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Eisen Produkt Beschreibung

Iron Struktur
Englisch Name:
Fe;gs6;3ZhP;eo5a;GS 6;Loha;pzh3;PzhO;Iron;EO 5A

Eisen Eigenschaften

1535 °C(lit.)
2750 °C(lit.)
7.86 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
>230 °F
storage temp. 
H2O: soluble
Widerstand (resistivity)
9.71 μΩ-cm
Moisture Sensitive
Stable. Reacts slowly with moist air and water. Dust may form an explosive or combustible mixture with air. Incompatible with organic acids, strong oxidizing agents, water, mineral acids.
CAS Datenbank
7439-89-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
EPA chemische Informationen
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher F,Xi
R-Sätze: 36/38-11-17
S-Sätze: 26-16-33-24/25
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS-Nr. NO4565500
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  72052900
Giftige Stoffe Daten 7439-89-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Achtung
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H228 Entzündbarer Feststoff. Entzündbare Feststoffe Kategorie 1 Achtung
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
P210 Von Hitze, heißen Oberflächen, Funken, offenen Flammen und anderen Zündquellenarten fernhalten. Nicht rauchen.
P261 Einatmen von Staub vermeiden.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P304+P340 BEI EINATMEN: Die Person an die frische Luft bringen und für ungehinderte Atmung sorgen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.
P370+P378 Bei Brand: zum Löschen verwenden.
P405 Unter Verschluss aufbewahren.

Eisen Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R36/38:Reizt die Augen und die Haut.
R17:Selbstentzündlich an der Luft. Spontaneously flammable in air.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S16:Von Zündquellen fernhalten - Nicht rauchen.
S33:Maßnahmen gegen elektrostatische Aufladungen treffen.

Aussehen Eigenschaften

Fe (Pulver). Graues, geruchloses Pulver.

Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt

Gefahr der Staubexplosion. Brennbar.
Nicht mit Halogenen, Halogen-Halogenverbindungen, Peroxiden und Stickstoffoxiden in Berührung bringen. Mit Ammoniumverbindungen und Perchloraten explosionsfähig. Mit Säuren Wasserstofffreisetzung (Explosionsgefahr!).
Reizt die Atmungsorgane und die Augen.

Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln

Geeignete Schutzhandschuhe als kurzzeitiger Staubschutz.

Verhalten im Gefahrfall

Trocken aufnehmen. Der Entsorgung zuführen. Mit Wasser nachreinigen.
Gefahr der Staubexplosion.

Erste Hilfe

Nach Hautkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser abwaschen.
Nach Augenkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser und geöffnetem Lidspalt mindestens 10 Minuten ausspülen. Augenarzt hinzuziehen.
Nach Einatmen: Frischluft. Arzt hinzuziehen.
Nach Verschlucken: Mund ausspülen, Wasser trinken. Bei Unwohlsein Arzt aufsuchen.
Nach Kleidungskontakt: Kontaminierte Kleidung entfernen.
Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

Sachgerechte Entsorgung

Als feste Laborchemikalienabfälle.


Carbonyl iron is elemental iron produced by the decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl as a dark gray powder. When viewed under a microscope having a magnifying power of 500 diameters or greater, it appears as spheres built up with concentric shells. It is stable in dry air.


Reduced iron is elemental iron obtained by a chemical process in the form of a grayish black powder, all of which should pass through a 100-mesh sieve. It is lusterless or has not more than a slight luster. When viewed under a microscope having a magnifying power of 100 diameters, it appears as an amorphous powder, free from particles having a crystalline structure. It is stable in dry air.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Silver-white malleable metal. The only metal that can be tempered. Mechanical properties are altered by impurities, especially carbon.Iron is highly reactive chemically, a strong reducing agent, oxidizes readily in moist air, reacts with steam when hot, t

Physikalische Eigenschaften

Pure iron is a silvery-white, hard, but malleable and ductile metal that can be worked andforged into many different shapes, such as rods, wires, sheets, ingots, pipes, framing, and soon. Pure iron is reactive and forms many compounds with other elements. It is an excellentreducing agent. It oxidizes (rusts) in water and moist air and is highly reactive with most acids,releasing hydrogen from the acid. One of its main properties is that it can be magnetized andretain a magnetic field.The iron with a valence of 2 is referred to as “ferrous” in compounds (e.g., ferrous chloride= FeCl2). When the valence is 3, it is called “ferric” (e.g., ferric chloride = FeCl3).Iron’s melting point is 1,535°C, its boiling point is 2,750°C, and its density is 7.873g/cm3.


