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세슘

세슘
세슘 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7440-46-2
한글명:
세슘
동의어(한글):
세슘;세슘,금속;세슘, 원소
상품명:
Cesium
동의어(영문):
CESIUM;CAESIUM;Cesium-133;caesium atom;CESIUM METAL;CESIUM: 99.9%;Cesium powder;Cesium (99.5%);CESIUM IN VIALS;CESIUM STANDARD
CBNumber:
CB9854189
분자식:
Cs
포뮬러 무게:
132.91
MOL 파일:
7440-46-2.mol

세슘 속성

녹는점
28.5 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
705 °C(lit.)
밀도
1.873 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기압
1 mm Hg ( 279 °C)
저장 조건
2-8°C
용해도
H2O: soluble
물리적 상태
ingot
색상
Silver
Specific Gravity
1.892
비저항
19 μΩ-cm, 0°C
수용성
reacts with H2O to evolve H2; soluble liquid NH3 [MER06]
감도
moisture sensitive
Merck
13,2018
안정성
Flammable solid; highly flammable in powder form. Moisture-sensitive. Incompatible with chlorine, phosphorus, water.
CAS 데이터베이스
7440-46-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA
Cesium (7440-46-2)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xi,C,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 36/38-34-14/15-11
안전지침서 26-45-43-36/37/39-16-8
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 FK9225000
F 고인화성물질 10
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 4.3
포장분류 I
HS 번호 28051990
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H260 물과 접촉시 자연 발화성 인화성 가스를 발생시킴 물반응성 물질 및 혼합물 구분 1 위험 P223, P231+P232, P280, P335+ P334,P370+P378, P402+P404, P501
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
예방조치문구:
P223 물과 접촉하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P231+P232 불활성 기체 하에서 취급하고, 습기를 방지하시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P370+P378 화재 시 불을 끄기 위해 (Section 5. 폭발, 화재시 대처방법의 적절한 소화제)을(를) 사용하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P422 적절한 물질을(를) 충진하여 보관하시오.

세슘 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

Cesium is silvery gold, soft ductile metal. It is the most electropositive and alkaline element. Cesium, gallium, and mercury are the only three metals that are liquid at or around room temperature. Cesium reacts explosively with cold water, and reacts with ice at temperatures above -116℃. Cesium hydroxide is a strong base and attacks glass and reacts with halogens to form a fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide. Cesium metal oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air and can form the dangerous superoxide on its surface. Most cesium compounds are water soluble.
Cesium

물리적 성질

Like the other alkali metals, cesium is a soft-solid silvery metal, but much softer than theothers. It is the least electronegative and most reactive of the Earth metals. Cesium has anoxidation state of +1, and because its atoms are larger than Li, Na, and K atoms, it readilygives up its single outer valence electron. The single electron in the P shell is weakly attachedto its nucleus and thus available to combine with many other elements. It is much too reactiveto be found in its metallic state on Earth.Cs has a melting point of 29°C, which is lower than the body temperature of humans(37°C), and thus a chunk of cesium will melt in a person’s hand with disastrous results. Sinceit reacts with moisture on skin as well as with the air to release hydrogen, it will burn vigorously through the palm of one’s hand.Cesium’s boiling point is 669.3°C and its density is 1.837 g/cm3. Mercury is the only metalwith a lower melting point than cesium. It is extremely dangerous when exposed to air, water,and organic compounds or to sulfur, phosphorus, and any other electronegative elements. Itmust be stored in a glass container containing an inert atmosphere or in kerosene.Cesium reacts with water in ways similar to potassium and rubidium metals. In additionto hydrogen, it forms what is known as superoxides, which are identified with the generalformula CsO2. When these superoxides react with carbon dioxide, they release oxygen gas,which makes this reaction useful for self-contained breathing devices used by firemen andothers exposed to toxic environments.

Isotopes

Cs-133 is the only stable isotope of cesium, and it makes up all of the naturallyoccurring cesium found in the Earth’s crust. In addition to Cs-133 there are about 36radioactive isotopes of Cs, most of which are artificially formed in nuclear reactors. Allare produced in small numbers of atoms with relatively short half-lives. The range of Csisotopes is from Cs-113 (amu = 112.94451) to Cs-148 (amu = 147.94900). Most ofthese radioisotopes produce beta radiation as they rapidly decay, with the exception ofCs-135, which has a half-life of 3×106yr, which makes it a useful research tool. Cs-137,with a half-life of 33 years, produces both beta and gamma radiation.

Origin of Name

In 1860 Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen named the element “Cesium,” using the Latin word caesius, which means bluish-gray.

출처

The stable form of Cs-133 is the 48th most abundant element on Earth, but because it isso reactive, it is always in compound form. The Earth’s crust contains only about 7 ppm ofCs-133. Like the other alkali metals, it is found in mixtures of complex minerals. Its mainsource is the mineral pollucite (CsAlSi2O6). It is also found in lepidolite, a potassium ore.Pollucite is found in Maine, South Dakota, Manitoba, and Elba and primarily in Rhodesia,South Africa.One problem in refining cesium is that it is usually found along with rubidium; therefore,the two elements must be separated after they are extracted from their sources. The mainprocess to produce cesium is to finely grind its ores and then heat the mix to about 600°Calong with liquid sodium, which produces an alloy of Na, Cs, and Ru, which are separatedby fractional distillation. Cesium can also be produced by the thermochemical reduction of amixture of cesium chloride (CsCl) and calcium (Cs).

