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セシウム

セシウム 化学構造式
7440-46-2
CAS番号.
7440-46-2
化学名:
セシウム
别名:
セシウム;金属セシウム;セシウム (99.9+%) (prescored ampoule)
英語化学名:
Cesium
英語别名:
CESIUM;CAESIUM;Cesium-133;caesium atom;CESIUM METAL;CESIUM: 99.9%;Cesium powder;Cesium (99.5%);CESIUM IN VIALS;CESIUM STANDARD
CBNumber:
CB9854189
化学式:
Cs
分子量:
132.91
MOL File:
7440-46-2.mol

セシウム 物理性質

融点 :
28.5 °C(lit.)
沸点 :
705 °C(lit.)
比重(密度) :
1.873 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
蒸気圧:
1 mm Hg ( 279 °C)
貯蔵温度 :
2-8°C
溶解性:
H2O: soluble
外見 :
ingot
色:
Silver
比重:
1.892
電気抵抗率 (resistivity):
19 μΩ-cm, 0°C
水溶解度 :
reacts with H2O to evolve H2; soluble liquid NH3 [MER06]
Sensitive :
moisture sensitive
Merck :
13,2018
安定性::
Flammable solid; highly flammable in powder form. Moisture-sensitive. Incompatible with chlorine, phosphorus, water.
CAS データベース:
7440-46-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  Xi,C,F
Rフレーズ  36/38-34-14/15-11
Sフレーズ  26-45-43-36/37/39-16-8
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS 番号 FK9225000
10
TSCA  Yes
国連危険物分類  4.3
容器等級  I
HSコード  28051990
消防法 危-3-AM-1-I
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H260 水に触れると自然発火するおそれのある可燃性 /引火性ガスを発生 水反応可燃性化学品 1 危険 P223, P231+P232, P280, P335+ P334,P370+P378, P402+P404, P501
H314 重篤な皮膚の薬傷?眼の損傷 皮膚腐食性/刺激性 1A, B, C 危険 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H318 重篤な眼の損傷 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 1 危険 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
注意書き
P223 激しい反応と火災の発生の危険があるため、水と接 触させないこと。
P231+P232 湿気を遮断し、不活性ガス下で取り扱うこと。
P280 保護手袋/保護衣/保護眼鏡/保護面を着用するこ と。
P303+P361+P353 皮膚(または髪)に付着した場合:直ちに汚染された衣 類をすべて脱ぐこと/取り除くこと。皮膚を流水/シャワー で洗うこと。
P305+P351+P338 眼に入った場合:水で数分間注意深く洗うこと。次にコ ンタクトレンズを着用していて容易に外せる場合は外す こと。その後も洗浄を続けること。
P370+P378 火災の場合:消火に...を使用すること。
P405 施錠して保管すること。
P422 内容物を...中で保管すること。

セシウム 価格 もっと(13)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01SRM93-5550 セシウム
Cesium
7440-46-2 1g ¥44100 2018-12-26 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01SRM93-5550 セシウム
Cesium
7440-46-2 5g ¥112300 2018-12-26 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 21919-1A セシウム
Cesium
7440-46-2 1g ¥20100 2018-12-13 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 07182-62 セシウム >98.0%
Cesium >98.0%
7440-46-2 1g ¥21500 2018-12-13 購入
Sigma-Aldrich Japan 14714 セシウム purum, ≥99.5%
Cesium purum, ≥99.5%
7440-46-2 1g-r ¥15100 2018-12-25 購入

セシウム 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

主な性質

  1. 金属セシウムはアルカリ金属の一つで銀白色で柔らかく延展性に富む。
  2. セシウムの反応性はアルカリ金属中で最大(空気中で常温でも酸化され、高温では二酸化セシウムとなる)。水とは爆発的に反応して水素を発生し、水酸化物を生成する。窒素、炭素、水素とも直接反応する(空気中ではごく短時間しか金属の形をしていない)
  3. セシウムは全元素中最も陽性が強い(イオン化エネルギーや電子親和力が小さい)。光が当たると電子を放出しやすくなる「光電効果」の性質がある

主な用途

  1. 触媒(メチルメタアクリル樹脂製造装置)
  2. ガラス添加剤(光ファイバー)
  3. フッ素化剤(フッ素樹脂部品)
  4. 光電変換素子(光学計測装置)

