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Ethylbenzene

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Products Intro: Product Name:Ethylenzene
CAS:100-41-4
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CAS:100-41-4
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Products Intro: Product Name:ethylbenzene
CAS:100-41-4
Purity:99% Package:5KG;1KG

Lastest Price from Ethylbenzene manufacturers

  • Ethylbenzene
  • US $1.00 / KG
  • 2019-07-12
  • CAS:100-41-4
  • Min. Order: 1KG
  • Purity: 99%
  • Supply Ability: 25kg
  • EB
  • US $120.00-900.00 / kg
  • 2018-12-29
  • CAS:100-41-4
  • Min. Order: 10kg
  • Purity: 99.8%
  • Supply Ability: 500kg/month
  • EB
  • US $1.00 / KG
  • 2018-09-13
  • CAS:
  • Min. Order: 500KG
  • Purity: 99.9%
  • Supply Ability: 500kg
Ethylbenzene Chemical Properties
Melting point −95 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 136 °C(lit.)
density 0.867 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 3.7 (vs air)
vapor pressure 28.69 psi ( 55 °C)
refractive index n20/D 1.495(lit.)
Fp 72 °F
storage temp. 0-6°C
solubility 0.2g/l
form Liquid
color Colorless
OdorAromatic.
Relative polarity0.117
explosive limit1.0-7.8%(V)
Water Solubility 0.0206 g/100 mL
FreezingPoint -95℃
Merck 14,3765
BRN 1901871
Henry's Law Constant13.9(x 10-3 atm?m3/mol) at 45.00 °C, 15.1 at 50.00 °C, 17.1 at 55.00 °C, 20.1 at 60.00 °C, 20.9 at 65.00 °C, 22.7 at 70.00 °C, 34.3 at 80.00 °C (static headspace-GC, Park et al., 2004)
Exposure limitsTLV-TWA 100 ppm (~433 mg/m3) (ACGIH, NIOSH, MSHA, and OSHA); STEL 125 ppm (541 mg/m3) (ACGIH); IDLH 2000 ppm (NIOSH).
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents. Flammable.
CAS DataBase Reference100-41-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceEthylbenzene(100-41-4)
EPA Substance Registry SystemBenzene, ethyl-(100-41-4)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes F+,Xn,Xi,F,T
Risk Statements 63-11-20/22-36/38-40-48/20-65-20-48/20/22-38-22-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-2017/11/20
Safety Statements 9-16-29-33-24/25-36/37-36-45-36/37/39-26-23-53-7-24-62
RIDADR UN 1175 3/PG 2
WGK Germany 1
RTECS KI5775000
10
Autoignition Temperature810 °F
TSCA Yes
HS Code 2902 60 00
HazardClass 3
PackingGroup II
Hazardous Substances Data100-41-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
ToxicityLD50 orally in rats: 5.46 g/kg (Smyth)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Ethylbenzene Usage And Synthesis
UsesEthylbenzene is used primarily to make styrene monomer (SM) [1]counting greater than 99%. At less than 1%, it is used as a solvent[2], in fuels[3], or as a starting material[4] to make other chemicals.

[1] Ethylbenzene is mainly used in the manufacture of styrene, which is the raw material of producing styrene-based polymers that are widely used in products such as packaging, kitchen utensils and electronic equipment housing.2
[2] Solvents in a variety of Industries
Which industries
How it is used
Machinery Mfg. and Repair
Solvents
Rubber Manufacture
Solvents
Paint Manufacture
Hydrocarbon Solvents
Wood Stains and Varnishes
Varnish Solvent
Paper Coating
Solvents
Electroplating
Vapors Degreasing Solvents

