Plant Growth Regulators

Plant growth regulators refer to artificially synthetic agents used for promoting or inhibiting the germination, root, differentiation, blossom, fructification, defoliation and other plant physiology processes. High green plants have metabolites playing either promoting or inhibiting effects on plant physiological processes in vivo. They are indispensable materials in the life cycle of the plant. This kind of organic compound synthesized from the plant itself is called auxin. To improve the yield and quality of crops, people have artificially synthesized a series of chemicals with similar auxin activity to control the growth of plants and other life activities, known as plant growth regulators.

There are various kinds of plant growth regulating agents with its mode of action being different from each other, and people hasn’t totally understood the mode of action of these compounds and therefore, only classify them according to their main physiological effects. It can be roughly divided into growth promoters, growth retardants, growth inhibitors and hormone herbicides.
1. growth promoters. Growth regulators have functions of promoting cell division, elongation and differentiation. The plant growth means the irreversible increase of the volume and weight of the plant due to the increase of protoplasm as well as differentiation and the formation of new organs. The differentiation and formation of new organ is the results of cell division, elongation and differentiation. Natural plant hormone auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin and artificially synthetic indole butyric acid, 2-naphthalene acetic acid, kinetin and 6-benzyladenine all have growth-promoting effect.
2. Growth retardant agent; it refers to the kind of plant growth regulator which can cause slow-down of the cell division, elongation and growth rate for cells in the meristem (sub-apical meristem) at the lower area of the top of the plant. These substances can cause the physiological dwarfing of the plant without damaging the apical meristem as well as without affecting the development process of the plant. Most of the effects of the growth retardant agents is on the inhibition of the biosynthesis of gibberellin, such as chlormequat, daminozide, amoxicillin -1618, paclobutrazol, etc; some of them are capable of promoting the activity of peroxidase and indole acetic acid oxidase, these enzymes can break down auxin in plants, resulting in blockage of the plant growth such as adjusting the phosphine.
3. growth inhibitors. They are capable of inhibiting the cell division and elongation of cells in apical meristem, breaking the apical dominance, thereby increasing the number of lateral branches, and causing smaller leaves area. Compounds belonging to this include maleic hydrazide, triiodobenzoic acid, morphactin and other factors. Some kind of growth inhibitors may also have some characteristics of retardant agents such as abscisic acid and dikeglulic acid.
4. Hormone herbicides; some kind of plant growth regulator, at low concentrations can be used to regulate the growth and development of plants. They can be used as herbicides at high concentration to kill some plants. This is because such growth regulator is not easily metabolized in plants, when they enter into plants in a large amount, often disrupting the normal function of endogenous plant hormones, thereby interfering with the normal growth and development, eventually leading to death of plants. Compound belonging to hormone herbicides include 2, 4-D, 2, 4, 5-T, maleic hydrazide, 2, 4-D acid, 2, 4, 5-T and propionic acid.

