Inhibitors

Inhibitor refers to substance that can hinder the chemical reactions, biological reactions (including immune response) and biological activity. In present time, commonly used inhibitors include immunosuppressants and inhibitors.

1. Immunosuppressive agents: immunosuppressants system refers to drug that can reduce the immune response. It can selectively suppress certain steps of the immune response and immune cells. Immune response refers to the body’s response to a variety of pathogenic substances. Some reactions are favorable to the body and can enhance the body's resistance to disease; some have adverse effects on the body and can cause tissue damage or disorders of physiological functions (allergy). Therefore, patients suffering from allergic reactions being harmful to the body should be subject to the treatment of immunosuppressant to affect the related immune processes and reduce the immune response of the body.

For the treatment of various autoimmune diseases and weakening the tissue incompatibility, it has been developed of a variety of immunosuppressive agents, some of which have been widely used in clinical practice. Commonly used immunosuppressants include glucocorticoids (prednisone, prednisolone, etc.), alkylating agents (nitric oxide mustard, cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, busulfan, etc.), and antimetabolites (6- mercaptopurine, azathioprine, methotrexate, etc.).

The mechanism of immunosuppressants, though not entirely clear, but is characterized by the following several aspects:
① most kinds of immunosuppressants can simultaneously inhibit cellular and humoral immunity and can be used for organ transplantation and autoimmune disease.
②Its inhibitory effect is strong for the primary immune response while the inhibitory effect against secondary response is weak.
③It can simultaneously act on normal and pathological immunity, therefore, can often lead to some complications.
④These drugs often have strong with serious adverse reactions.

2. Enzyme inhibitors: Enzyme inhibitors refer to compounds or drugs being capable of binding to enzyme and inhibit the enzymatic activity. It is clinically often applied of enzyme inhibitors to specially interfere with certain metabolic system to achieve the therapeutic purposes. For example, people use monoamine oxidase inhibitors as antidepressants; use carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as diuretics; use dopa decarboxylase inhibitors as antihypertensive drugs and use antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins belonging to cell wall synthesis inhibitors. Enzyme inhibitors have applications in veterinary medicine and agriculture. In addition, people can also apply enzyme inhibitors to study the mechanism of the enzyme and metabolic pathways.

Enzyme inhibitors often have similar structure with their natural substrates. For designing the inhibitors according modification of natural substrate, people should first analyze and decide the function of each part of the molecule in binding with enzymes: for binding or not binding or repulsion; secondly, people should know the degree of tolerance of the binding site to the adjacent steric hindrance. Then people can replace each functional group to regulate the strength of interaction with the enzyme.

