Angiogenesis

The concept that tumor growth depends on angiogenesis was initially proposed in the early 1970s.  However, its significant meaning had not been taken seriously for a long time. In the recent decade, due to the discovery of the effect of angiogenic factors on angiogenesis as well as the important impact of angiogenesis on tumor growth, invasion and metastasis, especially the early tumorigenesis, angiogenesis has become one of the hot fields in cancer research and has brought up a new way of thinking for the tumor treatment.

Angiogenesis refers to the growth derived from existing capillaries and the new capillary blood vessel of the post-capillary venules. Tumor angiogenesis is an extremely complex process, generally including vascular endothelium matrix degradation, vascular endothelial cell migration, and endothelial cell proliferation, endothelial cell pipeline branch formation into vascular rings and the formation of new matrix membrane and some other steps. Because this kind of tumor angiogenesis is structurally and functionally abnormal, and also the vascular matrix is imperfect, this microvascular is prone to be subject to leakage, so the tumor cells do not need to go through a complex process of invasion and instead can directly penetrate into the blood vessels to enter the bloodstream and start metastasis in the distant site. More and more studies have shown that there are rare cases on angiogenesis in benign tumor and the vascular grow slowly in benign tumor; while most malignant tumor has intensive and rapid progression of angiogenesis. Therefore, angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. Inhibition of this process will significantly prevent the development and spread of metastasis of tumor tissue (Carmeliet P, 2005).

Studies have shown that the growth and maturation of new blood vessels is a very complex and coordinated process. The formation and development of blood vessels depends on the dynamic balance of angiogenesis promoting factors and inhibitors, requiring the interaction of cells to cells, cells to cell-matrix, requiring the activation of a series of receptor and is regulated by various kinds of pro-angiogenic growth factors and angiogenesis inhibitors. With the deepened understanding on the angiogenesis and function of solid tumor, the discovery of a large number of pro-angiogenic growth factor and vascular growth inhibition factor make people aware of that the growth of tumor blood vessels is also adjustable with the VEGF and angiopotietin (Ang) secreted by the tumor cells themselves being able to induce tumor angiogenesis. Currently it has been found of over 20 kinds of angiogenic growth factors including VEGF, bFGF, IGF-1, TNF-α, TNF-β, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Wherein the VEGF and its receptor (VEGFR) is the most important pro-tumor vascular endothelial growth factor found so far. It can promote the proliferation, migration and survival of tumor vascular endothelial cells, increasing the permeability of tumor newborn blood vessel, thus playing a key role in tumor angiogenesis with the pro-angiogenic effect of VEGF165 being the strongest. VEGF165 mainly binds to VEGFR-2 and play an important function. Multiple regulatory factors can through either direct or indirect pathways to affect VEFG and signalling transduction pathway of its receptor; neuroplin-1 can bind with VEGF165 as co-receptor, thus strengthening the binding capability of VEGF165 to VEGFR-2, further promoting the tumor angiogenesis. Hypoxia induces tumor cells to produce large amounts of hypoxia inducible factor -1 (HIF-1), increasing the expression of VEGF and its receptors, thus promoting the formation of tumor newborn blood vessels. For in vitro condition, bFGF, IGF-1, TNF-α, TNF-β and PDGF a can increase the expression of tumor-specific VEGF, indicating the regulatory function of these factors on angiogenesis is partially through up-regulating the expression of VEGF to achieve. bFGF can also affect the migration of endothelial cells and promote the formation of blood vessel lumen, stimulate the endothelial cells to secrete collagenase for degradation of the matrix membrane in order to facilitate the growth of new blood vessels (Ferrara N, 2005). After the discovery of VEGF, people have also discovered the second type of angiogenic factor family, namely Ang and its receptor. So far, it has been found of four kinds of members belong to this family, namely Ang1-4 with Ang-1 being the pro-angiogenic growth factor secreted by tumor cells. The Ang receptor, Tie is a kind of endothelial cell specific tyrosine kinase receptors, mainly distributed in endothelial and hematopoietic cell surface. Ang1 ~ 4 can specifically acts on the endothelial cells with a strong pro-angiogenic effect. Tie-1, Tie-2 and the Tie-2 ligand (Angl, Ang2) play an important role in embryonic blood vessel formation and angiogenesis. Activation of Tie-2/Ang-1 signaling pathway can induce the sprouting of capillary to form branches, recruiting the pericytes and smooth muscle cells, maintaining the stability of blood vessels while activating inositol phospholipid kinase (PI3) in the endothelial cells so that the generation of apoptosis inhibitor surviving will increased to fight against the apoptosis of endothelial cells. Ang and VEGF family protein complement and coordinate with each other in the process of angiogenesis. VEGF plays a key role in the early stages of angiogenesis while Ang family plays an important role in the latter stage of the vascular maturation and further stabilization (Ribatti D, 2009; Tan A, 2010; Le Bourhis X, 2010).

