Electrolyte Balance Pharmacology

Body fluid is generally bounded by the membrane, and divided into the intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. And then the extracellular fluid is separated into the plasma and extracellular fluid with the capillaries as boundary. For the normal adult, the body fluid accounts about 60% of the body weight, in which the intracellular fluid accounts 40%, plasma 5%, and intercellular fluid 15%.

The solute in body fluid can be divided into two types : electrolyte and non-electrolyte. The non-electrolytic includes glucose and urea, while the electrolytes mainly contains cations like Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and anions such as Cl-, HCO3-, HPO42-. There is a significant electrolyte distributed differences in and out of the cells. The extracellular fluid represented by the plasma mainly contains cations Na+, and anions Cl-, HCO3-.In the intracellular fluid ,the cations are mainly the K + and followed by the Mg2+, and the anions are mostly HPO42- and protein. The Na+-K+-ATP enzyme on the cell membrane can continue to pump the Na+ out of the cell, and the K+ into the cell, which is powered by the ATP.

The Na+ balance in and out of the cells needs 1 hour, and in the body takes 24 hours; while the K + requires 15 hours to reach the equilibrium between the inside and outside of the cells, and the equilibration time of the sick should be extended: the cardiopath needs 45 hours to reach the equilibrium. In addition, the cell entry of the K+ is accompanied by the addition of the glycogen and protein synthesis, otherwise the K+ escape from the cells. Therefore, the one-off clinical measurement of the K+ can not accurately reflect its current levels in the body. The K+ inside the cells recover slowly, which normally takes 4-6 days to reach the equilibrium, and for the serious patients ,it needs 10 to 20 days or even longer time to make the K+ inside the cells corrected. So the supplement of the K+ should follow the principle of slowness, low-concentration and fewness. 

The main factors that determine the distribution of water between the body fluid is the body fluid osmolality. Osmolality is the attraction of the electrolyte and non-electrolyte solute particles to water. Normal osmotic pressure between plasma and cellular approximately equal to 280 ~ 320mmol / L. The solution that has equal osmolality with the plasma is called as the isotonic solution, and below or above this range is called as the hypotonic or hypertonic solution. Water can move from the hypotonic solution to the hypertonic solution through the cell membrane. Water and electrolyte disorder primarily affects the osmotic pressure and volume of the extracellular fluid. So the osmolality and volume changes of the body fluid are clinically calculated by the concentration change of the serum sodium, such as the sodium loses in proportion to the water for the isotonic water loss (dehydration); the loss of sodium is more than water for the hypotonic aqueous loss; the loss of water is more than sodium for the hypertonic dehydration.

Click on the specific product, view the latest prices of the products, information, serving information
Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Phytic acid Phytic acid 83-86-3 C6H18O24P6
1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid 2809-21-4 C2H8O7P2
Sodium acetate trihydrate Sodium acetate trihydrate 6131-90-4 C2H9NaO5
Calcium chloride Calcium chloride 10043-52-4 CaCl2
Sodium chloride Sodium chloride 7647-14-5 NaCl
Calcium gluconate Calcium gluconate 299-28-5 C12H22CaO14
Sodium acetate Sodium acetate 127-09-3 C2H3NaO2
Potassium chloride Potassium chloride 7447-40-7 ClK
Potassium Acetate Potassium Acetate 127-08-2 C2H3KO2
chromium gluconate chromium gluconate
Salmon calcitonin Salmon calcitonin
Calcium acetate Calcium acetate 62-54-4 C4H6CaO4
Pamidronate disodium salt Pamidronate disodium salt 57248-88-1 C3H9NNa2O7P2.xH2O
Calcium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide 1305-62-0 CaH2O2
Calcium lactate Calcium lactate 814-80-2 C6H10CaO6
CALCIUM LEVULINATE CALCIUM LEVULINATE 591-64-0 C10H14CaO6
Alendronic acid Alendronic acid 66376-36-1 C4H13NO7P2
Ipriflavone Ipriflavone 35212-22-7 C18H16O3
Etidronate disodium Etidronate disodium 7414-83-7 C2H6Na2O7P2
CALCIUM IODIDE CALCIUM IODIDE 10031-31-9 CaI2
IBANDRONATE IBANDRONATE C9H23NO7P2
CLODRONIC ACID CLODRONIC ACID 10596-23-3 CH4Cl2O6P2
CALCIUM GLUCONATE MONOHYDRATE CALCIUM GLUCONATE MONOHYDRATE 66905-23-5 C12H24CaO15
Ibandronate sodium Ibandronate sodium 138844-81-2 C9H22NNaO7P2
Calcium phytate Calcium phytate 3615-82-5 C6H6Ca6O24P6
Calcium citrate tetrahydrate Calcium citrate tetrahydrate 5785-44-4 C12H18Ca3O18
Ibandronic acid Ibandronic acid 114084-78-5 C9H23NO7P2
Calcitonin Calcitonin 9007-12-9 C145H240N44O48S2
Alendronate sodium Alendronate sodium 129318-43-0 C4H13NNaO7P2
CALCIUM PHOSPHATE, DIBASIC CALCIUM PHOSPHATE, DIBASIC 7757-93-9 CaHO4P
Elcatonin Elcatonin 60731-46-6 C148H244N42O47
Pamidronic acid Pamidronic acid 40391-99-9 C3H11NO7P2
Calcitonin eel Calcitonin eel 57014-02-5 C146H241N43O47S2
PHYTIN PHYTIN 7776-28-5 C6H6Ca6O24P6
CLODRONATE CLODRONATE
CALCIUM GLUCONATE MONOHYDRATE CALCIUM GLUCONATE MONOHYDRATE 18016-24-5 C12H24CaO15
Active Calcium Active Calcium
PolystyreneSulronate PolystyreneSulronate
Oyster calcium Oyster calcium
Calcium phosphate Calcium phosphate 10103-46-5 Ca3O8P2
  • 1
HomePage | Member Companies | Advertising | Contact us | Previous WebSite | MSDS | CAS Index | CAS DataBase
Copyright © 2016 ChemicalBook All rights reserved.