There are 30 isotopes of iron ranging from Fe-45 to Fe-72. The following arethe four stable isotopes with the percentage of their contribution to the element’s naturalexistence on Earth: Fe-54 = 5.845%, Fe-56 = 91.72%, Fe-57 = 2.2%, and Fe-58 =0.28%. It might be noted that Fe-54 is radioactive but is considered stable because ithas such a long half-life (3.1×10+22 years). The other isotopes are radioactive and areproduced artificially. Their half-lives range from 150 nanoseconds to 1×105 years.

Origin of Name

The name “iron” or “iren” is Anglo-Saxon, and the symbol for iron (Fe) is from ferrum, the Latin word for iron.


Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth s crust (about 5%) and is the ninth most abundant element found in the sun and stars in the universe. The core of the Earth is believed to consist of two layers, or spheres, of iron. The inner core is thought to be molten iron and nickel mixture, and the outer core is a transition phase of iron with the molten magma of the Earth s mantle. Iron s two oxide compounds (ferrous(II) oxide FeO) and (ferric(III) oxide Fe2O3) are the third and seventh most abundant compounds found in the Earth s crust. The most common ore of iron is hematite that appears as black sand on beaches or black seams when exposed in the ground. Small amounts of iron and iron alloys with nickel and cobalt were found in meteorites (siderite) by early humans. This limited supply was used to shape tools and crude weapons. Even though small amounts of iron compounds and alloys are found in nature (iron is not found in its pure metallic state in nature), early humans did not know how to extract iron from ores until well after they knew how to smelt gold, tin, and copper ores. From these metals, they then developed bronze alloy thus the Bronze Age (about 8000 BCE). There are several grades of iron ores, including hematite (brown ferric oxide) and limonite (red ferric oxide). Other ores are pyrites, chromite, magnetite, siderite, and low-grade taconite. Magnetite (Fe3O4) is the magnetic iron mineral/ore found in South Africa, Sweden, and parts of the United States. The lodestone, a form of magnetite, is a natural magnet. Iron ores are found in many countries. Iron is found throughout most of the universe, in most of the stars, and in our sun, and it probably exists on the other planets of our solar system.


Iron is the only metal that can be tempered (hardened by heating, then quenching in wateror oil). Iron can become too hard and develop stresses and fractures. This can be corrected byannealing, a process that heats the iron again and then holds it at that temperature until thestresses are eliminated. Iron is a good conductor of electricity and heat. It is easily magnetized,but its magnetic properties are lost at high temperatures. Iron has four allotropic states. Thealpha form exists at room temperatures, while the other three allotropic forms exist at varyinghigher temperatures.Iron is the most important construction metal. It can be alloyed with many other metals tomake a great variety of specialty products. Its most important alloy is steel.An interesting characteristic of iron is that it is the heaviest element that can be formed byfusion of hydrogen in the sun and similar stars. Hydrogen nuclei can be “squeezed” in the sunto form all the elements with atomic numbers below cobalt (27Co), which includes iron. Itrequires the excess fusion energy of supernovas (exploding stars) to form elements with protonnumbers greater than iron (26Fe).


Iron is a relatively abundant element in the universe. It is found in the sun and many types of stars in considerable quantity. It has been suggested that the iron we have here on Earth may have originated in a supernova. Iron is a very difficult element to produce in ordinary nuclear reactions, such as would take place in the sun. Iron is found native as a principal component of a class of iron–nickel meteorites known as siderites, and is a minor constituent of the other two classes of meteorites. The core of the Earth, 2150 miles in radius, is thought to be largely composed of iron with about 10% occluded hydrogen. The metal is the fourth most abundant element, by weight, making up the crust of the Earth. The most common ore is hematite (Fe2O3). Magnetite (Fe3O4) is frequently seen as black sands along beaches and banks of streams. Lodestone is another form of magnetite. Taconite is becoming increasingly important as a commercial ore. Iron is a vital constituent of plant and animal life, and appears in hemoglobin. The pure metal is not often encountered in commerce, but is usually alloyed with carbon or other metals. The pure metal is very reactive chemically, and rapidly corrodes, especially in moist air or at elevated temperatures. It has four allotropic forms,or ferrites, known as α, β, γ, and δ, with transition points at 700, 928, and 1530°C. The α form is magnetic, but when transformed into the β form, the magnetism disappears although the lattice remains unchanged. The relations of these forms are peculiar. Pig iron is an alloy containing about 3% carbon with varying amounts of S, Si, Mn, and P. It is hard, brittle, fairly fusible, and is used to produce other alloys, including steel. Wrought iron contains only a few tenths of a percent of carbon, is tough, malleable, less fusible, and usually has a “fibrous” structure. Carbon steel is an alloy of iron with carbon, with small amounts of Mn, S, P, and Si. Alloy steels are carbon steels with other additives such as nickel, chromium, vanadium, etc. Iron is the cheapest and most abundant, useful, and important of all metals. Natural iron contains four isotopes. Twenty-six other isotopes and isomers, all radioactive, are now recognized.


