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Rhodium

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CAS:7440-16-6
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Lastest Price from Rhodium manufacturers

  • Rhodium
  • US $1.00 / kg
  • 2018-12-24
  • CAS:7440-16-6
  • Min. Order: 1kg
  • Purity: 95%-99%
  • Supply Ability: 100kg
Rhodium Chemical Properties
Melting point 1966 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 3727 °C(lit.)
density 1.41 g/mL at 25 °C
storage temp. Flammables area
form wire
color Red
resistivity4.33 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Water Solubility Insoluble
Merck 14,8186
CAS DataBase Reference7440-16-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceRhodium(7440-16-6)
EPA Substance Registry SystemRhodium(7440-16-6)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes C,Xi,F
Risk Statements 36/38-11-36/37/38-36-34-23
Safety Statements 26-24/25-16-22-36-17-45-36/37/39
RIDADR UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
RTECS VI9069000
TSCA Yes
HazardClass 4.1
PackingGroup III
Hazardous Substances Data7440-16-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Rhodium Usage And Synthesis
History, Occurrence, and UsesRhodium was discovered by W. H. Wollaston in 1803-04 in the aqua regia platium hexachloride, (NH4)2PtCl6, from the aqua regia extract, the resulting filtrate contained two new metals, palladium and rhodium. The element was named rhodium, derived from the Greek word rhodon for the beautiful rose color of its chloro salt and its aqueous solution.
Rhodium occurs in nature in trace quantities, always associated with other platinum metals. It is found in native form. Its average abundance in the earth’s crust is estimated to be 1mg/kg. Rhodium is used as a precious metal for making jewelry and decorative. Other important applications of this metal or its compounds are in making glass for mirrors or filtering light; in catalytic reactions to synthesize a number of products; as an alloying element for platinum; as a hardening agent for platinum and palladium at high temperatures; in electrical contact plates in radioand audio-frequency circuits. Rhodium alloyed with platinum is used in thermocouples. A 10% Rh-Pt alloy was introduced by LeChatelier in 1885 for use in thermocouples. Also, rhodium alloys are used in laboratory crucibles, electrodes, optical instruments, furnace linings, and making glass fibers.
Physical PropertiesGrayish-white metal; face-centered cubic crystals; density 12.41 g/cm3; hardness, annealed 100-120 Vickers units; melts at 1,964°C; vaporizes at 3,695°C; electrical resistivity 4.33 microhm–cm at 0°C; tensile strength, annealed 50 tons/in2; Young’s modulus, annealed 2.3×104 tons/in2; magnetic susceptibility 0.99×10–6 cm3/g; thermal neutron absorption cross section 156 barns; insoluble in water; soluble in concentrated sulfuric or hydrochloric acid under boiling conditions; the metal in massive form is slightly soluble in aqua regia, but in small quantities or in thin plates it partially dissolves in aqua regia; forms solid solutions with platinum, palladium and iridium.
ReactionsAt ordinary temperatures rhodium is stable in air. When heated above 600°C, it oxidizes to Rh2O3, forming a dark oxide coating on its surface. The gray crystalline sesquioxide has a corundom-like crystal structure. The sesquioxide, Rh2O3 , decomposes back to its elements when heated above 1,100°C. However, on further heating the metal starts to lose its weight similar to platinum, probably due to loss of its volatile oxide RhO2 dissolved in the metal. The molten metal readily absorbs gaseous oxygen.
The metal in powder form absorbs hydrogen when heated. When heated with carbon monoxide under pressure rhodium forms carbonyl, Rh4(CO)12. The metal combines with halogens at elevated temperatures. When heated with fluorine at 500 to 600°C, it forms a trifluoride, RhF3, a red rhombohedral crystalline powder insoluble in water, dilute acids, or alkalis. Also, a blue tetrafluoride, RhF4, is formed as a minor product. When heated with chlorine gas above 250°C, the brown-red trichloride, RhCl3, forms. It is hygroscopic, decomposing at 450°C.
Rhodium is attacked by fused caustic soda or caustic potash. Also, fused sodium or potassium cyanide and sodium bisulfate attack the metal.
