Gastric Acid Inhibitors

Proton pump inhibitors: This class of drugs is the latest generation of antacids in the current clinical application with a strong and lasting effect of acid-suppressing. Proton pump acts on the last procedure of the gastric acid secretion. After being absorbed into the bloodstream to reach secretory tubules of parietal cells, it is activated in an acidic environment. Then it acts on and inactivates the H + -K + -ATP enzyme, which ultimately results in the decrease of gastric acid secretion since hydrogen ions within the cell wall cannot be conveyed into the stomach cavity, so as to achieve acid-suppressing effect.

Proton pump inhibitors in the current clinical application include omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole, etc. They have quite similar chemical structure. All of them are lipophilic and able to easily penetrate cell walls. This class of drugs is very unstable in the acidic environment, easily destroyed by stomach acid, so they cannot be chewed or broken apart during oral administration. These drugs are well tolerated with no significant side effects. Common side effects include gastrointestinal reactions (abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, etc.), mental symptoms (anxiety, depression and headaches, etc.) as well as mild liver damage. Skin rashes and other allergic reactions may happen to individual patients. The above side effects often occur with a relatively mild intense and low incidence rate, and will usually subside in the course of continued treatment.

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