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사이안화 칼륨

사이안화 칼륨
사이안화 칼륨 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
151-50-8
한글명:
사이안화 칼륨
동의어(한글):
시안화물OF칼륨;칼륨시안화물(K(CN));칼륨시안화물,고체;사이안화칼륨;시안화칼륨;청화칼륨;히드로시안산,칼륨염;시안화 칼륨;시안산, 포타슘 염;시안화 포타슘;시안화 포타슘 (K(CN));청화가리;하이드로시안산,칼륨염
상품명:
POTASSIUM CYANIDE
동의어(영문):
KCN;Feratox;Cyanides;ai3-28749;kaliumcyanid;caswellno688a;Kalium-cyanid;POTSSIUM CYANIDE;POTASSIUM CYANIDE;CYANOGEN POTASSIUM
CBNumber:
CB9387427
분자식:
CKN
포뮬러 무게:
65.12
MOL 파일:
151-50-8.mol

사이안화 칼륨 속성

녹는점
634 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
1625 °C
밀도
1.00 g/mL at 20 °C
인화점
1625°C
저장 조건
Poison room
용해도
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
물리적 상태
Solid
색상
White
Specific Gravity
1.52
수소이온지수(pH)
11-12 (20g/l, H2O, 20°C)
수용성
Highly soluble in water. Soluble in methanol, glycerol, and formamide. Slightly soluble in ethanol.
감도
Hygroscopic
Merck
14,7626
BRN
4652394
노출 한도
TLV-TWA (measured as CN) skin 5 mg CN/m3 (ACGIH and OSHA); 5 mg CN/m3/ 10 min ceiling (NIOSH).
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with a variety of materials, including acids, iodine, peroxides, permanganates, alkaloids, chloral hydrate, metallic salts. Light and moisture sensitive. Contact with acid generates extremely toxic HCN gas.
CAS 데이터베이스
151-50-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA
Potassium cyanide (151-50-8)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T+,N
위험 카페고리 넘버 26/27/28-32-50/53
안전지침서 7-28-29-45-60-61
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1680 6.1/PG 1
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 TS8750000
F 고인화성물질 3-8-10-23
TSCA Yes
HS 번호 2837 19 00
위험 등급 6.1
포장분류 I
독성 LD50 orally in rats: 10 mg/kg (Hayes)
기존화학 물질 KE-29092
유해화학물질 필터링 97-1-90
함량 및 규제정보 물질구분: 유독물질; 혼합물(제품)함량정보: 무기시안 화합물 및 이를 1% 이상 함유한 혼합물. 다만, 베를린청(Ferric ferrocyanide), 페로시안염(Ferrocyanide, salts), 페리시안염(Ferricyanide, salts) 및 그 중 하나를 함유한 혼합물은 제외
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H300 삼키면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 1,2 위험 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H310 피부와 접촉하면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 1,2 위험 P262, P264, P270, P280, P302+P350,P310, P322, P361, P363, P405, P501
H330 흡입하면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 1, 2 위험 P260, P271, P284, P304+P340, P310,P320, P403+P233, P405, P501
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H400 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H410 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
예방조치문구:
P320 긴급히 (…) 처치를 하시오.
P330 입을 씻어내시오.
P304+P340 흡입하면 신선한 공기가 있는 곳으로 옮기고 호흡하기 쉬운 자세로 안정을 취하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
NFPA 704
0
3 0

사이안화 칼륨 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

물성

사이안화칼륨은 설탕과 매우 유사하게 보이는 무색의 결정이며, 물에 대한 용해도와 유독성이 매우 높고 습한 상태에서는 가수분해를 통해 소량의 사이안화수소를 생성한다.

개요

사이안화 칼륨은 KCN 화학식을 지니는 무기 화합물이다. 치사량은 0.20g으로 극소량을 섭취해도 사망할 수 있는 매우 강력한 독극물이다. 본래는 전기 도금을 위한 전해질로 사용된다.

용도

대부분의 사이안화칼륨은 금광업, 유기합성, 전기 도금에 쓰이며, 일부는 보석을 도금하거나 버핑하는 데에 사용되기도 한다.또한, 사이안화칼륨은 곤충을 재빨리 죽여 손상을 최소화할 수 있기 때문에 곤충학자들은 표본을 만들 때 사이안화칼륨을 사용하기도 한다.

