Digestive system drugs

There are various kinds of digestive diseases with the medication being highly complex and diverse. For the treatment of reflux esophagitis and esophageal diseases, we should apply antacids drugs, especially cimetidine (Tagamet) and so on. H2 receptor blockers have efficacy of neutralizing gastric acid for suppression of gastric acid secretion and reducing the stimulation effect. In recent years, the discovery of metoclopramide (domperidone)’s effect on enhancing the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) tension and its selection application has led to the improved prognosis.

Peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis are common digestive system diseases with high incidence rate and many treatment drugs. However, to date, we are still lack of specific treatment. Antacids drugs for neutralizing gastric acid are still widely used. Conventionally applied sodium bicarbonate, calcium and magnesium have been gradually eliminated. At present time, the commonly used drug is aluminum hydroxide. This drug should be taken in 1 ~ 2h after a meal and can neutralize the stomach acid for up to 3h. Its combination with anticholinergic drugs can alleviate spasm pain as well as inhibit the gastric acid secretion in the evening, doing good to eliminate the peptic ulcer.

At the 1950th to 1960th of the 20th century, commonly used anticholinergic drug is probanthine (propantheline bromide). After the 1970s when the H2 blockers have emerged, the efficacy of treating peptic ulcer has been significantly improved. With the progress of the study, ranitidine, famotidine and other new generations of H2 receptor blocker with stronger antacid effect and reduced side have been applied to clinical practice, leading to excellent results with rapid eliminated symptoms and increased ulcer healing rate.
It is noteworthy that, proton pump inhibitors – omeprazole (Losec) can not only strongly suppress the acid effect, but also increase gastric mucosal blood flow, strengthen the gastric mucosal barrier, playing a more active and effective role in the treatment of this disease.

Currently, the treatment of chronic gastritis, though, is not satisfactory, but for the treatment of bile reflux gastritis, application of aluminum hydroxide and sucralfate to adsorb bile salts and protect gastric mucosal barrier in combination with domperidone can yield good results. In recent years, it has been found that almost all kinds of duodenal ulcers can lead to antral gastritis with Helicobacter pylori (HP) lead to inflammatory lesions in more than 80% cases. Therefore, simultaneously application of some appropriate antibiotic treatment can play a good role in promoting ulcer healing, reducing the relapse, eliminating the inflammation and increasing the efficacy of treatment of peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate can both stimulate mucus secretion, playing a protective role of protecting the gastric mucosal barrier and have certain effect on killing the HP. If being appropriately selected depending on the disease, the rational application of the drugs mentioned above can play a more effective role in improving the efficacy in treating peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis as well as improving the prognosis.

Pepsin and other digestive drugs are now known to have only limited efficacy. For the treatment of chronic pancreatitis caused protein, starch and fat indigestion, pancreatin (pancreatin tablets, multi-enzyme tablets) is still in use, but requiring larger doses to be effective.

