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Mustardseed Oil

Mustardseed Oil 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
8007-40-7
상품명:
Mustardseed Oil
동의어(영문):
Oele, Senf;MUSTARD OIL;Oils,mustard;MUSTARDSEEDOIL;oils,brassicaalba;Mustard seeti oil;white mustard oil;MUSTARDOIL,NATURAL;oils,brassicanigra;oilofmustard,expressed
CBNumber:
CB5117899
분자식:
C4H5NS
포뮬러 무게:
99.1542
MOL 파일:
8007-40-7.mol

Mustardseed Oil 속성

안전

Mustardseed Oil C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Refer to MUSTARD, BROWN.

화학적 성질

The mustard used in food is derived primarily from the seed of certain plants of the family Cruciferae. B. alba (L.) Boiss or Sinalis alba (L.) is the principal source of white mustard seed from which the product called yellow mustard is prepared. Yellow (or white) mustard is an herbaceous, native annual of southern Europe, but is now widely cultivated in many temperate regions, including North and South America, New Zealand, and Japan. The English variety is highly esteemed. The plant is less than 1 m (39 in.) in height; it has a short root, erect branched stalk, alternate leaves, pale-yellow flowers (June to August), and round, reddish-yellow seeds. The seeds are the part used. While black (brown) mustard has a lachrymatory, irritating, sharp odor, white mustard has more of a pungent, warm taste.
Mustard is used by the food industry in several forms: whole seed; ground seed meal; mustard cake (ground mustard seed from which a portion of the fixed oil has been expressed); mustard flour (ground mustard cake with hulls removed); and prepared mustard. Mustard flour and prepared mustard appear to be the forms most frequently used. Both may contain mustard from more than one source and, particularly in prepared mustard, may also contain a number of additional materials. In mustard flour, for example, blends of two or more mustard flours from different sources, together with mill fractions which the mustard miller has available, are often used to impart subtle flavors. In prepared mustards, as another example, food specifications permit their preparation from ground seed of white and/or black mustard, with or without mustard flour or mustard cake, together with vinegar and with or.
The principal constituent of yellow mustard is p-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate. It is present in the seed as part of the glucoside sinalbin from which it is released, together with glucose and sinap- ine bisulfate, by the action of myrosinase. Sinalbin mustard oil is only sparingly volatile with steam but can be separated by solvent extraction. About 3 or 4 percent of p-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate is present in the defatted flour of white mustard seed. When freshly prepared, sinalbin mustard oil is strongly pungent with a mildly burning taste, described as “mouth heat.” However, its principal constituent, p-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate, is highly unstable, and hydrolyzes in a matter of hours, at room temperature, to p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, di(p-hydroxybenzyl)disulfide, p- hydroxybenzyl cyanide. These hydrolytic products do not contribute significantly to the flavor of prepared yellow mustard; added spices and other constituents of the seed such as sinapine (the choline ester of sinapic acid) are the chief sources of its flavor.
White Mustard Essential Oil: The essential oil of white mustard exhibits characteristics quite opposite to those of black mustard, i.e., little odor and a very sharp, pungent taste.

화학적 성질

The mustard used in food is derived primarily from the seed of certain plants of the family Cruciferae. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch and B. juncea (L.) Czerniaew are the principal sources of black mustard seed from which the products called brown mustard and oriental mustard are prepared. B. nigra is cultivated chiefly in Italy and Holland; B. juncea is cultivated in northern India and southern Russia. Black or brown mustard is an herbaceous, annual plant that grows more than 1 m (39 in.) high with long primary roots and many secondary ones. It has an erect, branched stalk, alternate leaves, yellow flowers arranged in terminal clusters (June to August), and tiny, reddish-brown seeds.
Mustard is used by food industry in several forms: whole seed; ground seed meal; mustard cake or press-cake (ground mustard seed from which a portion of the fixed oil has been expressed); mustard flour (ground mustard cake with hulls removed); and prepared mustard. Mustard flour and prepared mustard appear to be the forms most frequently used. Both may contain mustard from more than one source and, particularly in prepared mustard, may also contain a number of additional materials. In mustard flour, for example, blends of two or more mustard flours from different sources, together with mill fractions which the mustard miller has available, are often used to impart subtle flavors. In prepared mustards, as another example, food specifications permit their preparation from ground seed of white and/or black mustard, with or without mustard flour or mustard cake, together with vinegar and with or without addition of sweetening agents, salt, and such spices as turmeric, ginger, and black pepper. Prepared mustards contain about 10 to 15 percent solids.
Black mustard has a lachrymatory, irritating, sharp odor (described as “nose heat” or “horseradish-like bite”) due to allyl isothiocy- anate. This is present in the seed as part of the glucose and potassium bisulfate, by the action of enzyme myrosinase which also is present in the seed. The allyl isothiocyanate is released by myrosin decomposition of the sinigrin glucoside when the crushed seeds are mixed with water. The allyl isothiocyanate is sufficiently stable chemically to be readily steam distillable (this method of removal is different from white mustard, which must be extracted. See below). The distilled product, known variously as oil of mustard, volatile oil of mustard, and natural allyl isothiocyanate, is the most commonly used commercial mustard oil. Yield of the oil from the seed ranges from 0.5 to more than 1.0 percent. As prepared, it consists of more than 90 percent allyl isothiocyanate; the remainder is chiefly allyl cyanide and carbon disulfide. However, most of the allyl isothiocyanate used in food is prepared synthetically. Allyl isothiocyanate volatilizes easily, is lost from open containers in four to six months, and is susceptible to decomposition in air and light.
Black Mustard Essential Oil: In the essential oil of black mustard is a clear, pale-yellow liquid exhibiting a very intense odor having lachrymatory effects; it has a relatively poor flavor.

