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Germanium

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CAS:7440-56-4
Purity:99% Package:100g,500g,1kg,5kg,10kg
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CAS:7440-56-4
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CAS:7440-56-4
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Products Intro: Product Name:Germanium powder (99.9999%)
CAS:7440-56-4
Purity:(99.9999%) Package:25g;5g

Lastest Price from Germanium manufacturers

  • Germanium
  • US $1.00 / g
  • 2018-12-19
  • CAS:7440-56-4
  • Min. Order: 50 g
  • Purity: 99.9%
  • Supply Ability: 20kg
Germanium Basic information
History Uses Production Methods Reactions
Product Name:Germanium
Synonyms:GE003100;GE007910;GE003053;GE003052;GE003131;GE004700;GE003010;Germanium chips, 99.999% trace metals basis
CAS:7440-56-4
MF:Ge
MW:72.64
EINECS:231-164-3
Product Categories:Germanium;Metal and Ceramic Science;Metals;metal or element
Mol File:7440-56-4.mol
Germanium Structure
Germanium Chemical Properties
Melting point 937 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 2830 °C(lit.)
density 5.35 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
storage temp. Flammables area
form powder
color Silver
resistivity53000 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Water Solubility insoluble H2O, HCl, dilute alkali hydroxides; attacked by aqua regia [MER06]
Merck 13,4419
Stability:Stable. Slightly soluble in strong acids. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
CAS DataBase Reference7440-56-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceGermanium(7440-56-4)
EPA Substance Registry SystemGermanium(7440-56-4)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes F,Xi
Risk Statements 36/37/38-36/38-11
Safety Statements 26-36/39-2
RIDADR UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
RTECS LY5200000
TSCA Yes
HazardClass 8
PackingGroup III
Hazardous Substances Data7440-56-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
ACROS English
SigmaAldrich English
ALFA English
Germanium Usage And Synthesis
HistoryThe existence of this element was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 in his periodic scheme. He predicted that it should belong to the carbon group and occupy the position just below silicon. He therefore named it ekasilicon.
Fifteen years later in 1886, the predicted element was discovered by Clemens Winkler who isolated it from the mineral argyrodite. It was named in honor of Germany.
Germanium occurs in nature mostly as sulfide ores. It is found in the minerals germanite, 7CuS•FeS•GeS2; argyrodite, 4Ag2S•GeS2; renierite (Cu,Ge,Fe,Zn,As)S; and canfieldite, 4Ag2S. It also is found in small quantities in many zinc blende ores from which it is commercially extracted in the United States. Trace quantities of germanium are also found in many coals. Its abundance in the earth’s crust is about 1.5 mg/kg and concentration in sea water is 0.05 µg/L.
UsesThe most important uses of germanium are in electronic industries. It is a semiconductor material exhibiting an exponential increase of conductivity with increasing temperature. The element can be prepared in extreme purification with a high degree of crystalline perfection so as to yield highly characterized surfaces. Other applications of germanium are in infrared detectors, microscopes and various optical instruments; as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps; as an alloying agent; and as a catalyst.
Production MethodsIn the United States, germanium is obtained as a by-product of zinc production from zinc blende ores. The ore is concentrated by the flotation process. Concentrated ore is then roasted, converting zinc and the impurity metals to their oxides. Heating the crude oxides with sodium chloride and coal converts germanium and other impurity metal oxides into their volatile chlorides. The chloride vapors are condensed and germanium chloride, GeCl4, is separated from the condensate by fractional distillation.
Germanium also is recovered from coal that contains this metal at trace concentrations. Coal ash and fine dusts are mixed with sodium carbonate, copper oxide, calcium oxide, and coal dust, and smelted. The crude oxide products are converted to their volatile chlorides. Germanium chloride is isolated from the condensate products by fractional distillation.
High purity (99.9999%) germanium may be produced by fractional distillation of the chloride in the presence of hydrochloric acid and chlorine in quartz stills, followed by hydrolysis of the purified chloride with double distilled water to produce germanium oxide, GeO2. The oxide is reduced with hydrogen at 1,000°C. Exceedingly high purity germanium for semiconductor applications may be obtained from the high purity grade material by the zone refining process. Impurities present in germanium are more soluble in its melt than the solid metal. Thus, repeated passes of a molten zone along the impure ingot of germanium effectively removes trace impurities from the solid metal ingot.
Doping of the metal for its solid state electronic use may be carried out either by adding trace amounts of doping agents into the melts before a single crystal is grown from the melt or into the prepared single crystal by solid state diffusion. Single crystals up to a few inches in diameter may be prepared from the melt by the Czochralski technique, which involves contacting the melt with a seed crystal under an inert atmosphere and controlled conditions of temperature and seeding.
ReactionsThe chemical properties of germanium fall between those of silicon and tin. It forms both the divalent and tetravalent compounds, the oxidation state +4 being more stable than the +2 oxidation state. The metal is stable in air and water at ambient temperatures. However, it reacts with oxygen at elevated temperatures forming divalent and tetravalent oxides, GeO and GeO2.
While no reaction occurs with dilute mineral acids, the compound is attacked by concentrated HNO3 and H2SO4. Also, no reaction occurs with caustic alkalies.
When heated with carbon dioxide at 800°C, the divalent oxide is formed:
Ge + CO2 →GeO + CO
The metal also reduces the tetravalent oxide to the divalent oxide upon heating at elevated temperatures:
