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1314-13-2

1314-13-2 Structure

1314-13-2 Structure
IdentificationMore
[Name]

Zinc oxide
[CAS]

1314-13-2
[Synonyms]

c.i. pigment white 4
ZINCI OXIDUM
ZINC OXIDE
Zinc white
ZINKOXYD AKTIV
Activox
Activox B
actox14
actox16
actox216
ai3-00277
akro-zincbar85
akro-zincbar90
amalox
azo22
azo-33
azo-55
azo-55tt
azo-66
azo-66tt
[EINECS(EC#)]

215-222-5
[Molecular Formula]

OZn
[MDL Number]

MFCD00011300
[Molecular Weight]

81.39
[MOL File]

1314-13-2.mol
Chemical PropertiesBack Directory
[Appearance]

white powder
[mp ]

1975 °C
[density ]

5.6
[refractive index ]

2.008~2.029
[form ]

nanopowder
[Stability:]

Stable. Incompatible with magnesium, strong acids.
[Water Solubility ]

1.6 mg/L (29 ºC)
[Merck ]

14,10147
[Uses]

zinc oxide has been used to protect, soothe, and heal the skin. Zinc oxide provides an excellent barrier to the sun and other irritants. It is somewhat astringent, anti-septic, and anti-bacterial. When used in sunscreen preparations, it provides both uVA and uVB protection, and can contribute to and/or increase SPF. At the appropriate particle size, zinc oxide is transparent in the visible light spectrum but opaque in the uVC ranges, thereby avoiding a whitening effect when incorporated into sunscreen preparations. Zinc oxide is included on the FDA’s list of approved sunscreen chemicals. It demonstrates an impressive synergistic effect when combined with organic sunscreens. Zinc oxide is also used when a white color is desired for a product. It is obtained from zinc ore, a commonly found mineral, and is relatively non-allergenic.
[CAS DataBase Reference]

1314-13-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Zinc oxide(1314-13-2)
[EPA Substance Registry System]

1314-13-2(EPA Substance)
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

Zinc oxide is yellowish and powder like.
[General Description]

Crude zinc oxide is a yellow-gray granular solid with no odor. ZINC OXIDE, CRUDE (ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, SOLID, N.O.S.)(1314-13-2) has a specific gravity of 4.4. ZINC OXIDE, CRUDE (ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, SOLID, N.O.S.)(1314-13-2) is insoluble in water. The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Prolonged inhalation of the dust may result in metal fume fever with symptoms of chills, fever, muscular pain, nausea and vomiting.
[Reactivity Profile]

ZINC OXIDE is insoluble in water. What little solubility ZINC OXIDE, CRUDE (ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, SOLID, N.O.S.) has yields aqueous solutions that are neutral in pH. Intimate mixtures of zinc oxide and chlorinated rubber with or without hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvent react violently, even explosively upon heating [Chem. Trade J., 1962, 151, 672]. Slow addition of zinc oxide to cover the surface of linseed oil varnish caused generation of heat and ignition, [Chem. Trade J., 1933, 92, 278].
[Air & Water Reactions]

Slowly decomposed(hydrolyzed) in water. Insoluble in water.
[Health Hazard]

Exposures to zinc oxide metal fume cause several health disorders. The symptoms of toxicity include, but are not limited to, fever, chills, muscle ache, nausea, fever, dry throat, cough; lassitude (weakness, exhaustion), metallic taste, headache, blurred vision, low back pain, vomiting, malaise (vague feeling of discomfort), chest tightness, dyspnea (breathing diffi culty) and decreased pulmonary function. The overexposure to zinc oxide fumes in workplaces produce symptoms known as metal fume fever or “zinc shakes”; an acute, selflimiting condition. Chronic exposure to zinc oxide may cause respiratory tract irritation with nasopharyngitis and laryngitis.
[Potential Exposure]

Zinc oxide is primarily used as a white pigment in rubber formulations and as a vulcanizing aid. It is also used as an antiinflammatory agent; in photo copying; paints, chemicals, ceramics, lacquers, and varnishes; as a filler for plastic; in cosmetics; pharmaceuticals, and calamine lotion. Exposure may occur in the manufacture and use of zinc oxide and products, or through its formation as a fume when zinc or its alloys are heated. HC may have been used as a Choking/Pulmonary Agent.
[Fire Hazard]

Some may burn but none ignite readily. Containers may explode when heated. Some may be transported hot.
[First aid]

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a corticosteroid spray or other inhalation therapy. If metal fume fever develops, it may last less than 36 hours.
[Shipping]

UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.
[Incompatibilities]

Incompatible with linseed oil, magnesium. Contact with chlorinated rubber (@ 215C) may cause a violent reaction. Slowly decomposed by water.
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

N,Xn
[Risk Statements ]

R50/53:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R20:Harmful by inhalation.
[Safety Statements ]

S60:This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
S7/9:Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place .
[RIDADR ]

UN 3077 9/PG 3
[WGK Germany ]

2
[RTECS ]

ZH4810000
[PackingGroup ]

III
[HS Code ]

28170000
[Safety Profile]

Moderately toxic to humans by ingestion. Poison experimentally by intraperitoneal route. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Human systemic effects by inhalation of freshly formed fumes: metal fume fever with chills, fever, tightness of chest, cough, dyspnea, and other pulmonary changes. Mutation data reported. A s h and eye irritant. Has exploded when mixed with chlorinated rubber. Violent reaction with Mg, linseed oil. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of ZnO. See also ZINC COMPOUNDS.
[Hazardous Substances Data]

1314-13-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Raw materials]

SULFURIC ACID-->ZINC-->CALCIUM CARBONATE-->Zinc sulphate-->Bifenthrin--> HEAVY CUT RESIDUE OIL-->Coke (coal) -->ZINC HYDROXIDE-->Guaifenesin-->Zinc carbonate-->ZINC CARBONATE BASIC-->ZINC SULFIDE-->Zinc hypoxide-->Zinc carbonate hydroxide-->Zinc calcine
[Preparation Products]

Zinc carbonate-->2-BROMO-6-METHYL-4-NITROANILINE-->GD visible light curing composite resin-->cadmium metallic-->Bacitracin-->Zinc gluconate-->Zinc borate -->2-Aminophenol-4-sulfonic acid-->Zinc stearate-->Zinc phosphate-->ZINC CARBONATE BASIC-->Desulfurizer-->Pigment yellow 37 (C.I. 77199)-->Barium hydroxide monohydrate-->Zinc nitrate hexahydrate-->ZINC SILICOFLUORIDE-->Antioxidant and antiseptic agent T202-->neoprene latex LDR-501-YZ-->3'-Acetamidoacetophenone-->ZINC CHROMATE-->Zinc tetrafluoroborate-->Asphalt ship bottom antifouling paint-->Zinc acetate dihydrate-->Phosphatizing liquid-->Zinc sulfate monohydrate -->Butyl butyrate-->ZINC PHOSPHATE, MONOBASIC-->ZINC MOLYBDATE-->Zinc bromide-->Phosphatizing agent-->low temperature CO shift catalysts-->ZINC BORATE 3.5 HYDRATE-->ZINC NITRATE-->Zinc lactate-->diboron trizinc hexaoxide -->pentazinc chromate octahydroxide -->ZINC DIHYDROGEN PHOSPHATE-->Zinc glycinate-->Zinc acetate-->Zinc citrate
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

C.I. pigment white 4(1314-13-2).msds
Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[Description]

Zinc oxide occurs in nature as mineral zincite. It is the most important zinc compound and has numerous industrial applications. Zinc oxide is the pigment in white paints. It is used to make enamels, white printing inks, white glue, opaque glasses, rubber products and floor tiles. It is used in cosmetics, soaps, pharmaceuticals, dental cements, storage batteries, electrical equipment, and piezoelectric devices. Other applications are as a flame retardant, as a UV absorber in plastics, and a reagent in analytical chemistry. A major application of zinc oxide is in the preparation of most zinc salts. In medicine, the compound is used as an antiseptic, an astringent and a topical protectant.
[History]

Humans have long learned to use zinc oxide as a coating or topical medicine, but the history of human discovery of zinc oxide has been difficult to trace.
In the "Chakra" which is Ancient India medical literature recorded in a later identified as zinc oxide drugs, used to treat eye diseases and trauma. The first century AD, the Greek doctor Dioscorides also referred to use zinc oxide to do the ointment. Avicenna completed in 1025 the "Hui prescription" in Zinc Oxide described for the treatment of various skin diseases, including skin cancer drug of choice. Nowadays, people no longer use zinc oxide to treat skin cancer, but still widely used in the treatment of other common skin diseases.
As early as 200 BC, the Romans learned how to react with copper and zinc ore containing zinc oxide to make brass. Zinc oxide into zinc vapor in the shaft furnace, rolled into the flue reaction. Dioscorides also introduced this.
Since the 12th century, the Indians have known zinc and zinc ore, and began to make zinc using the original way. Zinc smelting technology introduced in China in seventeenth Century. 1743, Bristol, Britain established the first zinc smelting plant in Europe.
Another major use of zinc oxide is used as a coating, called zinc white. In 1834, zinc white became the Chinese watercolor paint for the first time, but insoluble in oil. But soon the problem was solved by the new zinc oxide production process. In 1845, Leclerc began to manufacture pigment of zinc white oil painting on a large scale in Paris, to 1850, zinc white popular throughout Europe. The purity of zinc white was so high that some artists painted zinc-white as a background at the end of the nineteenth century, but these paintings were cracked after a hundred years.
In the second half of the 20th century, zinc oxide used in the rubber industry. In the 1970s, the second major use of zinc oxide is the additives of copy paper, but in the 21st century, the approach of zinc oxide has been eliminated as a copy paper additive.
white zinc oxide powder
Figure 1 white zinc oxide powder
[Chemical properties]

