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루테늄

루테늄
루테늄 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7440-18-8
한글명:
루테늄
동의어(한글):
루테늄
상품명:
Ruthenium
동의어(영문):
Ru;Ru/C;Ru/C 5%;aluMane;RU007910;RU004500;RU000220;RU004200;RU008010;RU006100
CBNumber:
CB6209346
분자식:
Ru
포뮬러 무게:
101.07
MOL 파일:
7440-18-8.mol

루테늄 속성

녹는점
2310 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
3900 °C(lit.)
밀도
1.025 g/mL at 25 °C
저장 조건
Flammables area
물리적 상태
sponge
색상
Grayish-white
Specific Gravity
12.3
비저항
7.1 μΩ-cm, 0°C
수용성
insoluble
감도
Lachrymatory
Merck
14,8299
안정성
Stable. Powder is highly flammable.
CAS 데이터베이스
7440-18-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Ruthenium(7440-18-8)
EPA
Ruthenium(7440-18-8)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 F,C,Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 20-37-11-34
안전지침서 22-36-38-24/25-16-14-45-36/37/39-27-26-23
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3178 4.1/PG 2
WGK 독일 3
위험 참고 사항 Corrosive/Lachrymatory
TSCA Yes
HSCode  3822 00 00
위험 등급 4.1
포장분류 III
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H228 인화성 고체 인화성 고체 구분 1
구분 2
위험
경고
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H252 대량 자기발열성;(or 대량으로 존재시 자기발열성;) 화재를 일으킬 수 있음 자기발열성 물질 및 혼합물 구분 2 경고 P235+P410, P280, P407, P413, P420
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P240 용기와 수용설비를 접지 및 접합시키시오.
P241 폭발 방지용 장비[전기적/환기/조명/...]을(를) 사용하시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P235+P410 저온으로 유지하고 직사광선을 피하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P420 격리하여 보관하시오.

루테늄 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

Black Powder

물리적 성질

Ruthenium is a rare, hard, silvery-white metallic element located in group 8, just aboveosmium and below iron, with which it shares some chemical and physical properties.Both ruthenium and osmium are heavier and harder than pure iron, making them morebrittle and difficult to refine. Both ruthenium and osmium are less tractable and malleable than iron. Although there are some similar characteristics between ruthenium and iron,ruthenium’s properties are more like those of osmium. Even so, ruthenium is less stablethan osmium. They are both rare and difficult to separate from minerals and ores that containother elements. These factors make it more difficult to determine ruthenium’s accurateatomic weight.
The oxidation state of +8 for ruthenium and its “mate” osmium is the highest oxidationstate of all elements in the transition series. Ruthenium’s melting point is 2,310°C, its boilingpoint is 3,900°C, and its density is 12.45 g/cm3.

Isotopes

There are 37 isotopes for ruthenium, ranging in atomic mass numbers from87 to 120. Seven of these are stable isotopes. The atomic masses and percentage ofcontribution to the natural occurrence of the element on Earth are as follows: Ru-96 =5.54%, Ru-98 = 1.87%, Ru-99 = 12.76%, Ru-100 = 12.60%, Ru-101 = 17.06%, Ru-102 = 31.55%, and Ru-104 = 18.62%.

Origin of Name

“Ruthenium” is derived from the Latin word Ruthenia meaning “Russia,” where it is found in the Ural Mountains.

출처

Ruthenium is a rare element that makes up about 0.01 ppm in the Earth’s crust. Even so, itis considered the 74th most abundant element found on Earth. It is usually found in amountsup to 2% in platinum ores and is recovered when the ore is refined. It is difficult to separatefrom the leftover residue of refined platinum ore.
Ruthenium is found in South America and the Ural Mountains of Russia. There are someminor platinum and ruthenium ores found in the western United States and Canada. All ofthe radioactive isotopes of ruthenium are produced in nuclear reactors.

Characteristics

Ruthenium also belongs to the platinum group, which includes six elements with similarchemical characteristics. They are located in the middle of the second and third series of thetransition elements. The platinum group consists of ruthenium, rhodium,palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum.
Ruthenium is a hard brittle metal that resists corrosion from all acids but is vulnerable tostrong alkalis (bases). Small amounts, when alloyed with other metals, will prevent corrosionof that metal.