화학적 성질

KCN is a white solid or colourless water solution with a faint bitter almond odour. As a solution, it is slightly soluble in ethanol. It is a poison that reacts with acid or acid fumes to emit deadly HCN. When heated to decomposition, it emits very toxic fumes. As a solid, KCN is incompatible with nitrogen trichloride, perchloryl fluoride, sodium nitrite, acids, alkaloids, chloral hydrate, and iodine. A synonym for KCN is potassium salt of hydrocyanic acid.

화학적 성질

Potassium cyanide are white lumps, granular powder, or colorless solution. It may be shipped as capsules, tablets, or pellets. Toxic hydrogen cyanide gas released by potassium cyanide has a distinctive, weak bitter almond odor, but many people cannot detect it; the odor does not provide adequate warning of hazardous concentrations.

용도

Potassium cyanide is a white granular salt made by the absorption of hydrogen cyanide in potassium hydroxide. It is soluble in both water and alcohol and a lethal poison. If mixed with acids it produces highly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. This was the preferred fixing chemical for collodion positives because it contained no sulfides to darken the highlight silver. As a fixing agent cyanide was particularly effective. After dissolving the unexposed silver halides cyanide would also remove nonimage fog producing very clean shadow areas. Prolonged fixing would eventually remove image silver. Tincture of iodine was added to dilute solutions of potassium cyanide and used to remove unwanted non-image silver in photographic materials and to remove silver stains.

용도

Potassium cyanide is used for electrolytic refining of platinum; fine silver plating; as an electrolyte for the separation of gold, silver, and copper from platinum; and for metal coloring.

용도

Extracting gold and silver from ores; electroplating baths; silver plating; case hardening steel by liquid nitriding; reagent in analytical chemistry.

생산 방법

Potassium cyanide was made by the Beilby process before the introduction of the neutralization or wet process. When made by the neutralization or wet process, it contains 99% KCN. Initially, potassium cyanide was used as a flux and later for electroplating, which was the single largest use in the 1990s. The demand for potassium cyanide was met by the ferrocyanide process until the latter part of the nineteenth century when the extraordinary demands of the gold mining industry for alkali cyanide resulted in the development of direct synthesis processes. When cheaper sodium cyanide became available, potassium cyanide was displaced in many uses.

일반 설명

White amorphous lumps or a crystalline mass with a faint odor of bitter almonds. Density 1.52 g / cm3 Toxic by skin absorption through open wounds, by ingestion. Heating to decomposition produces toxic fumes. Used for gold and silver extraction, in chemical analysis, to make other chemicals, and as an insecticide.

공기와 물의 반응

Deliquescent. Soluble in water. Dissolution releases some poisonous hydrogen cyanide gas. The amount is not hazardous except in an enclosed space. If the water is acidic, dangerous amounts of hydrogen cyanide form at once.

반응 프로필

POTASSIUM CYANIDE is a basic salt and a reducing agent. Reacts with acids of all kinds to generate poisonous hydrogen cyanide gas. Can react violently with oxidizing agents: fusion with metal chlorates, perchlorates, nitrates, or nitrites can cause explosions [Bretherick 1979. p. 101]. A mixture with perchloryl fluoride may explode above 100°C. A mixture with nitrite salts may cause an explosion [Pieters 1957. p. 30]. Incompatible with iodine. Initiates the explosive decomposition of nitrogen trichloride.

위험도

A poison as absorbed by skin.

건강위험

Ingestion of KCN or exposure to the salts or their aqueous solutions by eye or skin contact can be fatal; exposure to as little as 50 to 150 mg can cause immediate collapse and death. Poisoning can occur by inhalation of mists of cyanide solutions and by inhalation of HCN produced by the reaction of metal cyanides with acids and with water. Symptoms of nonlethal exposure to cyanide include weakness, headache, dizziness, rapid breathing, nausea, and vomiting. These compounds are not regarded as having good warning properties.
Effects of chronic exposure to sodium cyanide or potassium cyanide are nonspecific and rare.

건강위험

Potassium cyanide is a white solid or colorless water solution with a faint bitter almond odor. As a solution, it is slightly soluble in ethanol. It is a poison that reacts with acid or acid fumes to emit deadly hydrogen cyanide. When heated to decomposition, it emits very toxic fumes. As a solid, potassium cyanide is incompatible with nitrogen trichloride, perchloryl fl uoride, sodium nitrite, acids, alkaloids, chloral hydrate, and iodine. A synonym for potassium cyanide is potassium salt of hydrocyanic acid

건강위험

POTASSIUM CYANIDE is classified as super toxic. Probable oral lethal dose in humans is less than 5 mg/kg or less than a taste (7 drops) for a 150 lb. person. It is an eye and skin irritant. Poisonous in very small quantities; a taste is lethal.

