Food Additives

Food additive refers to a kind of natural or artificially synthetic chemicals which can improve the sensory properties (color, smell, taste) of food and food quality. To the adult foods, we can add some additives according to the China's health standards. However, the food additives should be strictly controlled to be applied to infant foods. Infant body has a relative weak detoxification mechanisms or protection mechanisms, being likely to cause the accumulation of large quantities of chemical substances. The World Health Organization and many countries have specified that food additives are not allowed to be supplemented to the infant food. Children's food should also be limited from using of food additives such as saccharin, colorings and flavors. Especially, for the food of baby of less than 12-week-old such as infant formula and cereal products, they should be completely free of food additives.

Classification of the food additives: Food additives can be divided into two categories including natural food additives and synthetic food additives. Natural food additive is obtained through using animal and plant or microbial metabolites as raw materials and further extraction. Chemical synthetic additives are obtained through de novo synthesis using chemical substances as raw materials. According to the usage purpose and the nature of chemicals, food additives can be divided into various categories, namely:
(1) acid, alkali, salt;
(2) bulking agent;
(3) antioxidant and synergist;
(4) the carrier solvent ;
(5) edible pigment;
(6) emulsifier, stabilizer and thickener;
(7) enzyme preparation for food processing;
(8) antifoaming agent;
(9) the flavorant
(10) bleaching agent;
(11) color former;
(12) quality improver;
(13) sweetener;
(14) preservative;
(15) sour agent;
(16) anti-caking agent;
(17) coagulant and others.

Food additives are not basic ingredients of food. The role of food additives in baked foods:
① it can facilitate the preservation of food, prevent the corruption and deterioration of food. A variety of fresh food, such as vegetable oils, margarine, biscuits, bread, cakes, moon cake, etc., if not subject to timely processing or improper processing, often get corrupted and deteriorated, causing great losses. Antiseptic, antifungal agents, antioxidants can be applied to prevent the food spoilage caused by microorganisms and oxidation, thus extending the shelf life of food.
② It can be used to improve the sensory quality of food. The color, smell, taste, shape and texture of food are all important indicators for measuring the quality of the food. After the food processing, some are faded, some can get discoloration, such as birthday cake of mounting patterns; some food can get worsen taste and changed flavor, texture and mouthfeel; Appropriate application of emulsifiers, thickeners, coloring agents, flavors, sweeteners, sour agents, flavor agents, quality improvers and leavening agents can significantly improve the sensory quality of food to meet the different requirements of the people.
③ It can be used for maintaining or improving the nutritional value of food. Food processing often may often cause some loss of nutrients. From this perspective, during food processing, addition of appropriate amount of some kind of nutrients supplement belonging to the natural range of food nutrition can greatly improve the nutritional value of food. The applications of food preservatives and antioxidants, while preventing corrupt deterioration food, also play a significant role in maintaining the nutritional value.
④ increase the variety and convenience of the food. There are dazzling variety of food on the market for consumers to choose with most of them being dependent on anti-corruption, anti-oxidation, emulsification, thickening, and the results of different coloring, flavoring, seasonings and even combination of a variety of other food additives. It is these various kinds of foods that give great convenience to the many people's lives and work.
⑤ Application of flour treatment agents, thickening stabilizers and emulsifiers in food processing can facilitate the food processing operations and the mechanization and automation of the production.
⑥ It can be used to meet the different requirements of people. For example, patients of diabetes can’t eat sugar; then you can use non-nutritive sweeteners or low-calorie sweetener to manufacture sugar-free food and low-sugar low-energy food.

The hazards of food additives; food additives, in addition to the beneficial effects mentioned above, may also have certain dangers, especially for some species of them which have already contained certain toxicity themselves. Particularly in recent times, people have been more and more concerned about the potential hazards of long-term intake of food additives may bring. The most attention and worry currently are still on the potential harm caused by the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effect of some synthetic food pigment. Sodium nitrite has long been applied as the color fixative and color former of meat products. In addition to its capability of endowing meat products with beautiful, bright red color and enhanced meat flavor, the more important effect is its preservative effect which can inhibit various kinds of anaerobic Clostridium, especially Clostridium botulinum, preventing botulism. Once botulism occurs, there is a possibility of danger to human life. Therefore, sodium nitrite has an important role in meat processing and preservation.

