food safety

There are many types of food. According to the state of life in terms of food, there are differences between natural food and artificial food. For natural food, some can directly develop a new life, such as eggs, wheat, rice seeds. Although most natural food can’t lead to a new life, but contains some biological tissues, living cells, such as rice, meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. These natural foods can produce different levels of bio-photon radiation. Through related measurement and analysis, we can obtain information about the quality of food, such as freshness. Artificial food is food processed based on biological matter as the raw material such as yogurt, cooking oil and bread. The content of the living matter of these foods has been greatly reduced with the bio-photon emission signals being quite low in the strict sense and therefore very difficult for determination and analyze using bio-photon detection technology. However, if we can extract out liquid from measured food, we can then use electrical chemiluminescence technology for detection [28].

For example, when performing measurement on the pesticide residue on vegetables, we can first soak the vegetables in water for some time, after put the pesticide residues into the water, we can use the light-emitting electrochemical techniques to measure the pesticide-containing water with this way being able to obtain the relevant information. Of course, this measurement and analysis demand the establishment of the database based on the actual types of pesticides, for the simple inorganic and organic residues, such as organic phosphorus pesticides residue, rat poison such as fluorine acetamide, veterinary drug residues, papaverine, barbiturates, nitrite salt, formaldehyde, benzoic acid, sulfur dioxide, etc., we need conduct a series of measurements in the laboratory, and establish a primary or secondary database, then gradually transferred practicality measurement and analysis. If foods contain microbial contamination such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus, and aflatoxin, botulinum toxin, algae toxins, the measurement and analysis in this case is more complicated. We need to conduct a lot of laboratory systematization and standardization of measurements, establishing multi-level database and continuously expand and improve the database according to the actual requirement, and eventually establish feasible standards and enter into practical use. Once the standard has been established, the advantages of bio-photonic technologies can be fully exploited. For the detection of food quality through biological photonic technology, we can not only obtain quantitative data, but also has the advantage of rapidity and sensitivity. After the sample is placed in a dark room, it usually require only 20 ~ 30min to give the results. This method is expected to play an important role in the food quality inspection.

The application of biosensor in the food hygiene detection
Detection of microorganisms in food has always applied traditional plate count method with the method being cumbersome, time-consuming and more and more difficult to meet the demand from the food inspection department. The emergence of biosensor revolutionized the bacteria measurement method, also making the microbial automatic detection during the food and industrial packaging process possible and the food flowing into the market more secure.

(1) Determination of bacteria and pathogens in the food
Microbial biosensor can be used for detecting microorganisms with the advantages of low price and durable utilization as well as being simple and convenient. However, because of the limited capability of micro-organisms to directly and indirectly discharge in the electrode, there is a shortcoming of low sensitivity. Furthermore, since the micro-organisms often contain various kinds of enzymes, the selectivity is generally not ideal. The development of fiber optic biosensor, immunity biosensor and nucleic acid detection sensor has opens up new approaches for microbial detection. The application of fiber optic sensors can be placed directly into the flask containing the growth solution, automatically monitoring of microbial growth. Such sensors can determine the byproducts of carbon dioxide emitted during the microbial metabolic process to estimate the number of bacteria. Applying the coupling of fiber optic sensors with nucleic acid amplification system (PCR) can detect the small amounts of food pathogens such as detecting the singe-cell gene of Listeria bacteria. Through enzyme-linked current immune sensor, we can detect the existence of the small amount of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