건강위험

Potassium cyanide is a dangerous poison; toxicity comparable to that of sodium cyanide. Ingestion of 100–150 mg of this compound could be fatal to humans. Similar toxicity is observed when KCN is absorbed through skin or eyes. Intake of the quantity above can cause collapse and cessation of breathing.
At lower concentrations the acute toxic symptoms are nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, and muscle weakness. KCN administered in test animals by the intramuscular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, ocular, and oral routes exhibited LD50 values within the range of 3–9 mg/kg; the acute toxic effects were ataxia, respiratory stimulation, paralysis, and seizure.
Smith and Heath (1979) observed the effect of temperature on KCN toxicity of freshwater fish. When the temperature of exposure was lowered from 15 (59) to 5°C (41°F) the toxicity of KCN to goldfish decreased by a factor of 5.
LD50 value, intraperitoneal (rats): 4 mg/kg
LD50 value, oral (rats): 10 mg/kg
LD50 value, oral (humans): 2.86 mg/kg
Potassium cyanide caused reproductive damage in test animals, producing harmful effects on fertility and embryo.

화재위험

Contact with acid releases highly flammable hydrogen cyanide gas. Moisture may cause POTASSIUM CYANIDE to volatilize as hydrogen cyanide. When heated to decomposition, POTASSIUM CYANIDE emits very toxic fumes of cyanide and nitrogen oxides. Reacts with acids to produce hydrogen cyanide gas. Reacts with strong oxidizers such as nitrates and chlorates, nitrogen trichloride; perchloryl fluoride; sodium nitrate; acids; alkaloids; chloral hydrate; iodine. Avoid contact with acids.

화재위험

Potassium cyanide is noncombustible solid. Reaction with acids liberates flammable HCN.

공업 용도

A white amorphous or crystalline solid of the composition KCN, potassium cyanide is employed for carbonizing steel for case hardening and for electroplating. For cyaniding steel the latter is immersed in a bath of molten cyanide and then quenched in water, or the cyanide is rubbed on the red-hot steel.
Commercial potassium cyanide is likely to contain a proportion of sodium cyanide. Potassium ferrocyanide, or yellow prussiate of potash, can also be used for case-hardening steel. It has the compositionK4Fe(CN)6and comes in yellow crystals or powder. The nitrogen as well as the carbon enters the steel to form the hard case. Potassium ferricyanide, or red prussiate of potash, is a bright-red granular powder of the composition K3Fe(CN)6, used in photographic reducing solutions, in etching solutions, in blueprint paper, and in silvering mirrors. Redsol crystals is the name of this chemical for use as a reducer and mild oxidizing agent, or toner, for photography.

Safety Profile

A deadly human poison by ingestion. A experimental poison by ocular, subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, and intraperitoneal routes. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Human systemic effects by ingestion: convulsions, pulse rate increase. Mutation data reported. Reacts with acids or acid fumes to liberate deadly HCN. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of K2O , CN-, and NOx. See also CYANIDE.

잠재적 노출

Used in electroplating, steel hardening; extraction of precious metals form ores; as a fumigant; in insecticides; a reagent in analytical chemistry

운송 방법

UN1680 Potassium cyanide, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.

Purification Methods

A saturated solution in H2O-ethanol (1:3) at 60o is filtered and cooled to room temperature. Absolute EtOH is added, with stirring, until crystallisation ceases. The solution is again allowed to cool to room temperature (during 2-3hours), then the crystals are filtered off, washed with absolute EtOH, and dried, first at 70-80o for 2-3hours, then at 105o for 2hours [Brown et al. J Phys Chem 66 2426 1962]. It has also been purified by melting in a vacuum and by zone refining. HIGHLY POISONOUS.

비 호환성

A strong reducing agent; keep away from oxidizers. Potassium cyanide decomposes on contact with water, humidity, carbon dioxide, strong acids (such as hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids), and acid salts, producing highly toxic and highly flammable hydrogen cyanide gas. Potassium cyanide absorbs water from air (is hygroscopic or deliquescent); the aqueous solution is a strong base. Incompatible with organic anhydrides; isocyanates, alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin, aldehydes, alcohols, glycols, phenols, cresols, caprolactum, strong oxidizers; nitrogen trichloride; sodium chlorate. Attacks aluminum, copper, zinc in the presence of moisture.

폐기물 처리

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. In accordance with 40CFR165, follow recommendations for the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. Must be disposed properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office. Add strong alkaline hypochlorite and react for 24 hours. Then flush to sewer with large volumes of water.

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