化学的特性

silvery, light ductile metal

物理的性質

Like the other alkali metals, cesium is a soft-solid silvery metal, but much softer than theothers. It is the least electronegative and most reactive of the Earth metals. Cesium has anoxidation state of +1, and because its atoms are larger than Li, Na, and K atoms, it readilygives up its single outer valence electron. The single electron in the P shell is weakly attachedto its nucleus and thus available to combine with many other elements. It is much too reactiveto be found in its metallic state on Earth.Cs has a melting point of 29°C, which is lower than the body temperature of humans(37°C), and thus a chunk of cesium will melt in a person’s hand with disastrous results. Sinceit reacts with moisture on skin as well as with the air to release hydrogen, it will burn vigorously through the palm of one’s hand.Cesium’s boiling point is 669.3°C and its density is 1.837 g/cm3. Mercury is the only metalwith a lower melting point than cesium. It is extremely dangerous when exposed to air, water,and organic compounds or to sulfur, phosphorus, and any other electronegative elements. Itmust be stored in a glass container containing an inert atmosphere or in kerosene.Cesium reacts with water in ways similar to potassium and rubidium metals. In additionto hydrogen, it forms what is known as superoxides, which are identified with the generalformula CsO2. When these superoxides react with carbon dioxide, they release oxygen gas,which makes this reaction useful for self-contained breathing devices used by firemen andothers exposed to toxic environments.

同位体

Cs-133 is the only stable isotope of cesium, and it makes up all of the naturallyoccurring cesium found in the Earth’s crust. In addition to Cs-133 there are about 36radioactive isotopes of Cs, most of which are artificially formed in nuclear reactors. Allare produced in small numbers of atoms with relatively short half-lives. The range of Csisotopes is from Cs-113 (amu = 112.94451) to Cs-148 (amu = 147.94900). Most ofthese radioisotopes produce beta radiation as they rapidly decay, with the exception ofCs-135, which has a half-life of 3×106yr, which makes it a useful research tool. Cs-137,with a half-life of 33 years, produces both beta and gamma radiation.

名前の由来

In 1860 Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen named the element “Cesium,” using the Latin word caesius, which means bluish-gray.

天然物の起源

The stable form of Cs-133 is the 48th most abundant element on Earth, but because it isso reactive, it is always in compound form. The Earth’s crust contains only about 7 ppm ofCs-133. Like the other alkali metals, it is found in mixtures of complex minerals. Its mainsource is the mineral pollucite (CsAlSi2O6). It is also found in lepidolite, a potassium ore.Pollucite is found in Maine, South Dakota, Manitoba, and Elba and primarily in Rhodesia,South Africa.One problem in refining cesium is that it is usually found along with rubidium; therefore,the two elements must be separated after they are extracted from their sources. The mainprocess to produce cesium is to finely grind its ores and then heat the mix to about 600°Calong with liquid sodium, which produces an alloy of Na, Cs, and Ru, which are separatedby fractional distillation. Cesium can also be produced by the thermochemical reduction of amixture of cesium chloride (CsCl) and calcium (Cs).

特性

Cesium is located between rubidium and francium in group 1 of the periodic table. It isthe heaviest of the stable alkali metals and has the lowest melting point. It is also the mostreactive of the alkali metals.Cesium will decompose water, producing hydrogen, which will burn as it is liberated fromH2O. Cesium is extremely dangerous to handle and will burn spontaneously or explode whenexposed to air, water, and many organic compounds.

来歴

Cesium was discovered spectroscopically by Bunsen and Kirchhoff in 1860 in mineral water from Durkheim. Cesium, an alkali metal, occurs in lepidolite, pollucite (a hydrated silicate of aluminum and cesium), and in other sources. One of the world’s richest sources of cesium is located at Bernic Lake, Manitoba. The deposits are estimated to contain 300,000 tons of pollucite, averaging 20% cesium. It can be isolated by electrolysis of the fused cyanide and by a number of other methods. Very pure, gas-free cesium can be prepared by thermal decomposition of cesium azide. The metal is characterized by a spectrum containing two bright lines in the blue along with several others in the red, yellow, and green. It is silvery white, soft, and ductile. It is the most electropositive and most alkaline element. Cesium, gallium, and mercury are the only three metals that are liquid at room temperature. Cesium reacts explosively with cold water, and reacts with ice at temperatures above –116°C. Cesium hydroxide, the strongest base known, attacks glass. Because of its great affinity for oxygen the metal is used as a “getter” in electron tubes. It is also used in photoelectric cells, as well as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of certain organic compounds. The metal has recently found application in ion propulsion systems. Cesium is used in atomic clocks, which are accurate to 5 s in 300 years. A second of time is now defined as being the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyper-fine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. Its chief compounds are the chloride and the nitrate. Cesium has 52 isotopes and isomers with masses ranging from 112 to 148. The present price of cesium is about $50/g (99.98%) sealed in a glass ampoule.