White hexagonal crystal or powder. Tasteless, fine quality. Dissolved in acid, sodium hydroxide, ammonium chloride, do not dissolve in water, ethanol and ammonia.
[Uses]

Industry Application Role/benefit
Rubber Manufacture of rubber Vulcanization accelerator/promotes the vulcanization rate and increases the vulcanization crosslinking degree
Anti-aging agent/ protects rubber from fungi and UV light
Reinforcing agent/promotes the intensity and thermal conductivity of rubber
Ceramic Manufacture of ceramic glaze Fluxing agent/declines the melting point and improves the elasticity of glazes
Pigment Paints,rubber,oil painting,paper coatings,ceramic,mineral makeup,etc. White pigment
Coatings Metal anti-corrosive coatings Paints additive/helps paints to retain their flexibility and adherence for many years
Plastic coatings Anti solar radiation and anti oxidation
Energy-saving or heat-protecting windows ZnO:Al coatings selectively lets the visible part of the spectrum in
Nuclear reactors Corrosion prevention Reduces the corrosion and minimizes the amount of dissolved materials
Desulfurization of chemical raw gas Synthetic ammonia,petroleum,natural gas,methane,etc. Removes hydrogen sulfide by the reaction:H2S + ZnO → H2O + ZnS
Medicine Treatment of a variety of skin conditions Active ingredient/antibacterial properties
Antiseptic ointments,creams and lotions Common ingredient/deodorizing and antibacterial properties
Zinc oxide tape Component/antibacterial properties
Ciprofloxacin Additive/enhance the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin
Food Breakfast cereals, prepackaged foods,etc. Additive/source of zinc
Animal feed
Others Cigarette filters Helps to removes significant amounts of HCN and H2S from tobacco smoke without affecting its flavor
Suntan lotion and UV-blocking sunglasses Key ingredient/provides strong protection against UVA and UVB ultraviolet radiation
Zinc oxide nanorod sensor Detects changes in electric current passing through zinc oxide nanowires
Li-ion battery Anode material/ high theoretical capacity;cheap and environmental friendly
Self-powered nanosystems Stretching and releasing zinc oxide nanowires can deliver alternating current
Ferromagnetic material ZnO can become ferromagnetic after being doped with 1–10% of magnetic ions
Laser diodes and light emitting diodes Wide direct band gap and larger exciton binding energy
Organic synthesis Catalyst
Calibration of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium Reference agent
 
[Reactions]

Zinc oxide reacts with mineral acids to yield corresponding zinc salts when the solution is evaporated. Thus, with sulfuric acid it forms zinc sulfate (hydrated):
ZnO + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2O
Reactions with organic acids such as acetic or propionic acid yields zinc acetate, (CH3COO)2Zn, or zinc propionate, (CH3CH2COO)2Zn, upon concentration.
Fusion of zinc oxide with fatty acids at elevated temperatures produces fatty salts. Thus, fusion with oleic or linoleic acid forms zinc oleate, Zn(C17H33COO)2, or zinc linoleate, Zn(C17H31COO)2.
Reaction with tellurium powder in alkaline solution yields red crystalline zinc telluride, ZnTe.
Zinc oxide reacts with potassium dichromate in solution in the presence of sulfuric acid to form a greenish-yellow pigment, zinc yellow or citron yellow [11103-86-9], 4ZnO•4CrO3•K2O•3H2O.
[Identification test]

When the heat appears yellow, cooling disappeared。
The sample solution prepared with 3 mol/L hydrochloric acid was positive for the zinc test (IT-33).
[Content analysis]