[3] Ethyl benzene (C6H5C2H5) is the smallest aromatic hydrocarbon molecule with C C key chain structure, and the C C single bond adjacent to benzene ring is far more weaker than those of other chemical bonds thus it is the most easily broken key. It is the characteristic structure of single chain alternative fuels such as n-propylbenzene n-butylbenzene in diesel oil and aviation kerosene.
[4] Ethylbenzene may be used as a starting material to synthesize: (1) Acetophenone via selection oxidation in the presence of potassium dichromate supported on neutral alumina and using air as the oxidizing agent. (2) Styrene via dehydrogenation over nanodiamonds in an oxygen-lean environment.
Ethylbenzene ProductionEthylbenzene is currently used on a large scale industrially for the production of styrene monomer. Ethylbenzene may be produced by a number of chemical processes but one process which has achieved a significant degree of commercial success is the alkylation of benzene with ethylene in the presence of a solid, acidic zeolite catalyst.
A preferred catalyst includes the synthetic zeolite identified in this specification as MCM-22.In the production of ethylbenzene by this process; ethylene is used as the alkylating agent and is reacted with benzene in the presence of the catalyst at certain temperatures.
Production of ethylbenzene involves the liquid-phase reaction of ethylene with benzene
C2H4 + C6H6 C8H10
Undesirable reaction occurred by the formation of Di-ethyl benzene from reaction of ethylbenzene with ethylene.
C8H10 + C2H4 C10H14
A third reaction also occurs, in which Di-ethyl benzene reacts with benzene to form ethylbenzene.
C10H14 + C6H6 2C8H10
Health EffectsEthylbenzene has low acute and chronic toxicity for humans. It is toxic to the central nervous system and is an irritant of mucous membranes and the eyes. Ethylbenzene exposure might be associated with hearing loss, neurobehavioral function impairment, and imbalance of neurotransmitters, and it is an inducer of liver microsomal enzymes. The toxicity is stronger along with the rise of exposure volume, see the table below:
 
Exposure Volume in air
Health effects
200 ppm
Ethylbenzene vapor has a transient irritant effect on human eyes
1000 ppm
On the first exposure it is very irritating and causes tearing, but tolerance rapidly develops.
2000 ppm
Eye irritation and lacrimation are immediate and severe.
2,000-5,000 ppm
Human exposures of ethylbenzene are associated with dizziness and vertigo
5000 ppm
It causes intolerable irritation of the eyes and nose