(2) Application of biosensor for the detection of toxins in food
In various kinds of food poisoning, bacterial food poisoning account for a large proportion. According to statistics, the cases of bacterial food poisoning occur each year accounted for 30% to 90% of the total cases of food poisoning with the number of poisoning people accounting for 60% to 90% of the total number of food poisoning. Bacterial food poisoning can generally be divided into three types: toxins type, infection type and mixed categories. Food inspection department has urgent need to develop a simple and rapid method for field inspection of food pathogenic toxin in order to protect people's health.
Application of microbial sensor for the detection of several mutagens AF-2, mitomycin, captan, aflatoxin B1, nitroguanidine has the detection limits being 1.6, 0.5, 0.9, 0.8, μg / mL, respectively.  Compared to Ames's method, it not only takes a shorter time (the former takes 60min while the latter takes at least 2 ~ 3d and as long as one week) but also has high sensitivity (for AF-2, the detection limit is 1.6μg / mL for the former but 10μg / mL for the latter one). The sensor operating strain is Bacillus subtilis. It is known that the DNA of the wild-type strain (Rec +), after being subject to chemical damage, can be repaired through molecular recombination, and thus ensure the continuous proliferation of the bacteria. On the contrary, stain (Rec-) deficient in this self-repairing ability will lose the proliferation capability and dead after being subject to chemical damage on their DNA. The Rec + and Rec- strains are fixed to the surface of a pair of oxygen electrodes, constituting mutagenic sensor.

(3) Application of biological sensors for detection pesticide residues in food
Given the cases of poisoning after eating food containing pesticide occur frequently, there is a urgent demand from health authorities for rapid detection technology in respond to poisoning. The traditional method for pesticide analysis not only requires expensive equipment, and the method is also cumbersome, time-consuming and can neither be subject to grassroots-oriented applications, nor field application while biosensor has demonstrated its unique advantages in these issues.