Accurately weighed just burned sample residue about 1.5g, with ammonium chloride 2.5G, dissolved in 50.0Ml0.1mol/L sulfuric acid (a small fire heating). To be completely dissolved, add a few drops methyl orange test solution (TS-148), with 1mol/L sodium hydroxide solution titration of excess sulfuric acid. Ml 1mol/L sulfuric acid equivalent to zinc oxide (ZnO) 40.69mg.
[Toxicity]

toxicity 1
GRAS(FDA,§182.8991,2000).
LD50240ragkg(Rats,Abdominal injection)。
toxicity 2
Poisoning will appear poor appetite, polydipsia, fatigue, chest tightness and tenderness, drowsiness, dry cough, and there will be elevated body temperature, pupil dilatation, conjunctiva and pharynx, facial congestion, diabetes, also sometimes hepatomegaly. In severe cases pulmonary interstitial edema, alveolar epithelial damage.
Poisoning can be inhaled alkaline substances, intravenous injection of glucose (40% solution 20ml) and 300mg ascorbic acid. According to symptoms taking tonic. The maximum allowable concentration in the air 0.5 mg/m3.
In the operation should wear protective masks, protective glasses, wear overalls. Hot water bath after work. Attention should be paid to prevent the formation of vapor and aerosols and discharge to the air in the workplace. Should pay attention to dust ventilation.
[Production Methods]

(1) At present, used methods are the indirect method for zinc ingots as raw materials (also known as the French law), zinc ore as raw material direct method (also known as the United States) and wet. Indirect method. Reaction equation:2ZnO+O2→2ZnO
Operation method: The zinc ingots produced by the electrolysis method are heated to 600-700 ° C and melted, placed in a high temperature crucible, melted and vaporized at a temperature of 1250-1300 ° C, introduced into hot air for oxidation, and the resulting zinc oxide is cooled, cyclone separation, the fine particles with a bag to collect, that is, zinc oxide products.
Direct method. Reaction equation:
C+O2→CO2
CO2+C→CO
ZnO+CO→Zn(Steam)+CO2
Zn(Steam)+CO+O2→ZnO+CO2
Operation method: Roasted zinc ore powder (or zinc material) and anthracite (or coke quietly), limestone formulated into a ball in the ratio of 1: 0.5: 0.05. After reduction and smelting at 1300 ℃, the zinc oxide in the ore powder is reduced to zinc vapor, then oxidized by air, and the produced zinc oxide is collected to obtain the zinc oxide product.
Wet method. Zinc sulfate and sulfuric acid reaction to get zinc sulfate, and then reaction with sodium carbonate and ammonia respectively, the obtained zinc carbonate and zinc hydroxide were used as raw materials to produce zinc oxide.The reaction equation is as follows:
Zn+H2SO4→ZnSO4+H2↑
ZnSO4+Na2CO3→ZnCO3+Na2SO4
ZnSO4+2NH3•H2O→Zn(OH)2+(NH4)2SO4
Using zinc carbonate as raw material, after washing, drying, calcining and crushing to obtain products of Zinc Oxide.
ZnCO2→ZnO+CO2↑
With zinc hydroxide as raw material, after washing, drying, calcination, precipitation, cooling and crushing to obtain products of Zinc Oxide.
Zn(OH)2→ZnO+H2O   (2) Basic zinc carbonate calcination method: production methods of active zinc oxide are more, Most of the low-grade zinc oxide or zinc ore as raw materials, and reaction with dilute sulfuric acid solution, made of zinc sulfate solution, the solution heated to 80~90 ℃, removing iron and manganese with joining Potassium Permanganate oxide, and then heated to 80℃, adding zinc, replacing the liquid copper, nickel, cadmium, after replacement, for second oxidation removal of impurities with Potassium Permanganate in 80 to 90℃, refined zinc sulfate solution, use soda ash and, until the pH value is 6.8, the formation of basic zinc carbonate, filtered, rinsed to remove the sulfate and excess alkali, and then dried and calcined at 500~550 ℃ to get active zinc oxide.
ZnO+H2SO4→ZnSO4+H2O
3ZrSO4+3Na2CO3+3H2O→ZnCO3.2Zn(OH)2.H2O+3Na2SO4+2CO2↑
ZnCO3.2Zn(OH)2.H2O→3ZnO+C02++3H2O
 
Spectrum DetailBack Directory
[Spectrum Detail]

Zinc oxide (1314-13-2)IR1
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Zinc oxide, 99.5+%(1314-13-2)
[Alfa Aesar]

Zinc oxide, Puratronic, 99.9995% (metals basis)(1314-13-2)
[Sigma Aldrich]

1314-13-2(sigmaaldrich)
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