Alloyed with C, Mn, Cr, Ni, and other elements to form steels. Nutritional supplement in wheat flours, corn meal, grits and other cereal products. 55Fe and 59Fe used in tracer studies; the former in biological studies.


Iron is a mineral used in food fortification that is necessary for the prevention of anemia, which reduces the hemoglobin concentra- tion and thus the amount of oxygen delivered to the tissues. sources include ferric ammonium sulfate, chloride, fructose, glycerophos- phate, nitrate, phosphate, pyrophosphate and ferrous ammonium sulfate, citrate, sulfate, and sodium iron edta. the ferric form (fe3+) is iron in the highest valence state and the ferrous form (fe2+) is iron in a lower valence state. the iron source should not discolor or add taste and should be stable. iron powders produce low discoloration and rancidity. it is used for fortification in flour, baked goods, pasta, and cereal products.


Smelting of iron from its ore occurs in a blast furnace where carbon (coke) and limestoneare heated with the ore that results in the iron in the ore being reduced and converted tomolten iron, called “pig iron.” Melted pig iron still contains some carbon and silicon as wellas some other impurities as it collects in the bottom of the furnace with molten slag floatingatop the iron. Both are tapped and drained off. This process can be continuous since moreingredients can be added as the iron and slag are removed from the bottom of the furnace.This form of iron is not very useful for manufacturing products, given that it is brittle andnot very strong.One of the major advances in the technology of iron smelting was the development of theBessemer process by Henry Bessemer (1813–1898). In this process, compressed air or oxygenis forced through molten pig iron to oxidize (burn out) the carbon and other impurities. Steelis then produced in a forced oxygen furnace, where carbon is dissolved in the iron at very hightemperatures. Variations of hardness and other characteristics of steel can be achieved with theaddition of alloys and by annealing, quench hardening, and tempering the steel.Powder metallurgy (sintering) is the process whereby powdered iron or other metals arecombined together at high pressure without high heat to fit molded forms. This process is usedto produce homogenous (uniform throughout) metal parts.One of the most useful characteristics of iron is its natural magnetism, which it loses athigh temperatures. Magnetism can also be introduced into iron products by electrical induction. Magnets of all sizes and shapes are used in motors, atom smashers, CT scanners, and TV and computer screens, toname a few uses. Super magnets can be formed by addingother elements (see cobalt) tohigh-quality iron.Iron is an important element making up hemoglobinin the blood, which carriesoxygen to the cells of ourbodies. It is also very important as a trace element inthe diet, assisting with theoxidation of foods to produce energy. We need about10 to 18 milligrams of ironeach day, as a trace mineral.Iron is found in liver andmeat products, eggs, shellfish, green leafy vegetables,peas, beans, and whole graincereals. Iron deficiency maycause anemia (low red bloodcell count), weakness, fatigue,headaches, and shortness ofbreath. Excess iron in thediet can cause liver damage,but this is a rare condition.


iron: Symbol Fe. A silvery malleableand ductile metallic transition element;a.n. 26; r.a.m. 55.847; r.d.7.87; m.p. 1535°C; b.p. 2750°C. Themain sources are the ores haematite(Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), limonite(FeO(OH)nH2O), ilmenite (FeTiO3),siderite (FeCO3), and pyrite (FeS2).The metal is smelted in a blast furnaceto give impure pig iron, whichis further processed to give castiron, wrought iron, and varioustypes of steel. The pure element hasthree crystal forms: alpha-iron, stablebelow 906°C with a body-centredcubicstructure; gamma-iron, stablebetween 906°C and 1403°C with anonmagnetic face-centred-cubicstructure; and delta-iron, which isthe body-centred-cubic form above1403°C. Alpha-iron is ferromagneticup to its Curie point (768°C). The elementhas nine isotopes (mass numbers52–60), and is the fourth mostabundant in the earth’s crust. It is requiredas a trace element (see essentialelement) by living organisms.Iron is quite reactive, being oxidizedby moist air, displacing hydrogenfrom dilute acids, and combiningwith nonmetallic elements. It formsionic salts and numerous complexeswith the metal in the +2 or +3 oxidationstates. Iron(VI) also exists in theferrate ion FeO42-, and the elementalso forms complexes in which its oxidationnumber is zero (e.g. Fe(CO)5).


Wrought iron is a highly refinedform of iron containing 1–3% of slag(mostly iron silicate), which is evenlydistributed throughout the materialin threads and fibres so that the producthas a fibrous structure quite dissimilarto that of crystalline cast iron.Wrought iron rusts less readily thanother forms of metallic iron and itwelds and works more easily. It isused for chains, hooks, tubes, etc.