[Stages and characteristics of angiogenesis]
The newly formed capillary is comprised of endothelial cells and pericyte cells, these two types of cells have the ability to form complete capillary network. For in vivo condition, accompanied with the pro-differentiation signal transduction, angiogenesis can progress according to endothelial cell activation, proliferation, migration and tube formation process such as hypoxia and other effects of endogenous or exogenous factors that trigger the tumor cells to release cytokines.

Quiescent endothelial cells can be activated by host or tumor released cytokines (I period), specific cell proliferation (II period), and flow along the fiber network of the stimulus source of the angiogenesis, forming arranging cell cord (III period), the finally vessel bud can form tube-like structures; cells enter into the stationary phase after leaving the cell cycle. Through intercellular cross-link of the intercellular vesicles which play adhesion and contact effects, eventually forming a clear lumen (IV period).

The drop angle in the extracellular matrix is an important part of the infiltration of new blood vessels. It is mainly achieved through altering the balance between proteolytic enzymes. The proteolytic and fibrinolytic effects of extracellular matrix are the two functions of the pericyte cells. Pericyte cells are also thought to be related to the generation of the growth factors and inhibitory factors. Cell adhesion receptor, through its interaction with the extracellular matrix adhesion proteins such as collagen and fibronectin, moves to the vascular cells. The extracellular matrix can also act as a growth factor, particularly as the storage pool of aFGF and bFGF.
Because of the incompleteness of the matrix membrane of the proliferated capillary, the capillary inside the tumor blood exhibits as "leaking" property. Meanwhile, vascular endothelial growth factor, through the interaction of a series of cytoplasmic vesicles connected in luminal and luminal surface, is capable of increasing the vascular permeability. In normal tissues, it may play a role in regulating the basic permeability of microvascular while for the tumor microvasculature, this property may be related to the malignant exudate and the formation of ascites.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Ponatinib Ponatinib 943319-70-8 C29H27F3N6O
2-METHOXYESTRADIOL 2-METHOXYESTRADIOL 362-07-2 C19H26O3
5,6-Dimethylxantheonone-4-acetic acid 5,6-Dimethylxantheonone-4-acetic acid 117570-53-3 C17H14O4
PF-562271 PF-562271 717907-75-0 C21H20F3N7O3S
N-(5-tert-Butylisoxazol-3-yl)-N'-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-ylethoxy)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea N-(5-tert-Butylisoxazol-3-yl)-N'-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-ylethoxy)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea 950769-58-1 C29H32N6O4S
3-(2,6-Dichloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[6-[[4-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]amino]pyrimidin-4-yl]-1-methylurea 3-(2,6-Dichloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[6-[[4-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]amino]pyrimidin-4-yl]-1-methylurea 872511-34-7 C26H31Cl2N7O3
Dovitinib Dovitinib 405169-16-6 C21H21FN6O
R-406 R-406 841290-80-0 C22H23FN6O5
FG-4592 FG-4592 808118-40-3 C19H16N2O5