Inhibitors can be divided into reversible and irreversible, two classes. (1)Inhibitors binding with enzyme through non-covalent bonds are called reversible inhibitor. (2)Inhibitors binding to the enzyme via a covalent bond are irreversible inhibitors with strong binding affinity. They will not be affected by concentration change process such as dialysis or dilution after binding to the enzyme.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Nepafenac Nepafenac 78281-72-8 C15H14N2O2
Abiraterone Abiraterone 154229-19-3 C24H31NO
Venlafaxine hydrochloride Venlafaxine hydrochloride 99300-78-4 C17H28ClNO2
Olopatadine hydrochloride Olopatadine hydrochloride 140462-76-6 C21H24ClNO3
NVP-BEZ 235 NVP-BEZ 235 915019-65-7 C30H23N5O
Palonosetron Hydrochloride Palonosetron Hydrochloride 135729-62-3 C19H25ClN2O
Olaparib Olaparib 763113-22-0 C24H23FN4O3
Fexofenadine hydrochloride Fexofenadine hydrochloride 153439-40-8 C32H40ClNO4
AZD-9291 AZD-9291 1421373-65-0 C28H33N7O2
Tolterodine tartrate Tolterodine tartrate 124937-52-6 C26H37NO7
ROSCOVITINE ROSCOVITINE 186692-46-6 C19H26N6O
Mirtazapine Mirtazapine 85650-52-8 C17H19N3
Ramelteon Ramelteon 196597-26-9 C16H21NO2
Tofacitinib Tofacitinib 477600-75-2 C16H20N6O
4-iodo-3-nitrobenzamide 4-iodo-3-nitrobenzamide 160003-66-7 C7H5IN2O3
LY 294002 HYDROCHLORIDE LY 294002 HYDROCHLORIDE 154447-36-6 C19H18ClNO3
ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE 99614-01-4 C18H20ClN3O
Lenvatinib Lenvatinib 417716-92-8 C21H19ClN4O4
Ponatinib Ponatinib 943319-70-8 C29H27F3N6O
Carfilzomib Carfilzomib 868540-17-4 C40H57N5O7
ApreMilast ApreMilast 608141-41-9 C22H24N2O7S
Triclabendazole Triclabendazole 68786-66-3 C14H9Cl3N2OS
Histamine phosphate Histamine phosphate 51-74-1 C5H12N3O4P
Clopidogrel Bisulfate Clopidogrel Bisulfate 120202-66-6 C16H16ClNO2S.H2O4S
Scopine Scopine 498-45-3 C8H13NO2
Tetrahydropapaverine hydrochloride Tetrahydropapaverine hydrochloride 6429-04-5 C20H25NO4.HCl
SB 203580 SB 203580 152121-47-6 C21H16FN3OS
Synephrine hydrochloride Synephrine hydrochloride 5985-28-4 C9H14ClNO2
Perifosine (KRX-0401) Perifosine (KRX-0401) 157716-52-4 C25H52NO4P
Aliskiren hemifumarate Aliskiren hemifumarate 173334-58-2 C30H53N3O6
Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 93793-83-0 C19H29ClN2O4
2-[(2R)-2-Methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-benimidazole-4-
carboxamide 2-[(2R)-2-Methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-benimidazole-4- carboxamide 912444-00-9 C13H16N4O.2ClH
Dacomitinib (PF299804) Dacomitinib (PF299804) 1110813-31-4 C24H25ClFN5O2
Equol Equol 531-95-3 C15H14O3
Vardenafil hydrochloride trihydrate Vardenafil hydrochloride trihydrate 224785-90-4 C23H39ClN6O7S
Flumethasone Flumethasone 2135-17-3 C22H28F2O5
Ketorolac tromethamine Ketorolac tromethamine 74103-07-4 C19H24N2O6
Entinostat Entinostat 209783-80-2 C21H20N4O3
Ibutilide fumarate Ibutilide fumarate 122647-32-9 (C20H36N2O3S)2.C4H4O4
ROLIPRAM ROLIPRAM 61413-54-5 C16H21NO3
Desonide Desonide 638-94-8 C24H32O6
Flupirtine maleate Flupirtine maleate 75507-68-5 C19H21FN4O6
Temocapril hydrochloride Temocapril hydrochloride 110221-44-8 C23H28N2O5S2.ClH
Doramapimod Doramapimod 285983-48-4 C31H37N5O3
Asenapine Maleate Asenapine Maleate 85650-56-2 C21H20ClNO5
Pomalidomide Pomalidomide 19171-19-8 C13H11N3O4
NOCODAZOLE NOCODAZOLE 31430-18-9 C14H11N3O3S
Trametinib Trametinib 871700-17-3 C26H23FIN5O4