Carcinogenicity
CLASSIFICATION: D; not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity.
BASIS FOR CLASSIFICATION: nonclassifiable due to lack of animal bioassays and human studies.
Chemical PropertiesEthylbenzene is a colorless, flammable liquid that smells like gasoline. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors are heavier than air. It belongs to the family of Substituted Benzenes. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzene substituted at one or more positions. It is found in natural products such as coal tar and petroleum and is also found in manufactured products such as inks, insecticides, and paints. Ethylbenzene is used primarily to make another chemical, styrene. Other uses include as a solvent, in fuels, and to make other chemicals.
Chemical PropertiesEthylbenzene is a colorless liquid. Pungent aromatic odor. The Odor Threshold is 0.0920.60 ppm
Physical propertiesClear, colorless liquid with a sweet, gasoline-like odor. At 40 °C, the average odor threshold concentration and the lowest concentration at which an odor was detected were 550 and 150 μg/L, respectively. Similarly, at 25 °C, the average taste threshold concentration and the lowest concentration at which a taste was detected were 780 and 390 μg/L, respectively (Young et al., 1996). The average least detectable odor threshold concentrations in water at 60 °C and in air at 40 °C were 2.4 and 72 μg/L, respectively (Alexander et al., 1982). Cometto-Mu?iz and Cain (1994) reported an average nasal pungency threshold concentration of 10,100 ppmv.
UsesAnesthetic.
UsesEthyl benzene is used as a solvent and as anintermediate to produce styrene monomer.
Definitionethylbenzene: A colourless flammableliquid, C6H5C2H5; r.d. 0.867;m.p. –95°C; b.p. 136°C. It is madefrom ethene and ethybenzene by aFriedel–Crafts reaction and is usedin making phenylethene (for polystyrene).
General DescriptionA clear colorless liquid with an aromatic odor. Flash point 59°F. Less dense than water (at 7.2 lb / gal) and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors heavier than air. Used as a solvent and to make other chemicals.
Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Insoluble in water.
Reactivity ProfileEthylenzene can react vigorously with strong oxidizing materials .
HazardToxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption; irritant to skin and eyes. Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Possible carcinogen.
Health HazardThe acute toxicity of ethyl benzene is low.At high concentrations its exposure producesnarcotic effects similar to benzene andtoluene. A 4-hour exposure to a concentrationof 4000 ppm proved fatal to rats. The lethaldose varies with species. Deaths resulted fromintense congestion and edema of the lungs.
Other than the narcotic effects, ethyl benzeneexhibits irritant properties that are somewhatgreater than those of benzene or toluene.It is an irritant to the skin, eyes, and nose.Repeated contact with the liquid may causereddening of the skin and blistering. Thevapors at 200 ppm may cause mild irritationof the eyes in humans, which may becomesevere and lacrimating at 2000–3000 ppm.
The oral toxicity in animals was foundto be low to very low. An LD50 value of3500 mg/kg for rats has been documented(NIOSH 1986). No adverse effects werenoted in animals subjected to chronic inhalationexposure at below 400 ppm. At higherdosages only the liver was affected (ACGIH1986). Ethyl benzene is eliminated from thebody by metabolic excretion. The urinarymetabolites in humans are mainly mandelicacid, C6H5CH(OH)COOH, and benzoylformicacid, C6H5COCOOH.
Health HazardRecommended Personal Protective Equipment: Self-contained breathing apparatus; safety goggles; Symptoms Following Exposure: Inhalation may cause irritation of nose, dizziness, depression. Moderate irritation of eye with corneal injury possible. Irritates skin and may cause blisters; General Treatment for Exposure: INHALATION: remove victim to fresh air, keep him warm, and get medical help promptly; if breathing stops give artificial respiration. INGESTION: induce vomiting only upon physician's approval; material in lung may cause chemical pneumonitis. SKIN AND EYES: wash for 15 min. with water and get medical attention; remove and wash contaminating clothing before use; Toxicity by Inhalation (Threshold Limit Value): 100 ppm; Short-Term Exposure Limits: 200 ppm for 30 min.; Toxicity by Ingestion: Grade 2;LD50 = 0.5 to 5 g/kg (rat); Late Toxicity: Data not available; Vapor (Gas) Irritant Characteristics: Vapors are moderately irritating; Liquid or Solid Irritant Characteristics: Causes smarting of the skin and first-degree burns on short exposure and may cause secondary burns on long exposure; Odor Threshold: 140 ppm.
Chemical ReactivityReactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
Safety ProfileModerately toxic by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by inhalation and skin contact. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Human systemic effects by inhalation: eye, sleep, and pulmonary changes. An eye and skin irritant. Human mutation data reported. The liquid is an irritant to the skin and mucous membranes. A concentration of 0.1% of the vapor in air is an irritant to human eyes, and a concentration of 0.2% is extremely irritating at first, then causes dizziness, irritation of the nose and throat, and a sense of constriction in the chest. Exposure of guinea pigs to 1% concentration has been reported as causing ataxia, loss of consciousness, tremor of the extremities, and finally death through respiratory failure. The pathological findings were congestion of the brain and lungs with edema. A very dangerous fire and explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. Emitted from modern budding materials (CENEAR 69,22,91). When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