People has applied conductivity biosensor to the determination of organophosphorus pesticide methyl marathon, marathon ethyl, trichlorfon, diethyl propyl phosphoric acid contained in the food, the detection limit was 5 × 10-7,1 × 10-8,5 × 10-7,5 × 10-11mol / L, respectively. Fernando has applied Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor (LAPS) for measuring the organophosphate pesticides and amino methyl ester with the biological sensitive material being acetylcholinesterase from electric eel, being able to detect 10 mmol/L marathon and bendiocarb. For other pesticides such as monocrotophos, dicrotophos, dichlorvos, Mevinphos, diazinon and aldicarb, the detectable concentration limit is higher. This sensor has a high detection speed with being able to detect eight samples within a few minutes with high accuracy and can be recycled for using after the treatment of resurrection agent.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Dimethyl dodecanedioate Dimethyl dodecanedioate 1731-79-9 C14H26O4
2-CHLOROBIPHENYL 2-CHLOROBIPHENYL 2051-60-7 C12H9Cl
Pamoic acid Pamoic acid 130-85-8 C23H16O6
BUTYL OLEATE BUTYL OLEATE 142-77-8 C22H42O2
4-Chlorobiphenyl 4-Chlorobiphenyl 2051-62-9 C12H9Cl
cis-11-Eicosenoic acid cis-11-Eicosenoic acid 5561-99-9 C20H38O2
4,4'-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 4,4'-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 2050-68-2 C12H8Cl2
CIS-4,7,10,13,16,19-DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID ETHYL ESTER CIS-4,7,10,13,16,19-DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID ETHYL ESTER 84494-72-4 C24H36O2
2-HydroxyMyristic Acid 2-HydroxyMyristic Acid 2507-55-3 C14H28O3
3-CHLOROBIPHENYL 3-CHLOROBIPHENYL 2051-61-8 C12H9Cl
CAPRIC ACID SODIUM SALT CAPRIC ACID SODIUM SALT 1002-62-6 C10H19NaO2
SODIUM MYRISTATE SODIUM MYRISTATE 822-12-8 C14H27NaO2
N-CAPROIC ACID SODIUM SALT N-CAPROIC ACID SODIUM SALT 10051-44-2 C6H11NaO2
11C,14C-EICOSADIENOIC ACID 11C,14C-EICOSADIENOIC ACID 2091-39-6 C20H36O2
ELAIDIC ACID METHYL ESTER ELAIDIC ACID METHYL ESTER 1937-62-8 C19H36O2
8-METHYLNONANOIC ACID 8-METHYLNONANOIC ACID 5963-14-4 C10H20O2
2,2',3,4,4',5'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,4,4',5'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 35065-28-2 C12H4Cl6
MALEIC ACID MONOSODIUM SALT MALEIC ACID MONOSODIUM SALT 3105-55-3 C4H3NaO4
2,4,5-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,4,5-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 15862-07-4 C12H7Cl3
2,2',5,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',5,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 35693-99-3 C12H6Cl4
3,4-Dichlorobiphenyl 3,4-Dichlorobiphenyl 2974-92-7 C12H8Cl2
2,2',4,5,5'-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',4,5,5'-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 37680-73-2 C12H5Cl5
MYRISTOYL CHOLINE CHLORIDE MYRISTOYL CHOLINE CHLORIDE 4277-89-8 C19H40ClNO2
2,4-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,4-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 33284-50-3 C12H8Cl2
2,2',4,4',5,5'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 35065-27-1 C12H4Cl6
MYRISTOLEIC ACID MYRISTOLEIC ACID 544-64-9 C14H26O2
N,N-Dimethyldodecanamide N,N-Dimethyldodecanamide 3007-53-2 C14H29NO
2,4',5-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,4',5-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 16606-02-3 C12H7Cl3
2,2'-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2'-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 13029-08-8 C12H8Cl2
TRANS-11-OCTADECENOIC ACID METHYL ESTER TRANS-11-OCTADECENOIC ACID METHYL ESTER 6198-58-9 C19H36O2
CIS-8,11,14-EICOSATRIENOIC ACID CIS-8,11,14-EICOSATRIENOIC ACID 1783-84-2 C20H34O2
2,2',3,3',4,5,6'-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,3',4,5,6'-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 38411-25-5 C12H3Cl7
2,2',3,4,4',5-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,4,4',5-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 35694-06-5 C12H4Cl6
DODECANOIC-2,2-D2 ACID DODECANOIC-2,2-D2 ACID 64118-39-4 C12H22D2O2
ISOSTEARIC ACID ISOSTEARIC ACID 22890-21-7 C18H36O2
2,3',4',6-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3',4',6-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 41464-46-4 C12H6Cl4
OCTADECANOIC ACID-1-13C OCTADECANOIC ACID-1-13C 85541-42-0 C18H36O2
CIS-11-EICOSENOIC ACID METHYL ESTER CIS-11-EICOSENOIC ACID METHYL ESTER 2390-09-2 C21H40O2
RICINOLEIC ACID ETHYL ESTER RICINOLEIC ACID ETHYL ESTER 55066-53-0 C21H40O3
TRANS-9,10-EPOXYSTEARIC ACID METHYL ESTER TRANS-9,10-EPOXYSTEARIC ACID METHYL ESTER 6084-76-0 C19H36O3
DECACHLOROBIPHENYL DECACHLOROBIPHENYL 2051-24-3 C12Cl10
2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 35065-29-3 C12H3Cl7
2,4,6-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,4,6-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 35693-92-6 C12H7Cl3
ANANDAMIDE ANANDAMIDE 94421-68-8 C22H37NO2
OLEYL ACETATE OLEYL ACETATE 693-80-1 C20H38O2
METHYL 12-HYDROXYSTEARATE METHYL 12-HYDROXYSTEARATE 141-23-1 C19H38O3
17-OCTADECYNOIC ACID 17-OCTADECYNOIC ACID 34450-18-5 C18H32O2
ARACHIDONIC ACID ETHYL ESTER ARACHIDONIC ACID ETHYL ESTER 1808-26-0 C22H36O2
Isooctyl oleate Isooctyl oleate C26H50O2
DIMETHYL TETRADECANEDIOATE DIMETHYL TETRADECANEDIOATE 5024-21-5 C16H30O4
2,4,4'-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,4,4'-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 7012-37-5 C12H7Cl3
2,3-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 16605-91-7 C12H8Cl2
METHYL STEARATE METHYL STEARATE 27234-05-5 C19H38O2
2,2',5-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',5-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 37680-65-2 C12H7Cl3
