particles will explode, sometimes spontaneously, in air.The dust of many of tungsten’s compounds is toxic if inhaled or ingested.

건강위험

The soluble compounds of tungsten are distinctly more toxic than the insoluble forms.

Safety Profile

An inhalation hazard. Mildly toxic by an unspecified route. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. A skin and eye irritant. Flammable in the form of dust when exposed to flame. The powdered metal may ignite on contact with air or oxidants (e.g., bromine pentafluoride, bromine, chlorine trifluoride, potassium perchlorate, potassium dichromate, nitryl fluoride, fluorine, oxygen difluoride, iodine pentafluoride, hydrogen sulfide, sodlum peroxide, lead (IV)oxide). See also TUNGSTEN COMPOUNDS and POWDERED METALS.

잠재적 노출

Tungsten is used in ferrous and nonferrous alloys, and for filaments in incandescent lamps. It has been stated that the principal health hazards from tungsten and its compounds arise from inhalation of aerosols during mining and milling operations. The principal compounds of tungsten to which workers are exposed are ammonium paratungstate, oxides of tungsten (WO3, W2O5, WO2); metallic tungsten; and tungsten carbide. In the production and use of tungsten carbide tools for machining, exposure to the cobalt used as a binder or cementing substance may be the most important hazard to the health of the employees. Since the cemented tungsten carbide industry uses such other metals as tantalum, titanium, niobium, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in the manufacturing process, the occupational exposures are generally to mixed dust.

Carcinogenicity

Tungsten has been suspected to be involved in the occurrence of childhood leukemia, with the discovery of a cluster of diseases in Fallon, Nevada, associated with elevated levels of tungsten in urine and drinking water. The exact environmental source of exposure to tungsten was not clearly identi?ed and there is little evidence for an etiological role of tungsten in eliciting leukemia.

환경귀착

Tungsten in the environment largely exists as ions in compounds and primarily insoluble solids. The potential for particulate matter to spread is low as wet and dry deposition removes it from the atmosphere. If released to air, most tungsten compounds have low vapor pressures and are expected to exist solely in the particulate phase in the ambient atmosphere. Volatization is not expected to be an important fate process.

운송 방법

UN3089 Metal powders, flammable, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN3189 Metal powder, self heating, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.2; Labels: 4.2-Spontaneously combustible material.

Purification Methods

Clean the solid with conc NaOH solution, rub it with very fine emery paper until its surface is bright, wash it with previously boiled and cooled conductivity water and dry it with filter paper. [Hein & Herzog in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol II p 1417 1965.]

Toxicity evaluation

Reported inhalation effects are probably due to cobalt in exposures, a competitive inhibitor of molybdenum utilization.

비 호환성

Tungsten: The finely divided powder is combustible and may ignite spontaneously in air. Incompatible with bromine trifluoride; chlorine trifluoride; fluorine, iodine pentafluoride.

폐기물 처리

Recovery of tungsten from sintered metal carbides, scrap and spent catalysts has been described as an alternative to disposal.

텅스텐 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


텅스텐 공급 업체

글로벌( 181)공급 업체
공급자 전화 팩스 이메일 국가 제품 수 이점
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-66670886
info@dakenchem.com China 20911 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com CHINA 22607 55
career henan chemical co
+86-371-86658258
sales@coreychem.com CHINA 29955 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-18871470254
027-59599243 linda@hubeijusheng.com CHINA 28229 58
ShenZhen Ipure Biology import and export company co.,ltd
18071025641 18071025641
eric@ipurechemical.com CHINA 11336 58
Shaanxi Dideu Medichem Co. Ltd
18192503167 +86-29-89586680
+86-29-88380327 1005@dideu.com CHINA 9938 58
Zhuoer Chemical Co., Ltd
+86-13524231522
+86-21-58816016 sales@zhuoerchem.com CHINA 3014 58
Henan Alfa Chemical Co., Ltd
+8619139973225
adam@alfa-chemical.com;sales4@alfachem.cn China 11904 58
Alfa Chemistry

support@alfa-chemistry.com CHINA 10563 58
Mainchem Co., Ltd. +86-0592-6210733
+86-0592-6210733 sale@mainchem.com CHINA 32439 55

텅스텐 관련 검색:

Copyright 2019 © ChemicalBook. All rights reserved