使用

In photoelectric cells, as a "getter" in vacuum tubes; in photoemitter devices, scintillation counters. Adsorbent in CO2 purifn; scavenger of gases and impurities in metallurgy. For doping catalysts. For construction and operation of one type of atomic clock based on the vibrational frequency (9,192.76 megacycles/sec) of 133Cs. 137Cs in process control instruments, sewage and sludge sterilization.

使用

Because of some of its longer-lived isotopes, cesium has become valuable for its ability toproduce a steady stream of beta particles (β) as electrons.Light is strong enough to “knock off” electrons from cesium, which makes this phenomenon useful as a coating for photoelectric cells and electric eye devices. Cesium iodide (CsI)is used in scintillation counters (Geiger counters) to measure levels of external radiation. It isalso useful as a “getter” to remove air molecules remaining in vacuum tubes.In 1960 the International Committee of Weights and Measures selected radioactive cesium-137 (with a half-life of about 33 years) as the standard for measuring time. They equated thesecond with the radiation emitted by a Cs-137 atom that is excited by a small energy source.Thus, the second is now defined as 9,192,631,770 vibrations of the radiation emitted by anatom of Cs-137. There are about 200 atomic clocks around the world that collaborate theirefforts to maintain this extremely accurate clock that never needs winding or batteries.62 | The History and Use of Our Earth’s Chemical ElementsCesium is used as a hydrogenation catalyst to enhance and assist the reaction in the conversion of liquid oils to solids forms (e.g., in the production of margarine).In a molten state, it is used as a heat-transfer fluid in plants generating electric power.Cesium is used experimentally as a plasma to produce a source of ions to power outer spacevehicles using ion engines.Cesium is used in military infrared devices and signal lamps as well as in other opticaldevices.Cesium is used as a chemical reagent and reducing agent in industry and the laboratory. Itcan also be used as an antidote for arsenic poisoning.

定義

An alkali-metal element of group IA of the periodic table, atomic number 55, aw 132.9054, valence 1. No stable isotopes.

定義

A soft golden highly reactive low-melting element of the alkali-metal group. It is found in several silicate minerals, including pollucite (CsAlSi2O6). The metal oxidizes in air and reacts violently with water. Cesium is used in photocells, as a catalyst, and in the cesium atomic clock. The radioactive isotopes 134Cs (half life 2.065 years) and 137Cs (half life 30.3 years) are produced in nuclear reactors and are potentially dangerous atmospheric pollutants.

定義

caesium: Symbol Cs. A soft silverywhitemetallic element belonging togroup 1 (formerly IA) of the periodictable; a.n. 55; r.a.m. 132.905; r.d.1.88; m.p. 28.4°C; b.p. 678°C. It occursin small amounts in a numberof minerals, the main source beingcarnallite (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O). It is obtainedby electrolysis of molten caesiumcyanide. The natural isotope iscaesium–133. There are 15 otherradioactive isotopes. Caesium–137(half-life 33 years) is used as a gammasource. As the heaviest alkali metal,caesium has the lowest ionization potentialof all elements, hence its usein photoelectric cells, etc.

一般的な説明

A soft metallic solid. Melts at 85°F. Causes burns to skin and eyes.

空気と水の反応

Highly flammable. Cesium is spontaneously flammable in air at room temperature, if the surface is clean [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Reacts with water to generate enough heat to ignite the hydrogen produced during the reaction, and to generate caustic Cesium hydroxide [Mellor 2 419 1946-47].

反応プロフィール

Cesium METAL reacts violently with oxidizing agents, even weaker ones. Reacts with boron trifluoride with incandescence when heated [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Reacts explosively with maleic anhydride [Chem Safety Data Sheet SD-88 1962; Chem. Haz. Info. Series C-71 1960]. Burns in chlorine with a luminous flame [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:380 1956]. Reacts violently with most acids. Reacts violently with fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. Reacts with incandescence with sulfur and phosphorus. Burns vigorously in air.

危険性

Dangerous fire and explosion risk, ignites spontaneously in moist air, may explode in contact with sulfur or phosphorus, reacts violently with oxi- dizing materials, causes burns in contact with skin.

危険性

Although cesium has many of the properties and characteristics of the other alkali metals,because of the large size of its atoms, cesium metal is much more reactive and dangerousto handle. Special precautions need to be taken to keep it away from air, water, and organicsubstances with which it can vigorously react. Its use should be restricted to laboratories andindustries capable of using it safely.
Cesium-137, with a half-life of about 30 years, produces dangerous radiation and can causeradiation poisoning if mishandled. It is used to sterilize wheat, potatoes, and other foods toprotect them from insect damage and rotting. It is also used to kill bacteria in the treatmentof sewage sludge.