However, it is now not only realized that it itself is of great toxicity, and further found that nitrite can react with secondary amines to generate nitrosamines with strong carcinogenic effect. So far there has been not yet of ideal item that can act as substitute of sodium nitrite, there has been also no evidence for human consumption of meat products in low doses that causes cancer, therefore, currently, people are mainly take measures such as reducing the amount, strictly controlling the residual amount and applying ascorbic acid simultaneously to prevent the generation of nitrosamines, reducing the threat it brings. Therefore, it is still allowed to be applied currently around the world under the precondition of being subject to strict control of its usage range, usage amount and residues amount.

The safe application of food additives: the most important features for food additives are safety and effectiveness. Among them, security is more important. To guarantee the safe application of food additives, people must conduct safety evaluation on them. The safety evaluation is comprehensive in accordance with national standards and sanitary requirements and based on the producing technology, the physical and chemical properties, quality standards, effect, scope, amount, toxicological evaluation and testing methods of the food additives. Among them, the most important indicator is the toxicological evaluation. Every country mostly state it in the form of regulations such as the use of food additives health standards to determine the permitted varieties, purpose, scope, the maximum usage and / or the maximum residue levels of the food additives. Since most of the existing food additives and food additives have been all subject to or must be subject to rigorous toxicological tests and safety evaluation. Therefore, it can be considered that now we have reduced the harm of food additives to a minimum Level. It is worth noting, as long as strict complying the relevant provisions stated in "food additives health standards" (GB 2460-1996) for proper use of food additives, not only their safety can be guaranteed, but also their beneficial effect can be maximized in the same time. We can also maximize the elimination of their potential adverse effects to the human being.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Astaxanthin Astaxanthin 472-61-7 C40H52O4
Poly(propylene glycol) Poly(propylene glycol) 25322-69-4 CH4
Stevioside Stevioside 57817-89-7 C38H60O18
Polyacrylamide Polyacrylamide 9003-05-8 C3H5NO
Tragacanth gum Tragacanth gum 9000-65-1 NULL
Silicone oil Silicone oil 63148-62-9 C6H18OSi2
Casein Casein 9000-71-9 C81H125N22O39P
Petrolatum Petrolatum 8009-03-8 C15H15N
6-Methylcoumarin 6-Methylcoumarin 92-48-8 C10H8O2
Aluminum ammonium sulfate Aluminum ammonium sulfate 7784-25-0 AlH4NO8S2
3,3,5-Trimethylcyclohexanol 3,3,5-Trimethylcyclohexanol 116-02-9 C9H18O
Benzyl ether Benzyl ether 103-50-4 C14H14O
2-Acetonaphthone 2-Acetonaphthone 93-08-3 C12H10O
Nonivamide Nonivamide 2444-46-4 C17H27NO3
2-Mercaptoethanol 2-Mercaptoethanol 60-24-2 C2H6OS
Thiamine hydrochloride Thiamine hydrochloride 67-03-8 C12H18Cl2N4OS
L-Lysine-L-aspartate L-Lysine-L-aspartate 27348-32-9 C10H21N3O6
Calcium phosphate monobasic Calcium phosphate monobasic 7758-23-8 CaH4O8P2
D-Tartaric acid D-Tartaric acid 147-71-7 C4H6O6
Mineral oil Mineral oil 8042-47-5 N/A
Ascorbyl Palmitate Ascorbyl Palmitate 137-66-6 C22H38O7
Aspartame Aspartame 22839-47-0 C14H18N2O5
alpha-Amylase alpha-Amylase 9000-90-2 NULL
Thickening agent Thickening agent
Poly(ethylene) Poly(ethylene) 9002-88-4 C2H4
Tea polyphenol Tea polyphenol 84650-60-2 C17H19N3O
