Nitrofuran drugs

The basic structure of the furan antimicrobial agent is the introduction of the nitro group at position 5 of the furan nucleus and the introduction of other groups at position 2. The antibacterial spectrum of these drugs is broad, which have a strong bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect for Gram-positive and negative bacteria, but a poor efficacy for Aerobacter aerogenes, Proteus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and diphtheria bacilli , and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa worse. Generally these drugs don’t cause drug resistance. Their action mechanism has not been fully elucidated, and it may be the inhibiting of acetyl coenzyme A interfere with the early stages of bacterial glucose metabolism. Their  neurotoxicity to humans may also be associated with the inhibition of glucose metabolism. After oral administration of such drugs, the blood concentration is very low and not easy to achieve effective antibacterial concentration, for which they are mostly used for local and urinary system disinfection. Commonly-used drugs include nitrofurazone, furazolidone and nitrofurantoin. Although the absorption of oral administration, most drugs are rapidly destructed in the body. Because they can’t reach the effective concentration, they are not used for the treatment of systemic infection. They also has a certain toxicity to animals.
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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Nitrofurazone Nitrofurazone 59-87-0 C6H6N4O4
Nitrofurantoin Nitrofurantoin 67-20-9 C8H6N4O5
Furazolidone Furazolidone 67-45-8 C8H7N3O5
Hexamethylenetetramine Hexamethylenetetramine 100-97-0 C6H12N4
Flumequine Flumequine 42835-25-6 C14H12FNO3
Nifuratel Nifuratel 4936-47-4 C10H11N3O5S
Methenamine hippurate Methenamine hippurate 5714-73-8 C15H21N5O3
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