Characteristics

Cesium is located between rubidium and francium in group 1 of the periodic table. It isthe heaviest of the stable alkali metals and has the lowest melting point. It is also the mostreactive of the alkali metals.Cesium will decompose water, producing hydrogen, which will burn as it is liberated fromH2O. Cesium is extremely dangerous to handle and will burn spontaneously or explode whenexposed to air, water, and many organic compounds.

역사

Cesium was discovered spectroscopically by Bunsen and Kirchhoff in 1860 in mineral water from Durkheim. Cesium, an alkali metal, occurs in lepidolite, pollucite (a hydrated silicate of aluminum and cesium), and in other sources. One of the world’s richest sources of cesium is located at Bernic Lake, Manitoba. The deposits are estimated to contain 300,000 tons of pollucite, averaging 20% cesium. It can be isolated by electrolysis of the fused cyanide and by a number of other methods. Very pure, gas-free cesium can be prepared by thermal decomposition of cesium azide. The metal is characterized by a spectrum containing two bright lines in the blue along with several others in the red, yellow, and green. It is silvery white, soft, and ductile. It is the most electropositive and most alkaline element. Cesium, gallium, and mercury are the only three metals that are liquid at room temperature. Cesium reacts explosively with cold water, and reacts with ice at temperatures above –116°C. Cesium hydroxide, the strongest base known, attacks glass. Because of its great affinity for oxygen the metal is used as a “getter” in electron tubes. It is also used in photoelectric cells, as well as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of certain organic compounds. The metal has recently found application in ion propulsion systems. Cesium is used in atomic clocks, which are accurate to 5 s in 300 years. A second of time is now defined as being the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyper-fine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. Its chief compounds are the chloride and the nitrate. Cesium has 52 isotopes and isomers with masses ranging from 112 to 148. The present price of cesium is about $50/g (99.98%) sealed in a glass ampoule.

용도

Because of some of its longer-lived isotopes, cesium has become valuable for its ability toproduce a steady stream of beta particles (β) as electrons.Light is strong enough to “knock off” electrons from cesium, which makes this phenomenon useful as a coating for photoelectric cells and electric eye devices. Cesium iodide (CsI)is used in scintillation counters (Geiger counters) to measure levels of external radiation. It isalso useful as a “getter” to remove air molecules remaining in vacuum tubes.In 1960 the International Committee of Weights and Measures selected radioactive cesium-137 (with a half-life of about 33 years) as the standard for measuring time. They equated thesecond with the radiation emitted by a Cs-137 atom that is excited by a small energy source.Thus, the second is now defined as 9,192,631,770 vibrations of the radiation emitted by anatom of Cs-137. There are about 200 atomic clocks around the world that collaborate theirefforts to maintain this extremely accurate clock that never needs winding or batteries.62 | The History and Use of Our Earth’s Chemical ElementsCesium is used as a hydrogenation catalyst to enhance and assist the reaction in the conversion of liquid oils to solids forms (e.g., in the production of margarine).In a molten state, it is used as a heat-transfer fluid in plants generating electric power.Cesium is used experimentally as a plasma to produce a source of ions to power outer spacevehicles using ion engines.Cesium is used in military infrared devices and signal lamps as well as in other opticaldevices.Cesium is used as a chemical reagent and reducing agent in industry and the laboratory. Itcan also be used as an antidote for arsenic poisoning.

용도

In photoelectric cells, as a "getter" in vacuum tubes; in photoemitter devices, scintillation counters. Adsorbent in CO2 purifn; scavenger of gases and impurities in metallurgy. For doping catalysts. For construction and operation of one type of atomic clock based on the vibrational frequency (9,192.76 megacycles/sec) of 133Cs. 137Cs in process control instruments, sewage and sludge sterilization.

제조 방법

Although Cesium metals have been prepared by fused salt electrolysis, the highly reactive nature of the metals complicates the collection step and favors the use of other preparative methods where the metals can be removed in vapor form from the reaction mixture. The oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, halides, sulphates, chromates and nitrates of Cesium have been reduced to the metals by strong reducing metals such as sodium, calcium, magnesium, barium, iron, zirconium, aluminum or silicon at moderately high temperatures. The preferred method, however, involves the reduction of the anhydrous metal chlorides with calcium metal under vacuum. Anhydrous cesium chloride is mixed with a large excess of calcium chips and heated under vacuum at 700-800°C. As the chloride is reduced, metal vapors issue from the reaction mixture and are led under the vacuum to a cooler portion of the vessel where they condense and drop into a collection vessel.