Plant growth and development, such as cell division, elongation, differentiation and organ formation and flowering, aging and defoliation, etc., are subject to the regulation of plant growth regulators. Therefore, such material has been widely used in research and production of ornamental plants. They have excellent efficacy in various fields including artificial breaking of corm and seed dormancy, promoting germination, flowering control, dwarfing cultivation, rooting cuttings, grafting healing, as well as extending the life of cut flowers in tissue culture and distant hybridization.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID POTASSIUM SALT INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID POTASSIUM SALT 60096-23-3 C12H12KNO2
Abscisic acid Abscisic acid 14375-45-2 C15H20O4
Indole-3-acetic acid Indole-3-acetic acid 87-51-4 C10H9NO2
Maleic hydrazide Maleic hydrazide 123-33-1 C4H4N2O2
6-Benzylaminopurine 6-Benzylaminopurine 1214-39-7 C12H11N5
4-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid 122-88-3 C8H7ClO3
trans-Zeatin trans-Zeatin 1637-39-4 C10H13N5O
Trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride Trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride 358-23-6 C2F6O5S2
1-Naphthaleneacetic acid 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid 86-87-3 C12H10O2
Forchlorfenuron Forchlorfenuron 68157-60-8 C12H10ClN3O
3-Indolebutyric acid 3-Indolebutyric acid 133-32-4 C12H13NO2
Kinetin Kinetin 525-79-1 C10H9N5O
2-Naphthylacetic acid 2-Naphthylacetic acid 581-96-4 C12H10O2
2-Naphthoxyacetic acid 2-Naphthoxyacetic acid 120-23-0 C12H10O3
1-Triacontanol 1-Triacontanol 593-50-0 C30H62O
Lithium triflate Lithium triflate 33454-82-9 CF3LiO3S
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 94-75-7 C8H6Cl2O3
1-NAPHTHALENEACETAMIDE 1-NAPHTHALENEACETAMIDE 86-86-2 C12H11NO
p-Bromophenoxyacetic acid p-Bromophenoxyacetic acid 1878-91-7 C8H7BrO3
Flumetralin Flumetralin 62924-70-3 C16H12ClF4N3O4
CHLOROBENZILATE CHLOROBENZILATE 510-15-6 C16H14Cl2O3
ZEATIN MIXED ISOMERS-PLANT CELL CULTURE& ZEATIN MIXED ISOMERS-PLANT CELL CULTURE& 13114-27-7 C10H13N5O
MONOCARBINOL TERMINATED POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE MONOCARBINOL TERMINATED POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE 207308-30-3
N-Benzyl-9-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)adenine N-Benzyl-9-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)adenine 2312-73-4 C17H19N5O
1-HEPTADECANOL 1-HEPTADECANOL 1454-85-9 C17H36O
Chlorpropham Chlorpropham 101-21-3 C10H12ClNO2
Prohexadione calcium Prohexadione calcium 127277-53-6 C10H13Ca2O5+
DL-INDOLE-3-LACTIC ACID DL-INDOLE-3-LACTIC ACID 1821-52-9 C11H11NO3
CARBINOL (HYDROXYL) TERMINATED POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE CARBINOL (HYDROXYL) TERMINATED POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE 104780-66-7 C12H32O4Si3
Thidiazuron Thidiazuron 51707-55-2 C9H8N4OS
Triapenthenol Triapenthenol 76608-88-3 C15H25N3O
BUTYRIC ACID HYDRAZIDE BUTYRIC ACID HYDRAZIDE 3538-65-6 C4H10N2O
Uniconazole Uniconazole 83657-22-1 C15H18ClN3O
Paclobutrazol Paclobutrazol 76738-62-0 C15H20ClN3O
CARBINOL (HYDROXYL) TERMINATED POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE CARBINOL (HYDROXYL) TERMINATED POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE 67674-67-3 C7H22O2Si3
Ethephon Ethephon 16672-87-0 C2H6ClO3P
Glyphosine Glyphosine 2439-99-8 C4H11NO8P2
Brassinolide Brassinolide 72962-43-7 C28H48O6
Daminozide Daminozide 1596-84-5 C6H12N2O3
MAF MAF 101365-54-2 C3H9As3Fe2O9
Sodium α-naphthyl acetate Sodium α-naphthyl acetate 1321-69-3 C10H7NaO3S
KINETIN HYDROCHLORIDE KINETIN HYDROCHLORIDE 177966-68-6 C10H10ClN5O
PYRIPROPANOL PYRIPROPANOL C8H11NO
2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID HYDRAZIDE 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID HYDRAZIDE 28236-62-6 C8H8Cl2N2O2
Mepiquat chloride Mepiquat chloride 24307-26-4 C7H16ClN
Guayule Guayule 65202-07-5 C12H17Cl2NO
Rooting Powde Rooting Powde
Atonik Atonik C7H6NNaO4
Mepiquat Mepiquat 15302-91-7 C7H16N
Epibrassinolide Epibrassinolide 78821-43-9 C28H48O6
Chlormequat chloride Chlormequat chloride 999-81-5 C5H13Cl2N
Gibberellic acid(GA3) Gibberellic acid(GA3)
4-Iodophenoxyacetic acid 4-Iodophenoxyacetic acid 1878-94-0 C8H7IO3
6-benzylaminopurine hydrochloride 6-benzylaminopurine hydrochloride 162714-86-5 C12H11N5.ClH
TRIACONTANOL TRIACONTANOL 28351-05-5 C30H62O
CYCLANILIDE CYCLANILIDE 113136-77-9 C11H9Cl2NO3
O,O-Diethyl-O-penyl thiophosphate O,O-Diethyl-O-penyl thiophosphate C10H15O3PS
3-(α-pyridyl)-propanol 3-(α-pyridyl)-propanol
22(S),23(S)-Homobrassinolide 22(S),23(S)-Homobrassinolide 80483-89-2 C29H50O6
UNICONAZOLE UNICONAZOLE 76714-83-5 C15H18ClN3O
UNICONAZOLE UNICONAZOLE 83657-17-4 C15H18ClN3O
Gibberellin A4 Gibberellin A4 468-44-0 C19H24O5
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