There are not many domestic pharmaceutical formulations for treating constipation with commonly used laxatives including milk of Magnesia, phenolphthalein and liquid paraffin. There is very limited domestic application of antidiarrheal opiates agents. Commonly used include aluminum hydroxide gel and diphenoxylate. It is worth noting that the latter one has a similar effect as pethidine and is often prone to be addicted and thus being not appropriate for long-term use. Lactulose is a special indigestible type of disaccharide, being able to be decomposed into lactose and acetate in large intestine, playing the osmotic laxative effect. Acidified manure can inhibit the intestinal bacteria from producing ammonia, and enable ammonia to diffuse into the lumen of the colon. Therefore, it has effect of lowering blood ammonia, having certain therapeutic effect on the treatment of hepatic coma.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Alibendol Alibendol 26750-81-2 C13H17NO4
Sofalcone Sofalcone 64506-49-6 C27H30O6
Alvimopan Alvimopan 156053-89-3 C25H32N2O4
Esomeprazole Esomeprazole 119141-88-7 C17H19N3O3S
Lorcaserin hydrochloride Lorcaserin hydrochloride 846589-98-8 C11H15Cl2N
Dolasetron mesylate Dolasetron mesylate 115956-13-3 C20H26N2O7S
Omeprazole Omeprazole 73590-58-6 C17H19N3O3S
Oleanolic acid Oleanolic acid 508-02-1 C30H48O3
Lansoprazole Lansoprazole 103577-45-3 C16H14F3N3O2S
Esomeprazole sodium Esomeprazole sodium 161796-78-7 C34H36MgN6O6S2
Aprepitant Aprepitant 170729-80-3 C23H21F7N4O3
3-Methoxy-1-propanol 3-Methoxy-1-propanol 1589-49-7 C4H10O2
Dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt Dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt 577-11-7 C20H37O7S.Na
Cholic acid Cholic acid 81-25-4 C24H40O5
Rebeprazole sodium Rebeprazole sodium 117976-90-6 C18H20N3NaO3S
Orlistat Orlistat 96829-58-2 C29H53NO5
Rasagiline Rasagiline 136236-51-6 C12H13N
Glycyrrhizic acid Glycyrrhizic acid 1405-86-3 C42H62O16
Dehydrocholic acid Dehydrocholic acid 81-23-2 C24H34O5
Ursodeoxycholic acid Ursodeoxycholic acid 128-13-2 C24H40O4
5-Aminosalicylic acid 5-Aminosalicylic acid 89-57-6 C7H7NO3
Glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt Glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt 53956-04-0 C42H65NO16
Tiopronin Tiopronin 1953-02-2 C5H9NO3S
Calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate 471-34-1 CCaO3
Lipoic acid Lipoic acid 62-46-4 C8H14O2S2
Citric acid monohydrate Citric acid monohydrate 5949-29-1 C6H10O8
Racecadotril Racecadotril 81110-73-8 C21H23NO4S
R-(-)-Apomorphine R-(-)-Apomorphine 41372-20-7 C17H20ClNO3
Rabeprazole Rabeprazole 117976-89-3 C18H21N3O3S
Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfate 7757-82-6 Na2SO4
Phenolphthalein Phenolphthalein 77-09-8 C20H14O4
1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone 117-10-2 C14H8O4
Cimetidine Cimetidine 51481-61-9 C10H16N6S
Chenodeoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid 474-25-9 C24H40O4
L-carnitine L-carnitine 541-15-1 C7H15NO3
L-Carnitine-L-tartrate L-Carnitine-L-tartrate 36687-82-8 C11H20NO9-
Ilaprazole Ilaprazole 172152-36-2 C19H18N4O2S
Castor oil Castor oil 8001-79-4 C57H104O9
Aloin Aloin 1415-73-2 C21H22O9
Glycerol Glycerol 56-81-5 C3H8O3
Famotidine Famotidine 76824-35-6 C8H15N7O2S3
Bismuth trioxide Bismuth trioxide 1304-76-3 BiO3-
4-Methylumbelliferone 4-Methylumbelliferone 90-33-5 C10H8O3
Diisopropylamine Diisopropylamine 108-18-9 C6H15N
Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate 144-55-8 CHNaO3
Loperamide hydrochloride Loperamide hydrochloride 34552-83-5 C29H34Cl2N2O2
Magnesium oxide Magnesium oxide 1309-48-4 MgO
3-Phenyl-1-propanol 3-Phenyl-1-propanol 122-97-4 C9H12O
Granisetron Hydrochloride Granisetron Hydrochloride 107007-99-8 C18H25ClN4O
Bile salt ox Bile salt ox
Valethamate bromide Valethamate bromide 90-22-2 C19H32BrNO2
Bismuth subnitrate Bismuth subnitrate 1304-85-4 Bi5H9N4O22
Anethole trithione Anethole trithione 532-11-6 C10H8OS3
Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide 1309-42-8 H2MgO2
Disodium protoporphyrin IX Disodium protoporphyrin IX 50865-01-5 C34H32N4Na2O4
Pantoprazole Sodium Pantoprazole Sodium 138786-67-1 C16H14F2N3NaO4S
Protoporphyrin IX Protoporphyrin IX 553-12-8 C34H34N4O4
dolasetron dolasetron 115956-12-2 C19H20N2O3
3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid N-hydroxymethylamide 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid N-hydroxymethylamide 3569-99-1 C7H8N2O2
Pirenzepine hydrochloride Pirenzepine hydrochloride 29868-97-1 C19H22ClN5O2
Ox Gallbladder powde Ox Gallbladder powde
3alpha-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5beta-cholanic Acid 3alpha-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5beta-cholanic Acid 4651-67-6 C24H38O4
Cetilistat Cetilistat 282526-98-1 C25H39NO3
Ranitidine Hydrochloride Ranitidine Hydrochloride 66357-59-3 C13H23ClN4O3S
Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Poly(dimethylsiloxane) 9016-00-6 C5H6Si
Diammonium glycyrrhizinate Diammonium glycyrrhizinate 79165-06-3 C42H65NO16
Gabexate mesylate Gabexate mesylate 56974-61-9 C17H27N3O7S
Ondansetron hydrochloride Ondansetron hydrochloride 103639-04-9 C18H22ClN3O2
Selegiline hydrochloride Selegiline hydrochloride 14611-52-0 C13H18ClN
Lactobacillin Lactobacillin
Rebamipide Rebamipide 90098-04-7 C19H15ClN2O4
L-Hyoscyamine L-Hyoscyamine 101-31-5 C17H23NO3
Ondansetron Ondansetron 99614-02-5 C18H19N3O
Bismuth subcarbonate Bismuth subcarbonate 5892-10-4 CH2BiO4(-2)
Swertiamarine Swertiamarine 17388-39-5 C16H22O10
Azasetron hydrochloride Azasetron hydrochloride 123040-69-7 C17H20ClN3O3
Difenidol hydrochloride Difenidol hydrochloride 3254-89-5 C21H27NO
R-(+)-Lansoprazole R-(+)-Lansoprazole 138530-94-6 C16H14F3N3O2S
Irsogladine maleate Irsogladine maleate 84504-69-8 C13H11Cl2N5O4
Esomeprazole magnesium Esomeprazole magnesium 161973-10-0 C34H36MgN6O6S2
Pantoprazole Pantoprazole 102625-70-7 C16H15F2N3O4S
Magnesium trisilicate Magnesium trisilicate 14987-04-3 H8MgOSi
Teprenone Teprenone 6809-52-5 C23H38O
Tizanidine hydrochloride Tizanidine hydrochloride 64461-82-1 C9H9Cl2N5S
Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide 21645-51-2 AlH3O3
Domperidone maleate Domperidone maleate 99497-03-7 C26H28ClN5O6
Obeticholic Acid Obeticholic Acid 459789-99-2 C26H44O4
Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate 10034-99-8 Mg.O4S.7H2O
Nizatidine Nizatidine 76963-41-2 C12H21N5O2S2
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