역사

Berzelius and Osann in 1827 examined the residues left after dissolving crude platinum from the Ural mountains in aqua regia. While Berzelius found no unusual metals, Osann thought he found three new metals, one of which he named ruthenium. In 1844 Klaus, generally recognized as the discoverer, showed that Osann’s ruthenium oxide was very impure and that it contained a new metal. Klaus obtained 6 g of ruthenium from the portion of crude platinum that is insoluble in aqua regia. A member of the platinum group, ruthenium occurs native with other members of the group of ores found in the Ural mountains and in North and South America. It is also found along with other platinum metals in small but commercial quantities in pentlandite of the Sudbury, Ontario, nickel-mining region, and in pyroxinite deposits of South Africa. Natural ruthenium contains seven isotopes. Twenty-eight other isotopes and isomers are known, all of which are radioactive. The metal is isolated commercially by a complex chemical process, the final stage of which is the hydrogen reduction of ammonium ruthenium chloride, which yields a powder. The powder is consolidated by powder metallurgy techniques or by argon-arc welding. Ruthenium is a hard, white metal and has four crystal modifications. It does not tarnish at room temperatures, but oxidizes in air at about 800°C. The metal is not attacked by hot or cold acids or aqua regia, but when potassium chlorate is added to the solution, it oxidizes explosively. It is attacked by halogens, hydroxides, etc. Ruthenium can be plated by electrodeposition or by thermal decomposition methods. The metal is one of the most effective hardeners for platinum and palladium, and is alloyed with these metals to make electrical contacts for severe wear resistance. A ruthenium–molybdenum alloy is said to be superconductive at 10.6 K. The corrosion resistance of titanium is improved a hundredfold by addition of 0.1% ruthenium. It is a versatile catalyst. Hydrogen sulfide can be split catalytically by light using an aqueous suspension of CdS particles loaded with ruthenium dioxide. It is thought this may have application to removal of H2S in oil refining and other industrial processes. Compounds in at least eight oxidation states have been found, but of these, the +2. +3. and +4 states are the most common. Ruthenium tetroxide, like osmium tetroxide, is highly toxic. In addition, it may explode. Ruthenium compounds show a marked resemblance to those of osmium. The metal is priced at about $25/g (99.95% pure).

용도

Antihypertensive

용도

As substitute for platinum in jewelry; for pen nibs; as hardener in electrical contact alloys, electrical filaments; in ceramic colors; catalyst in synthesis of long chain hydrocarbons.

용도

Since ruthenium is rare and difficult to isolate in pure form, there are few uses for it. Itsmain uses are as an alloy to produce noncorrosive steel and as an additive to jewelry metalssuch as platinum, palladium, and gold, making them more durable.
It is also used as an alloy to make electrical contacts harder and wear longer, for medicalinstruments, and more recently, as an experimental metal for direct conversion of solar cellmaterial to electrical energy.
Ruthenium is used as a catalyst to affect the speed of chemical reactions, but is not alteredby the chemical process. It is also used as a drug to treat eye diseases.

정의

Metallic element of atomic number 44, group VIII of the periodic table, aw 101.07, valences = 3, 4, 5, 6, 8. Seven stable isotopes.

정의

A transition metal that occurs naturally with platinum. It forms alloys with platinum that are used in electrical contacts. Ruthenium is also used in jewelry alloyed with palladium.Symbol: Ru; m.p. 2310°C; b.p. 3900°C; r.d. 12.37 (20°C); p.n. 44; r.a.m. 101.07.

정의

ruthenium: Symbol Ru. A hardwhite metallic transition element;a.n. 44; r.a.m. 101.07; r.d. 12.3; m.p.2310°C; b.p. 3900°C. It is found associatedwith platinum and is used as acatalyst and in certain platinum alloys.Chemically, it dissolves in fusedalkalis but is not attacked by acids. Itreacts with oxygen and halogens at high temperatures. It also formscomplexes with a range of oxidationstates. The element was isolated byK. K. Klaus in 1844.

위험도

The main hazard is the explosiveness of ruthenium fine power or dust. The metal willrapidly oxidize (explode) when exposed to oxidizer-type chemicals such as potassium chlorideat room temperature. Most of its few compounds are toxic and their fumes should beavoided.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Ruthenium is the chemical element with the symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It occurs as a minor side product in the mining of platinum. Ruthenium is relatively inert to most chemicals. Its main applications are in the area of specialised electrical parts. The success of cisplatin, together with the occurrence of dose-limiting resistances and severe side effects such as nausea and nephrotoxicity, encouraged the research into other metal-based anticancer agents. Ruthenium is one of those metals under intense research, and first results look very promising, with two candidates – NAMI-A and KP1019 – having entered clinical trials.

Safety Profile

Most ruthenium compounds are poisons. Ruthenium is retained in the bones for a long time. Flammable in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. Violent reaction with ruthenium oxide. Explosive reaction with aqua rega + potassium chlorate. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of RuO, and Ru, which are hghly injurious to the eyes and lung and can produce nasal ulcerations. See also RUTHENIUM COMPOUNDS.

루테늄 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


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