健康ハザード

Inhalation or contact with vapors, substance or decomposition products may cause severe injury or death. May produce corrosive solutions on contact with water. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.

火災危険

Produce flammable gases on contact with water. May ignite on contact with water or moist air. Some react vigorously or explosively on contact with water. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished. Some are transported in highly flammable liquids. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.

工業用途

A chemical element, cesium (symbol Cs) is theheaviest of the alkali metals in group I. It is asoft, light, very low melting temperature metal.It is the most reactive of the alkali metals andindeed is the most electropositive and the mostreactive of all the elements.
Cesium oxidizes easily in the air, ignites atordinary temperatures, and decomposes waterwith explosive violence. It can be contained invacuum, inert gas, or anhydrous liquid hydrocarbonsprotected from O2 and air. The specificgravity is 1.903, melting point 28.5°C, and boilingpoint 670°C. It is used in low-voltage tubesto scavenge the last traces of air. It is usuallymarketed in the form of its compounds such ascesium nitrate, CsNO3, cesium fluoride, CsF, orcesium carbonate, Cs2CO3. In the form ofcesium chloride, CsCl, it is used on the filamentsof radio tubes to increase sensitivity. Itinteracts with the thorium of the filament toproduce positive tons. In photoelectric cellsCsCl is used for a photosensitive deposit on thecathode, since cesium releases its outer electronunder the action of ordinary light, and its colorsensitivity is higher than that of other alkali metals. The high-voltage rectifying tube forchanging AC to DC has cesium metal coatedon the nickel cathode, and has cesium vapor forcurrent carrying. The cesium metal gives off acopious flow of electrons and is continuouslyrenewed from the vapor. Cesium vapor is alsoused in the infrared signaling lamp as it producesinfrared waves without visible light. Cesiumsalts have been used medicinally as antishockagents after administration of arsenic drugs.Cesium metal is generaly made by thermochemicalprocesses. The carbonate can bereduced by metallic magnesium, or the chloridecan be reduced by CaC. Metallic cesium volatilizesfrom the reaction mixture and is collectedby cooling the vapor.

安全性プロファイル

Moderately toxic by intraperitoneal route. Cesium is quite similar to potassium in its elemental state. It has been shown, however, to have pronounced physiological action in experimentation with animals. Hyper-irritability, including marked spasms, has been shown to follow the administration of cesium in amounts equal to the potassium content of the diet. It has been found that replacing the potassium in the diet of rats with cesium caused death after 10-17 days. Ignites spontaneously in air. Violent reaction with water, moisture, or steam releases hydrogen gas whch explodes. Violent reaction with acids, halogens, and other oxidizing materials. Incandescent reaction with nonmetals (e.g., sulfur, phosphorus). See also SODIUM.

セシウム 上流と下流の製品情報

原材料

準備製品


セシウム 生産企業

Global( 86)Suppliers
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7440-46-2(セシウム)キーワード:


  • 7440-46-2
  • CESIUM STANDARD
  • CAESIUM
  • CAESIUM STANDARD
  • Cesium (99.5%)
  • Cesium(99.9+%) (prescored ampoule) (under argon)
  • Cesiumbreaksealampouleunderargon
  • Cesiumprescoredampouleunderargon
  • CESIUM IN VIALS
  • CESIUM INGOT 99.5%
  • Cesium, ingots, 99.95+% metals basis
  • 99.98%(metalsbasis)
  • Cesiumampoules,99.98%;dia9mmxlength50mm
  • Cesium,99.98%(metalsbasis)
  • Cesium, 99.95+%
  • Cesium(99.5%)(prescoredampoule)
  • Cesium(99.9+%)(breaksealampoule)
  • Cesium(99.9+%)(prescoredampoule)
  • CESIUM,ULTRAPURE
  • CESIUMCOMPOUNDS
  • CESIUM: 99.9%
  • CESIUM: 99.98%, IN BREAKSEAL AMPOULES
  • CESIUM: 99.9%, 3N+
  • Caesium, Breakseal Ampoule
  • Cesium, plasma standard solution, Specpure(R), Cs 1000μg/ml
  • Cesium, AAS standard solution, Specpure(R), Cs 1000μg/ml
  • Cesium-133
  • caesium atom
  • Cesium powder
  • Cesium, 99.8% (metals basis)
  • Cesium, plasma standard solution, Specpure(R), Cs 10,000μg/ml
  • セシウム
  • 金属セシウム
  • セシウム (99.9+%) (prescored ampoule)
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