정의

caesium: Symbol Cs. A soft silvery white metallic element belonging to group 1 (formerly IA) of the periodictable; a.n. 55; r.a.m. 132.905; r.d.1.88; m.p. 28.4°C; b.p. 678°C. It occursin small amounts in a numberof minerals, the main source beingcarnallite (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O). It is obtainedby electrolysis of molten caesiumcyanide. The natural isotope iscaesium–133. There are 15 otherradioactive isotopes. Caesium–137(half-life 33 years) is used as a gammasource. As the heaviest alkali metal,caesium has the lowest ionization potentialof all elements, hence its usein photoelectric cells, etc.

정의

A soft golden highly reactive low-melting element of the alkali-metal group. It is found in several silicate minerals, including pollucite (CsAlSi2O6). The metal oxidizes in air and reacts violently with water. Cesium is used in photocells, as a catalyst, and in the cesium atomic clock. The radioactive isotopes 134Cs (half life 2.065 years) and 137Cs (half life 30.3 years) are produced in nuclear reactors and are potentially dangerous atmospheric pollutants.

일반 설명

A soft metallic solid. Melts at 85°F. Causes burns to skin and eyes.

공기와 물의 반응

Highly flammable. Cesium is spontaneously flammable in air at room temperature, if the surface is clean [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Reacts with water to generate enough heat to ignite the hydrogen produced during the reaction, and to generate caustic Cesium hydroxide [Mellor 2 419 1946-47].

반응 프로필

Cesium METAL reacts violently with oxidizing agents, even weaker ones. Reacts with boron trifluoride with incandescence when heated [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Reacts explosively with maleic anhydride [Chem Safety Data Sheet SD-88 1962; Chem. Haz. Info. Series C-71 1960]. Burns in chlorine with a luminous flame [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:380 1956]. Reacts violently with most acids. Reacts violently with fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. Reacts with incandescence with sulfur and phosphorus. Burns vigorously in air.

위험도

Although cesium has many of the properties and characteristics of the other alkali metals,because of the large size of its atoms, cesium metal is much more reactive and dangerousto handle. Special precautions need to be taken to keep it away from air, water, and organicsubstances with which it can vigorously react. Its use should be restricted to laboratories andindustries capable of using it safely.
Cesium-137, with a half-life of about 30 years, produces dangerous radiation and can causeradiation poisoning if mishandled. It is used to sterilize wheat, potatoes, and other foods toprotect them from insect damage and rotting. It is also used to kill bacteria in the treatmentof sewage sludge.

건강위험

Inhalation or contact with vapors, substance or decomposition products may cause severe injury or death. May produce corrosive solutions on contact with water. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.

화재위험

Produce flammable gases on contact with water. May ignite on contact with water or moist air. Some react vigorously or explosively on contact with water. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished. Some are transported in highly flammable liquids. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.

공업 용도

A chemical element, cesium (symbol Cs) is theheaviest of the alkali metals in group I. It is asoft, light, very low melting temperature metal.It is the most reactive of the alkali metals andindeed is the most electropositive and the mostreactive of all the elements.
Cesium oxidizes easily in the air, ignites atordinary temperatures, and decomposes waterwith explosive violence. It can be contained invacuum, inert gas, or anhydrous liquid hydrocarbonsprotected from O2 and air. The specificgravity is 1.903, melting point 28.5°C, and boilingpoint 670°C. It is used in low-voltage tubesto scavenge the last traces of air. It is usuallymarketed in the form of its compounds such ascesium nitrate, CsNO3, cesium fluoride, CsF, orcesium carbonate, Cs2CO3. In the form ofcesium chloride, CsCl, it is used on the filamentsof radio tubes to increase sensitivity. Itinteracts with the thorium of the filament toproduce positive tons. In photoelectric cellsCsCl is used for a photosensitive deposit on thecathode, since cesium releases its outer electronunder the action of ordinary light, and its colorsensitivity is higher than that of other alkali metals. The high-voltage rectifying tube forchanging AC to DC has cesium metal coatedon the nickel cathode, and has cesium vapor forcurrent carrying. The cesium metal gives off acopious flow of electrons and is continuouslyrenewed from the vapor. Cesium vapor is alsoused in the infrared signaling lamp as it producesinfrared waves without visible light. Cesiumsalts have been used medicinally as antishockagents after administration of arsenic drugs.Cesium metal is generaly made by thermochemicalprocesses. The carbonate can bereduced by metallic magnesium, or the chloridecan be reduced by CaC. Metallic cesium volatilizesfrom the reaction mixture and is collectedby cooling the vapor.

Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by intraperitoneal route. Cesium is quite similar to potassium in its elemental state. It has been shown, however, to have pronounced physiological action in experimentation with animals. Hyper-irritability, including marked spasms, has been shown to follow the administration of cesium in amounts equal to the potassium content of the diet. It has been found that replacing the potassium in the diet of rats with cesium caused death after 10-17 days. Ignites spontaneously in air. Violent reaction with water, moisture, or steam releases hydrogen gas whch explodes. Violent reaction with acids, halogens, and other oxidizing materials. Incandescent reaction with nonmetals (e.g., sulfur, phosphorus). See also SODIUM.

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