Ge + GeO2→ 2GeO
Heating with chlorine at elevated temperatures yields germanium tetrachloride:
Ge + 2Cl2 →GeCl4
Chemical Propertiesgreyish-white lustrous brittle solid, odourless
Chemical PropertiesGermanium is a grayish-white, lustrous, and brittle metalloid. The powder is grayish-black and odorless. It is never found free and occurs most commonly in ergyrodite and germanite. It is generally recovered as a by-product in zinc production, coal processing, or other sources.
HistoryGermanium was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekasilicon, and discovered by Winkler in 1886. The metal is found in argyrodite, a sulfide of germanium and silver; in germanite, which contains 8% of the element; in zinc ores; in coal; and in other minerals. Germanium is frequently obtained commercially from flue dusts of smelters processing zinc ores, and has been recovered from the by-products of combustion of certain coals. Its presence in coal insures a large reserve of the element in the years to come. Germanium can be separated from other metals by fractional distillation of its volatile tetrachloride. The tetrachloride may then be hydrolyzed to give GeO2; the dioxide can be reduced with hydrogen to give the metal. Recently developed zone-refining techniques permit the production of germanium of ultra-high purity. The element is a gray-white metalloid, and in its pure state is crystalline and brittle, retaining its luster in air at room temperature. Germanium is a very important semiconductor material. Zone-refining techniques have led to production of crystalline germanium for semiconductor use with an impurity of only one part in 1010. Doped with arsenic, gallium, or other elements, it is used as a transistor element in thousands of electronic applications. Its application in fiber optics and infrared optical systems now provides the largest use for germanium. Germanium is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectrometers and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors. Germanium oxide’s high index of refraction and dispersion make it useful as a component of glasses used in wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives. The field of organogermanium chemistry is becoming increasingly important. Certain germanium compounds have a low mammalian toxicity, but a marked activity against certain bacteria, which makes them of interest as chemotherapeutic agents. The cost of germanium is about $10/g (99.999% purity). Thirty isotopes and isomers are known, five of which occur naturally.
DefinitionNonmetallic element of atomic number 32, aw72.59, valences of 2, 4; group IVa of the periodic table.
UsesIn electronics: manufacture of rectifying devices (germanium diodes), transistors, in red-fluorescing phosphors; in dental alloys; in the production of glass capable of transmitting infrared radiation. Review of uses: Aldington, Cumming, Endeavour 14, 200-204 (1955); New Uses for Germanium, F. I. Metz, Ed. (Midwest Research Institute, 1974) 120 pp.
Potential ExposureBecause of its semiconductor proper ties, germanium is widely used in the electronic industry in rectifiers, diodes, and transistors. It is alloyed with alumi num, aluminum magnesium, antimony, bronze, and tin to increase strength, hardness, or corrosion resistance. In the process of alloying germanium and arsenic, arsine may be released; stibine is released from the alloying of germanium and antimony. Germanium is also used in the manufacture of optical glass for infrared applications; red-fluorescing phosphors; and cathodes for electronic valves; and in elec troplating; in the hydrogenation of coal; and as a catalyst, particularly at low temperatures. Certain compounds are used medically. Industrial exposures to the dust and fumes of the metal or oxide generally occur during separation and purification of germanium, welding, multiple-zone melting operations, or cutting and grinding of crystals. Germanium tetrahydride (germanium hydride, germane, and monoger mane) and other hydrides are produced by the action of a reducing acid on a germanium alloy.
First aidMove victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respira tion with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with run ning water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Medical obser vation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized para medic may consider administering a drug or other inhala tion therapy.
ShippingUN3089 Metal powders, flammable, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN1759 Corrosive solids, n.o.s., Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, Technical Name required.
Purification MethodsCopper contamination on the surface and in the bulk of single crystals of Ge can be removed by immersion in molten alkali cyanide under N2. The Ge is placed in dry K and/or Na cyanide powder in a graphite holder in a quartz or porcelain boat. The boat is then inserted into a heated furnace which, after a suitable time, is left to cool to room temperature. At 750o, a 1mm thickness of metal requires about 1minute, whereas 0.5cm needs about half hour. The boat is removed from the furnace, and the solid samples are taken out with plastic-coated tweezers, carefully rinsed in hot water and dried in air [Wang J Phys Chem 60 45 1956, Schenk in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 712 1963]. Care with the use of cyanide.
IncompatibilitiesA strong reducing agent and flammable solid. Finely divided metal is incompatible with oxidizing and nonoxidizing acids, ammonia, bromine, oxidizers, aqua regia, sulfuric acid, carbonates, halogens, and nitrates. Explosive reaction or ignition with potassium chlorate, potassium nitrate, chlorine, bromine, oxygen, and potas sium hydroxide in the presence of heat. Violent reaction with strong acids: aqua regia, nitric, and sulfuric. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions.
Waste DisposalRecovery and return to sup pliers for reprocessing is preferable.
Germanium Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materialsSilicon dioxide-->Argon
Preparation ProductsINSULIN-->Pancreatin-->trysin-chymotrypsin
Tag:Germanium(7440-56-4) Related Product Information
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