Metallic element of atomic number 26, group VIII of the periodic table, aw 55.847, valences = 2,3; four stable isotopes, 4 artificially radioactive isotopes.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

A gray lustrous powder. Used in powder metallurgy and as a catalyst in chemical manufacture.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Highly flammable. May react with water to give off hydrogen, a flammable gas. The heat from this reaction may ignite the hydrogen.

Reaktivität anzeigen

Iron is pyrophoric [Bretherick, 1979 p. 170-1]. A strong reducing agent and therefore incompatible with oxidizing agents. Burns in chlorine gas [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:380 1956]. Reacts with fluorine with incandescence [Mellor 13:314, 315, 1946-1947].


Iron dust from most iron compounds is harmful if inhaled and toxic if ingested. Iron dustand powder (even filings) are flammable and can explode if exposed to an open flame. Asmentioned, excessive iron in the diet may cause liver damage.

Health Hazard

Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.


Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by friction, heat, sparks or flames. Some may burn rapidly with flare burning effect. Powders, dusts, shavings, borings, turnings or cuttings may explode or burn with explosive violence. Substance may be transported in a molten form at a temperature that may be above its flash point. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished.

Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung

Among the common and familiar metals, iron (Fe) is one of the essential plant nutrient elements. It has the atomic number of 26 and belongs to Group 8 of the Periodic Table
Iron is required in plants at the rate of 50to 250ppm and is, therefore, a micronutrient. It is mainly involved in biochemical processes which are mostly enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions. In these reactions electrons are transferred from an electron donor to an electron acceptor.
Iron is also involved in respiration and photosynthesis. Some of the enzymatic involvements of iron are in (a) nitrate reductase activity, (b) reducing cytochrome-C by flavin enzyme, and (c) a protein (derived from iron ferridoxin) participating in photosynthetic electron transport.
Iron is a structural component of porphyrin molecules like cytochromes, hemes, hematin, ferritin, ferrichrome and leghemoglobin. The heme in hemoglobin is also a porphyrin derivative. Physiological processes of plants have shown that chlorophyll is formed from protoporphyrin by removing iron from hemin, whereas in other organisms, iron is introduced into protoporphyrin to form heme.
Iron is necessary for chlorophyll synthesis in plants. As much as 75% of cellular iron is associated with chloroplasts. Iron, which can replace molybdenum, is absorbed by the plant roots as ferrous ions or as complex organic salts and is absorbed by the leaves when applied as foliar sprays. It takes part in the plant’s oxidation- reduction reactions and activates several enzyme systems such as fumaric hydrogenase, catalase and oxydase.
Iron oxide is one of the least soluble minerals in aerated soils. In highly weathered soils, like oxisols and some ultisols, soluble materials leach out whereas the resistant hydrous iron oxides remain. Some oxisols contain up to 80% iron hydrous oxides as clay. Iron is not very soluble in soil solutions or water and, therefore, does not become easily available to plants. In strongly acidic solutions, however, iron is increasingly solubilized and becomes available to plants. In anaerobic conditions, ferrous iron is formed which is more soluble than ferric iron. Therefore, in the iron cycle, iron solubilizes in aerobic conditions and precipitates in anaerobic conditions.
Although soluble mineral iron is barely sufficient in soil, most plants get enough iron through decomposition of organic substances (like humic materials), exudative products from the root and microbial cells, animal manures and polyphenols extracted from leaf surfaces. These react and bind with iron, and facilitate iron solubility, making it more mobile in the form of solution.
The soil type, its characteristics, the nature of extractants used and the agro-ecological conditions dictate the availability of iron. The amount of iron in soils varies from as low as 200ppm to more than 10% as oxides, hydroxides, phosphates or silicates. In Indian soils, for instance, the available iron varies from traces to 386 ppm. The soil iron is progressively depleted by such factors as (a) intensive cultivation (with and without high yielding varieties), (b) adverse nutrient interaction, and (c) a decreased use of animal manures.
When the iron content falls below 50ppm, plants exhibit iron deficiency. This results in interveinal cldomsis (green vein color and yellow interveinal areas) in young leaves, which spreads rapidly to all the green foliage In severe iron deficiency, the leaves turn completely white. Fruit trees, ornamentals and grain sorghum show comparatively stronger symptoms than other crops.
In calcareous soils, the deficiency disease is called chlomis. Acid forming fertilizers used on such soils overcome iron deficiency. Soluble salts of iron added to soils get converted to insoluble hydroxides, oxides and phosphates, and do not assist in correcting iron deficiency. Some other causes for chlorosis are (a) imbalance of the metal ions such as copper and manganese, (b) excess of phosphorus in

läuterung methode

Clean it in conc HCl, rinse in de-ionised water, then reagent grade acetone and dry it under vacuum.

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