RecoveryWollaston’s earliest method involved recovery of rhodium from native platinum. Pt was digested with aqua regia. Rhodium in bulk form is slightly soluble in aqua regia. However, when present as a minor constituent in platinum alloys, the metal may be extracted with aqua regia. Platinum was precipitated from aqua regia extract as ammonium hexachloroplatinate, (NH4)2PtCl6. Addition of mercurous cyanide, Hg2(CN)2, to the filtrate separated palladium as yellow palladium cyanide, Pd(CN)2. Excess mercurous cyanide in the remaining solution was decomposed by evaporating the solution with hydrochloric acid. The residue was treated with ethanol. A dark red solid residue that remained after alcohol treatment was a double chloride, sodium chlororhodite, Na3RhCl6•18H2O. Heating this rhodium complex with hydrogen decomposed the double chloride forming sodium chloride, hydrogen chloride and rhodium metal:
2Na3RhCl6 + 3H2 → 6NaCl + 6HCl + 2Rh
Sodium chloride was removed by leaching with water. Rhodium powder was left as residue.
Chemical Propertiesgrey amorphous powder, soluble in ether, alcohol, and water.
Chemical PropertiesRhodium, together with platinum, palladium, iridium, ruthenium, and osmium, is one of the platinum- group metals in Group VIII of the Periodic Table. Rhodium metal is a white, hard, ductile, malleable solid with a bluish-gray luster.
HistoryWollaston discovered rhodium in 1803-4 in crude platinum ore he presumably obtained from South America. Rhodium occurs native with other platinum metals in river sands of the Urals and in North and South America. It is also found with other platinum metals in the copper-nickel sulfide ores of the Sudbury, Ontario region. Although the quantity occurring here is very small, the large tonnages of nickel processed make the recovery commercially feasible. The annual world production of rhodium in 1999 was only about 9000 kg. The metal is silvery white and at red heat slowly changes in air to the sesquioxide. At higher temperatures it converts back to the element. Rhodium has a higher melting point and lower density than platinum. Its major use is as an alloying agent to harden platinum and palladium. Such alloys are used for furnace windings, thermocouple elements, bushings for glass fiber production, electrodes for aircraft spark plugs, and laboratory crucibles. It is useful as an electrical contact material as it has a low electrical resistance, a low and stable contact resistance, and is highly resistant to corrosion. Plated rhodium, produced by electroplating or evaporation, is exceptionally hard and is used for optical instruments. It has a high reflectance and is hard and durable. Rhodium is also used for jewelry, for decoration, and as a catalyst. Fifty-two and isomers are now known. Rhodium metal (powder) costs about $180/g (99.9%).isotopes
UsesRhodium is a transition metal catalyst used in a multitude of inorganic synthesis.
UsesAs an alloy with platinum; as a corrosion-resistant electroplate for protecting silverware from tarnishing; for making high-reflectivity mirrors for cinema projectors, searchlights. Spongy or black rhodium is used as a catalyst in various organic hydrogenation and oxidation reactions.
DefinitionMetallic element having atomic number 45, group VIII of the periodic table, aw 102.9055, no isotopes, valence = 3.
HazardFlammable in powder form. Upper respira- tory tract irritant. Questionable carcinogen.
Safety ProfileHandle carefully. It may be a sensitizer but not to the same extent as platinum. Most rholum compounds have only moderate toxicity by ingestion. Flammable when exposed to heat or flame. Violent reaction with chlorine, bromine pentafluoride, bromine trifluoride, and OF2. A catalytic metal
Potential ExposureRhodium has few applications by itself, as in rhodium plating of white gold jewelry or plat- ing of electrical parts, such as commutator slip rings, but, mainly, rhodium is used as a component of platinum alloys. Rhodium-containing catalysts have been proposed for use in automotive catalytic converters for exhaust gas cleanup.
First aidIf this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, includ- ing resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medi- cal attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. If metal fume fever develops, it may last less than 36 hours.
ShippingFlammable powder, Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid.
IncompatibilitiesFlammable as a dust, fume, or powder may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with strong oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanga- nates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); con- tact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, bromine pentafluoride, and bromine trifluoride; chlorine trifluoride; oxygen difluoride.
Waste DisposalRecovery in view of the high economic value. Recovery techniques for recycling of rhodium in plating wastes and spent catalysts have been described in the literature.
Rhodium Preparation Products And Raw materials
Preparation Products3-BENZYLOXYANILINE-->DECAHYDRO-QUINOLIN-4-OL HYDROCHLORIDE
Raw materialsAmmonium nitrate-->Nitrohydrochloric acid-->Rhodium(III) nitrate
Tag:Rhodium(7440-16-6) Related Product Information
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