2,4,4',5-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,4,4',5-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 32690-93-0 C12H6Cl4
2,2',3,3',4,4',6-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,3',4,4',6-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 52663-71-5 C12H3Cl7
2',3,4-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 2',3,4-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 38444-86-9 C12H7Cl3
2,2',5,6'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',5,6'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 41464-41-9 C12H6Cl4
2,2',3,3',6,6'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,3',6,6'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 38411-22-2 C12H4Cl6
2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 39635-31-9 C12H3Cl7
2',3,4,4',5-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2',3,4,4',5-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 65510-44-3 C12H5Cl5
2',3,5-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 2',3,5-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 37680-68-5 C12H7Cl3
3,3',4,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 3,3',4,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 32598-13-3 C12H6Cl4
2,3,4',5,6-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,4',5,6-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 68194-11-6 C12H5Cl5
HEXADECANOIC-2,2-D2 ACID HEXADECANOIC-2,2-D2 ACID 62689-96-7 C16H30D2O2
2,3,3',5,5'-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,3',5,5'-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 39635-32-0 C12H5Cl5
2,3,4'-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,4'-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 38444-85-8 C12H7Cl3
ADRENIC ACID ADRENIC ACID 28874-58-0 C22H36O2
2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-OCTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-OCTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2136-99-4 C12H2Cl8
3,3'-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 3,3'-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 2050-67-1 C12H8Cl2
2,2',3,4,5,6'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,4,5,6'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 68194-15-0 C12H4Cl6
METHYL 2-HYDROXYOCTADECANOATE METHYL 2-HYDROXYOCTADECANOATE 2420-35-1 C19H38O3
2,2',3,5,5',6-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,5,5',6-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 52663-63-5 C12H4Cl6
2,3,4,4',5-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,4,4',5-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 74472-37-0 C12H5Cl5
2,3',4,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3',4,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 73575-52-7 C12H6Cl4
2,3,3',5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,3',5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 41464-49-7 C12H6Cl4
2,5-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,5-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 34883-39-1 C12H8Cl2
2-HYDROXYDECANOIC ACID 2-HYDROXYDECANOIC ACID 5393-81-7 C10H20O3
2,3',5-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3',5-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 38444-81-4 C12H7Cl3
2,2',3,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 36559-22-5 C12H6Cl4
3,3',4,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 3,3',4,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 41464-48-6 C12H6Cl4
2,3,4,4',5,6-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,4,4',5,6-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 41411-63-6 C12H4Cl6
METHYL 12-OXOOCTADECANOATE METHYL 12-OXOOCTADECANOATE 2380-27-0 C19H36O3
2,2',3,4,5,5',6-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,4,5,5',6-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 52712-05-7 C12H3Cl7
2,2',3,3',4,5',6-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,3',4,5',6-HEPTACHLOROBIPHENYL 40186-70-7 C12H3Cl7
2,2',6,6'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',6,6'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 15968-05-5 C12H6Cl4
2,2',3,3',4,6'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,3',4,6'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 38380-05-1 C12H4Cl6
2,2',3,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',3,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 41464-39-5 C12H6Cl4
2,3,3'-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,3'-TRICHLOROBIPHENYL 38444-84-7 C12H7Cl3
2,2',4,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,2',4,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2437-79-8 C12H6Cl4
2,3,4,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,4,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 33025-41-1 C12H6Cl4
3,3',4,4',5,5'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 32774-16-6 C12H4Cl6
DIMETHYL OCTADECANEDIOATE DIMETHYL OCTADECANEDIOATE 1472-93-1 C20H38O4
(9Z,12E)-9,12-TETRADECADIEN-1-YL ACETATE (9Z,12E)-9,12-TETRADECADIEN-1-YL ACETATE 31654-77-0 C16H28O2
2',3,4,5,5'-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2',3,4,5,5'-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 70424-70-3 C12H5Cl5
2,6-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 2,6-DICHLOROBIPHENYL 33146-45-1 C12H8Cl2
CIS-9-TETRADECENYL ACETATE CIS-9-TETRADECENYL ACETATE 35153-15-2 C14H28O
2,3,4,5,6-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,4,5,6-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL 18259-05-7 C12H5Cl5
2,3,3',4,4',5-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3,3',4,4',5-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL 38380-08-4 C12H4Cl6
2,3',4',5-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 2,3',4',5-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 32598-11-1 C12H6Cl4
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