화학적 성질

Herbaceous plant widespread in Europe, North and South America, New Zealand and Japan. The English variety is highly esteemed. The plant is less than 1 m (39 in.) in height. It has a short root, erect branched stalk, alternate leaves, pale-yellow flowers (June to August) and round, reddish-yellow seeds. The seeds are the parts used and the taste is more warm and pungent than brown or black mustard. The mustard used in food is derived from B. alba L. Also see Mustard (Brown)

화학적 성질

Produced by steam distillation of the residue (press-cakes) obtained after expressing the seeds of the oil. The essential oil forms upon maceration of the comminuted seeds in warm water that releases sinigrin, a β-glucopyranoside, which is subsequently enzymatically hydrolyzed to allyl isothiocyanate. It has a very intense odor having lacrimatory effects. The oil has a relatively poor flavor

화학적 성질

The mustards are herbaceous, annual or bienniel herbs widespread throughout Europe, North Africa and northern Asia. B. nigra is cultivated chiefly in Italy and Holland, while B. juncea is cultivated in northern India and southern Russia. It grows more than 1 m (39 in.) high with high primary roots and many secondary ones. It has an erect, branched stalk, alternate leaves, yellow flowers arranged in terminal clusters (June to August) and tiny, reddish-brown seeds. The seeds are the part used and it has a lacrimatory, irritating, sharp odor (described as “nose-heat” or “horseradish-like bite”) due to isothiocyanate (Burdock, 1997). Mustard is used by the food industry in several forms: whole seed, ground seed meal; mustard cake or press cake (ground mustard seed from which a portion of the fixed oil has been expressed); mustard flour (ground mustard cake with hulls removed); and prepared mustard. Mustard flour and prepared mustard appear to be the forms most frequently used

물리적 성질

The oil is a clear, pale-yellow liquid. Allyl isothiocyanate content of oil is generally 90%. Allyl isothiocyanate volatilizes easily, is lost from an open container within 4 to 6 months. It is also susceptible to decomposition in air and ligh

Essential oil composition

As prepared, the oil consists of more than 90% allyl isothiocyanate; the remainder is chiefly allyl cyanate and carbon disulfide.

Essential oil composition

The pungency of mustard is the result of the presence of allyl isothiocynate. Allyl isothocyanate is produced when the mustard is mixed with water and the enzyme myrosin hydrolyzes sinigrin, also present in seed (black and brown mustard). Depending on the variety, the yield of allyl isothiocyanate is approximately 1%. Other components include sinapic acid, sinapine, fixed oil, proteins and a mucilage.

Essential oil composition

The seeds do not produce any volatile substances when treated enzymatically. However, an enzymatic hydrolysis produces a very pungent material: acrinyl isothiocyanate (p-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate). p-Hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate is highly unstable and hydrozyes rapidly at room temperature to p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, di(p-hydroxybenzyl) disulfide, p-hydroxybenzyl cyanide. These hydrolytic products do not contribute significantly to flavor of prepared yellow mustard. Added spices and other constituents of the seed, such as sinapine (the choline ester of sinapic acid), are the chief sources of the flavor.

Mustardseed Oil 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


Mustardseed Oil 공급 업체

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