Allyl cyclohexylpropionate Allyl cyclohexylpropionate 2705-87-5 C12H20O2
Butyl butyryllactate Butyl butyryllactate 7492-70-8 C11H20O4
Guar gum Guar gum 9000-30-0 C10H14N5Na2O12P3
3,7-Dimethyl-7-hydroxyoctanal 3,7-Dimethyl-7-hydroxyoctanal 107-75-5 C10H20O2
Pectinase Pectinase 9032-75-1 C18H37N(CH3)2
Ethyl maltol Ethyl maltol 4940-11-8 C7H8O3
sec-Butylamine sec-Butylamine 13952-84-6 C4H11N
Peroxidase Peroxidase 9003-99-0 NULL
Glyceryl monostearate Glyceryl monostearate 31566-31-1 C21H42O4
Neotame Neotame 165450-17-9 C20H30N2O5
Ethyl vanillin Ethyl vanillin 121-32-4 C9H10O3
Pyridoxine hydrochloride Pyridoxine hydrochloride 58-56-0 C8H12ClNO3
Ethyl 3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate Ethyl 3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate 77-83-8 C12H14O3
Manganese gluconate Manganese gluconate 6485-39-8 C12H22MnO14
Dodecanamide Dodecanamide 1120-16-7 C12H25NO
Allyl hexanoate Allyl hexanoate 123-68-2 C9H16O2
L-Lysine dihydrochloride L-Lysine dihydrochloride 657-26-1 C6H16Cl2N2O2
Gelatin Gelatin 9000-70-8 C6H12O6
2-Ethylhexyl 4-hydroxybenzoate 2-Ethylhexyl 4-hydroxybenzoate 5153-25-3 C15H22O3
Glucose oxidase Glucose oxidase 9001-37-0 NULL
Dodecyl 4-hydroxybenzoate Dodecyl 4-hydroxybenzoate 2664-60-0 C19H30O3
Lipase Lipase 9001-62-1 C11H9N3NaO2+
Dimethylbenzylcarbinyl acetate Dimethylbenzylcarbinyl acetate 151-05-3 C12H16O2
D(+)-2-Octanol D(+)-2-Octanol 6169-06-8 C8H18O
Polyvinylpyrrolidone cross-linked Polyvinylpyrrolidone cross-linked 25249-54-1 C6H9NO
Sodium dithionite Sodium dithionite 7775-14-6 Na2O4S2
Acesulfame Acesulfame 33665-90-6 C4H5NO4S
D-gamma-Tocopherol D-gamma-Tocopherol 54-28-4 C28H48O2
6-Hexanolactone 6-Hexanolactone 502-44-3 C6H10O2
Propyl gallate Propyl gallate 121-79-9 C10H12O5
1,2-Benzisothiazolin-3-one 1,2-Benzisothiazolin-3-one 2634-33-5 C7H5NOS
D-Xylose D-Xylose 31178-70-8 C5H10O5
(S)-(+)-1-Amino-2-propanol (S)-(+)-1-Amino-2-propanol 2799-17-9 C3H9NO
Arabic gum Arabic gum 9000-01-5 N/A
Sorbic acid Sorbic acid 110-44-1 C6H8O2
Sodium caseinate Sodium caseinate 9005-46-3 N/A
Linolenic acid Linolenic acid 463-40-1 C18H30O2
Konjac glucomannan Konjac glucomannan 37220-17-0
alpha-Amylcinnamaldehyde alpha-Amylcinnamaldehyde 122-40-7 C14H18O
Zinc lactate Zinc lactate 16039-53-5 C6H10O6Zn
5,8-Dihydroxy-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-4-methyl-pent-3-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione 5,8-Dihydroxy-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-4-methyl-pent-3-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione 517-89-5 C16H16O5
Allyl heptanoate Allyl heptanoate 142-19-8 C10H18O2
Hemin Hemin 16009-13-5 C34H32ClFeN4O4
2'-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropiophenone 2'-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropiophenone 3516-95-8 C15H14O2
Polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Polyethylene-polypropylene glycol 9003-11-6 C5H10O2
Taurine Taurine 107-35-7 C2H7NO3S
Paraffin wax Paraffin wax 8002-74-2 C21H27NO3
Mogroside V Mogroside V 88901-36-4 C60H102O29
beta-Cyclodextrin hydrate beta-Cyclodextrin hydrate 68168-23-0 C42H70O35
Tetrapotassium hexacyanoferrate trihydrate Tetrapotassium hexacyanoferrate trihydrate 13943-58-3 C24H6Fe4K4N24O3-8
Dilauryl thiodipropionate Dilauryl thiodipropionate 123-28-4 C30H58O4S
D-Isoascorbic acid D-Isoascorbic acid 89-65-6 C6H8O6
gentian root extract gentian root extract
Calcium diascorbate Calcium diascorbate 5743-27-1 C12H14CaO12
(+)-BORNEOL (+)-BORNEOL 464-43-7 C10H18O
Ethoxyquin Ethoxyquin 91-53-2 C14H19NO
Octyl paraben Octyl paraben 1219-38-1 C15H22O3
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