PD 173074 PD 173074 219580-11-7 C28H41N7O3
PP1 PP1 172889-26-8 C16H19N5
AZD-4547 AZD-4547 1035270-39-3 C26H32N5O3
PP2 PP2 172889-27-9 C15H16ClN5
PF 573228 PF 573228 869288-64-2 C22H20F3N5O3S
IOX2 IOX2 931398-72-0 C19H17N2O4
GNF-2 GNF-2 778270-11-4 C18H13F3N4O2
Fostamatinib Fostamatinib 901119-35-5 C23H26FN6O9P
WH-4-023 WH-4-023 837422-57-8 C32H36N6O4
KX2-391 KX2-391 897016-82-9 C26H29N3O3
L-Phenylalanine, 4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)oxidoaMino]-, (Hydrochloride) (1:2) L-Phenylalanine, 4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)oxidoaMino]-, (Hydrochloride) (1:2) 685898-44-6 C13H20Cl4N2O3
PRT062607 (Hydrochloride) PRT062607 (Hydrochloride) 1370261-97-4 C19H24ClN9O
RN486 RN486 1242156-23-5 C35H35FN6O3
CNX-774 CNX-774 1202759-32-7 C26H22FN7O3
TCS 359 TCS 359 301305-73-7 C18H20N2O4S
6-(4-Methyl-1-piperazinyl)-N-(5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-2-[(1E)-2-phenylethenyl]-4-pyrimidinamine 6-(4-Methyl-1-piperazinyl)-N-(5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-2-[(1E)-2-phenylethenyl]-4-pyrimidinamine 934353-76-1 C21H25N7
Debio-1347 Debio-1347 1265229-25-1 C20H16N6O
PF-562271 PF-562271 939791-38-5 C27H26F3N7O6S2
BAY 87-2243 BAY 87-2243 1227158-85-1 C26H26F3N7O2
R788(Fostamatinib disodium) R788(Fostamatinib disodium) 1025687-58-4 C23H24FN6Na2O9P
TAE226 (NVP-TAE226) TAE226 (NVP-TAE226) 761437-28-9 C23H25ClN6O3
PF-562271HCl PF-562271HCl C21H21ClF3N7O3S
N-Methyl-N-[2-[[[2-[(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-5-yl)amino]-5-trifluoromethylpyrimidin-4-yl]amino]methyl]phenyl]methanesulfonamide N-Methyl-N-[2-[[[2-[(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-5-yl)amino]-5-trifluoromethylpyrimidin-4-yl]amino]methyl]phenyl]methanesulfonamide 717906-29-1 C22H21F3N6O3S
R406 R406 841290-81-1 C28H29FN6O8S
GNF5 GNF5 778277-15-9 C20H17F3N4O3
N-[3-tert-Butyl-1-(quinolin-6-yl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-N'-[2-fluoro-4-[(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yl)oxy]phenyl]urea N-[3-tert-Butyl-1-(quinolin-6-yl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-N'-[2-fluoro-4-[(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yl)oxy]phenyl]urea 1020172-07-9 C30H28FN7O3
Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) 852433-84-2 C21H21FN6O.2(C3H6O3)
LFM-A13 LFM-A13 244240-24-2 C11H8Br2N2O2
G-749 G-749 1457983-28-6 C25H25BrN6O2
[4-[2-(1H-Indazol-3-yl)ethenyl]phenyl]-1-piperazinylmethanone [4-[2-(1H-Indazol-3-yl)ethenyl]phenyl]-1-piperazinylmethanone 1000669-72-6 C20H20N4O
GSK 2830371 GSK 2830371 1404456-53-6 C23H29ClN4O2S
PD173955 PD173955 260415-63-2 C21H16Cl2N4OS
N-[3-[4,5-Dihydro-4-methyl-6-[[4-(4-morpholinylcarbonyl)phenyl]amino]-5-oxo-2-pyrazinyl]-2-methylphenyl]-4-(tert-butyl)benzamide N-[3-[4,5-Dihydro-4-methyl-6-[[4-(4-morpholinylcarbonyl)phenyl]amino]-5-oxo-2-pyrazinyl]-2-methylphenyl]-4-(tert-butyl)benzamide 910232-84-7 C34H37N5O4
WP1130 WP1130 856243-80-6 C19H18BrN3O
FGFR inhibitor FGFR inhibitor 848318-25-2 C18H15N2NaO4
GZD824 GZD824 1421783-64-3 C31H35F3N6O7S2
Defactinib Defactinib 1073154-85-4 C20H21F3N8O3S
Plinabulin(NPI-2358) Plinabulin(NPI-2358) 714272-27-2 C19H20N4O2
ENMD-2076 (Tartrate) ENMD-2076 (Tartrate) 1291074-87-7 C21H25N7.x(C4H6O6)
Entospletinib (GS-9973) Entospletinib (GS-9973) 1229208-44-9 C23H21N7O
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