|Company Name:||J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. |
|Sodium benzoate Chemical Properties|
|Sodium benzoate Usage And Synthesis|
|Food Preservatives||In 1870, when British scientist H.Fleck was seeking for some acid to substitute the well-known salicylic acid, he made the first description of preservative effect of benzoic acid and verified the preservative effect of this substance. Due to not thorough enough security research for sodium benzoate and immature producing technology, it was not until the turn of this century for the first time used in food, since then it became one of the most widely used preservative in the world for low cost. |
Sodium benzoate, also known as benzoic acid sodium, is commonly used as food preservatives in food industry in China at present, odorless or with slight smell of benzoin, and tastes sweet astringency. Stable in air, can absorb moisture in open air. It’s naturally found in blueberry, apple, plum, cranberry, prunes, cinnamon and cloves, with weaker antiseptic performance than benzoic acid. Antiseptic performance of 1.180g sodium benzoate is equivalent of about 1g benzoic acid. In acidic environment, sodium benzoate have obvious inhibitory effect on a variety of microorganisms: when pH is at 3.5, 0.05% solution can completely inhibit the growth of yeast; while when pH is above 5.5, it has poor effect on a lot of mold and yeast; hardly has any effect in alkaline solution. After sodium benzoate enters into the body, in the process of biotransformation, it would combine with glycine to be uric acid, or combine with glucuronic acid to be glucosiduronic acid, and all to be eliminated from the body in urine, not to accumulate in the body. As long as it is within the scope of the normal dosage, it would be harmless to the human body, and it is a safe preservatives. It also can be used for carbonated beverages, concentrated juice, margarine, chewing gum base, jam, jelly, soy sauce, etc. Human acceptable daily intake (ADI) < 5 mg/kg body weight (take benzoic acid as calculation basis).
Sodium benzoate has big lipophilicity, and it is easy to penetrate cell membrane into the cells, interfere in permeability of cell membrane, and inhibit cell membrane’s absorption of amino acids; cause Ionization acidification of alkaline storage in the cell when entering into, inhibit activity of respiratory enzymes, and stop condensation reaction of acetyl coenzyme A, and thereby achieve the purpose of food antiseptic.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook He Liaopu.
|Solubility in water (g/100ml)||Soluble grams per 100ml of water: 53g/20℃.
|Content Analysis||Take dried sample 1.5g into a 250ml conical flask, dissolve it with 25ml water, and then add 50ml ether and bromophenol.|
|Toxicity||ADI 0～5mg/kg (take benzoic acid as calculation basis, total value of ADI including benzoic acid and its salts and esters; FAO/WHO, 2001). |
LD50 4070mg/kg (rats, by oral).
|Limited use||GB 2760-2002: same with "07001, benzoic acid. Gum rubber base GMP (take benzoic acid as calculation basis); the mixer 0.2g/kg. |
FAO/WHO(1984, mg/kg): Margarine, table olives, jams and jellies, pickles, pineapple concentration juice with preservatives 1000 (used alone or total usage with acid, sorbic acid and its salts and sulfites, sulfites no more than 500, only for manufacture); Mango chutney 250; Quick-frozen Angle, fish piece, fish paste, GMP.
FDA, §18．1733(2000): 0.1%.
In Japan (take benzoic acid as calculation basis, g/kg, and this product g): Caviar 2.5 (this product 2.95); cool and refreshing beverage, syrup, and soy sauce 0.6 (this product 0.7); Margarine 1 (when used with sorbic acid and its salts, total usage is 1); baked products to use jam and fruit juice (including concentrated juice) 1.0.
|The maximum amount of food additives permitted maximum allowable residue limits|
|Chemical properties||White crystals or granules, or colorless powder, with sweet astringency. Soluble in water, ethanol, glycerol and methanol.
|Application||1. Used in the research of pharmaceutical industry and plant genetic, also used as dye intermediates, fungicide and preservatives. |
2. Preservatives; antimicrobial agent.
3. Sodium benzoate agent is a very important preservative of acid type fodder. It transforms into effective form of benzoic acid during application. See benzoic acid for application range and dosage. In addition, it also can be used as food preservative.
4. Sodium benzoate is also an important preservative of acid type food. It transforms into effective form of benzoic acid during application. See benzoic acid for application range and dosage. In addition, it also can be used as fodder preservative.
5. The product is used as food additive (preservative), fungicide in pharmaceutical industry, dye mordant, plasticizer in plastic industrial, and also used as organic synthetic intermediate of spices and others.
|Production methods||1. Neutralized by benzoic acid and sodium bicarbonate. Put water and sodium bicarbonate into the neutralizing pot, boil it and make it dissolved into sodium bicarbonate solution. Mix it with benzoic acid until PH value of the reaction solution reaches to 7-7.5. Heat it to emit over carbon dioxide, and then add active carbon to decolorize it for half an hour. Do suction filtration, after filtrate gets concentrated, put it into flaker tray, dry it to be sheets in the drum, crush it, and then sodium benzoate is made. Consumption rate of benzoic acid (99.5%) 1045kg/t and sodium bicarbonate (98%) 610kg/t.|
2. Use 32% soda solution to neutralize benzoic acid in the pot to reach PH value of 7.5, and neutralization temperature is 70℃. Use 0.3% active carbon to decolorize the neutralized solution, vacuum filter it, concentrate, dry it and then it comes to powdered sodium benzoate.
3. To get it by toluene oxidation made benzoic acid reacting with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide.
|Acute toxicity||Oral-rat LD50 4070mg/kg; Oral-mice LD50: 1600 mg/m3/4h
|Stimulus data||Skin-Human 10%/1h Positive.
|Flammability hazard characteristics||Flammable, fire smoke exhaust oxygen-containing sodium spicy.|
|Chemical Properties||white crystalline powder|
|Storage Characteristics||Treasury temperature, ventilation, drying.|
|Extinguishing agent||Water, carbon dioxide, dry, sandy soil.|
|Sodium benzoate Preparation Products And Raw materials|