CAL-101 CAL-101 870281-82-6 C22H18FN7O
PD 98059 PD 98059 167869-21-8 C16H13NO3
Toremifene citrate Toremifene citrate 89778-27-8 C32H36ClNO8
MG-132 MG-132 133407-82-6 C26H41N3O5
Acebutolol hydrochloride Acebutolol hydrochloride 34381-68-5 C18H29ClN2O4
Orphenadrine citrate Orphenadrine citrate 4682-36-4 C24H31NO8
Levobupivacaine hydrochloride Levobupivacaine hydrochloride 27262-48-2 C18H29ClN2O
Bosentan Bosentan 147536-97-8 C27H29N5O6S
Brinzolamide Brinzolamide 138890-62-7 C12H21N3O5S3
Xylazine Hydrochloride Xylazine Hydrochloride 23076-35-9 C12H17ClN2S
Solifenacin succinate Solifenacin succinate 242478-38-2 C11H19NO7S
DAPT DAPT 208255-80-5 C23H26F2N2O4
Vorinostat Vorinostat 149647-78-9 C14H20N2O3
Temsirolimus Temsirolimus 162635-04-3 C56H87NO16
(S)-Timolol maleate (S)-Timolol maleate 26921-17-5 C17H28N4O7S
Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride 145108-58-3 C13H17ClN2
Eletriptan hydrobromide Eletriptan hydrobromide 177834-92-3 C22H26N2O2S
Rizatriptan benzoate Rizatriptan benzoate 145202-66-0 C22H25N5O2
Rimonabant Rimonabant 168273-06-1 C22H21Cl3N4O
Tolvaptan Tolvaptan 150683-30-0 C26H25ClN2O3
Divalproex sodium Divalproex sodium 76584-70-8 C16H31NaO4
Masitinib (AB1010) Masitinib (AB1010) 790299-79-5 C28H30N6OS
Telaprevir Telaprevir 402957-28-2 C36H53N7O6
Gestodene Gestodene 60282-87-3 C21H26O2
Pictilisib Pictilisib 957054-30-7 C23H27N7O3S2
Silodosin Silodosin 160970-54-7 C25H32F3N3O4
PD 0325901 PD 0325901 391210-10-9 C16H14F3IN2O4
Unii-33Y9anm545 Unii-33Y9anm545 635702-64-6 C21H23N7O2S.ClH
Lafutidine Lafutidine 118288-08-7 C22H29N3O4S
URB597 URB597 546141-08-6 C20H22N2O3
Levosulpiride Levosulpiride 23672-07-3 C15H23N3O4S
Doxycycline hydrochloride Doxycycline hydrochloride 10592-13-9 C22H25ClN2O8
Epiandrosterone Epiandrosterone 481-29-8 C19H30O2
Ozagrel hydrochloride Ozagrel hydrochloride 78712-43-3 C13H13ClN2O2
Eprosartan mesylate Eprosartan mesylate 144143-96-4 C24H28N2O7S2
Lubiprostone Lubiprostone 136790-76-6 C20H32F2O5
Dienogestrel Dienogestrel 65928-58-7 C20H25NO2
Fesoterodinefumarate Fesoterodinefumarate 286930-03-8 C30H41NO7
Nedaplatin Nedaplatin 95734-82-0 C2H8N2O3Pt
Apixaban Apixaban 503612-47-3 C25H25N5O4
4-[[6-amino-5-bromo-2-[(4-cyanophenyl)amino]-4-pyrimidinyl]oxy]-3, 5 –dimethylbenzonitrile 4-[[6-amino-5-bromo-2-[(4-cyanophenyl)amino]-4-pyrimidinyl]oxy]-3, 5 –dimethylbenzonitrile 269055-15-4 C20H15BrN6O
Tozasertib Tozasertib 639089-54-6 C23H28N8OS
Histamine dihydrochloride Histamine dihydrochloride 56-92-8 C5H11Cl2N3
Lomerizine hydrochloride Lomerizine hydrochloride 101477-54-7 C27H32Cl2F2N2O3
ABT 737 ABT 737 852808-04-9 C42H45ClN6O5S2
Ranolazine Ranolazine 95635-55-5 C24H33N3O4
(R)-4-[1-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride (R)-4-[1-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride 86347-15-1 C13H16N2.HCl
Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate 1716-12-7 C10H11NaO2
Nelfinavir mesylate Nelfinavir mesylate 159989-65-8 C33H49N3O7S2
Linifanib (ABT-869) Linifanib (ABT-869) 796967-16-3 C21H18FN5O
2-Chloro-N-[4-chloro-3-(2-pyridinyl)phenyl]-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzamide 2-Chloro-N-[4-chloro-3-(2-pyridinyl)phenyl]-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzamide 879085-55-9 C19H14Cl2N2O3S
2-METHOXYESTRADIOL 2-METHOXYESTRADIOL 362-07-2 C19H26O3
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