Potential ExposureEthyl benzene is used in styrene manufacture and in synthesis of p-nitroacetophenone; in the manufacture of cellulose acetate, and synthetic rubber. It is also used as a solvent or diluent; and as a component of automotive and aviation gasoline. Significant quantities of EB are present in mixed xylenes. These are used as dilatants in the paint industry, in agricultural sprays for insecticides and in gasoline blends (which may contain as much as 20% EB). In light of the large quantities of EB produced and the diversity of products in which it is found, there may exist environmental sources for ethylbenzene, e.g., vaporization during solvent use; pyrolysis of gasoline and emitted vapors at filling stations. Groups of individuals who are exposed to EB to the greatest extent and could represent potential pools for the expression of EB toxicity include: (1) individuals in commercial situations where petroleum products or by-products are manufactured e.g., rubber or plastics industry); (2) individuals residing in areas with high atmospheric smog generated by motor vehicle emissions
SourceDetected in distilled water-soluble fractions of 87 octane gasoline (2.38 mg/L), 94 octane gasoline (7.42 mg/L), Gasohol (3.54 mg/L), No. 2 fuel oil (0.21 mg/L), jet fuel A (0.41 mg/L), diesel fuel (0.17 mg/L), military jet fuel JP-4 (1.57 mg/L) (Potter, 1996), new motor oil (0.15 to 0.17 μg/L), and used motor oil (117 to 124 μg/L) (Chen et al., 1994). The average volume percent and estimated mole fraction in American Petroleum Institute PS-6 gasoline are 1.570 and 0.017, respectively (Poulsen et al., 1992). Diesel fuel obtained from a service station in Schlieren, Switzerland contained ethylbenzene at a concentration of 690 mg/L (Schluep et al., 2001). Kaplan et al. (1996) determined ethylbenzene concentrations in four different grades of gasolines. Average ethylbenzene concentrations were 9.1 g/L in regular unleaded gasoline, 8.0 g/L in leaded gasoline, 9.3 g/L in unleaded plus gasoline, and 10.1 g/L in Super unleaded gasoline. Thomas and Delfino (1991) equilibrated contaminant-free groundwater collected from Gainesville, FL with individual fractions of three individual petroleum products at 24–25 °C for 24 h. The aqueous phase was analyzed for organic compounds via U.S. EPA approved test method 602. Average ethylbenzene concentrations reported in water-soluble fractions of unleaded gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel were 2.025, 0.314, and 0.104 mg/L, respectively. When the authors analyzed the aqueous-phase via U.S. EPA approved test method 610, average ethylbenzene concentrations in water-soluble fractions of unleaded gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel were lower, i.e., 1.423, 0.171, and 0.079 mg/L, respectively.
Schauer et al. (1999) reported ethylbenzene in a diesel-powered medium-duty truck exhaust at an emission rate of 470 μg/km. California Phase II reformulated gasoline contained ethylbenzene at a concentration of 12,800 mg/kg. Gas-phase tailpipe emission rates from gasoline-powered automobiles with and without catalytic converters were 4.18 and 434.0 mg/km, respectively (Schauer et al., 2002).
Detected in 1-yr aged coal tar film and bulk coal tar at concentrations of 350 and 2,100 mg/kg, respectively (Nelson et al., 1996). A high-temperature coal tar contained ethylbenzene at an average concentration of 0.02 wt % (McNeil, 1983).
Identified as one of 140 volatile constituents in used soybean oils collected from a processing plant that fried various beef, chicken, and veal products (Takeoka et al., 1996).
Schauer et al. (2001) measured organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds, gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds, and particle-phase organic compounds from the residential (fireplace) combustion of pine, oak, and eucalyptus. The gas-phase emission rate of ethylbenzene was 22.9 mg/kg of pine burned. Emission rates of ethylbenzene were not measured during the combustion of oak and eucalyptus.
Environmental fateBiological. Phenylacetic acid was reported to be the biooxidation product of ethylbenzene by Nocardia sp. in soil using n-hexadecane or n-octadecane as the substrate. In addition, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was reported to metabolize ethylbenzene to 2- and 3- hydroxybenzaldehyde with methane as the substrate (Keck et al., 1989). Ethylbenzene was oxidized by a strain of Micrococcus cerificans to phenylacetic acid (Pitter and Chudoba, 1990). A culture of Nocardia tartaricans ATCC 31190, growing in a hexadecane medium, oxidized ethylbenzene to 1-phenethanol, which oxidized to acetophenone (Cox and Goldsmith, 1979). When ethylbenzene (5 mg/L) was statically incubated in the dark at 25 °C with yeast extract and settled domestic wastewater inoculum, complete biodegradation with rapid acclimation was observed after 7 d. At a concentration of 10 mg/L, significant degradation occurred with gradual adaptation. Percent losses of 69, 78, 87, and 100 were obtained after 7, 14, 21, and 28-d incubation periods, respectively (Tabak et al., 1981). Olsen and Davis (1990) reported a first-order degradation rate constant of 0.07/yr and a half-life of 37 d.
Surface Water. The evaporation half-life of ethylbenzene in surface water (1 m depth) at 25 °C is estimated to be from 5 to 6 h (Mackay and Leinonen, 1975). Estimated half-lives of ethylbenzene (3.3 μg/L) from an experimental marine mesocosm during the spring (8–16 °C), summer (20–22 °C), and winter (3–7 °C) were 20, 2.1, and 13 d, respectively (Wakeham et al., 1983).
Photolytic. Irradiation of ethylbenzene (λ <2537 ?) at low temperatures will form hydrogen, styrene, and free radicals (Calvert and Pitts, 1966).
Chemical/Physical. Complete combustion in air yields carbon dioxide and water vapor. Ethylbenzene will not hydrolyze in water (Kollig, 1993).
ShippingUN1175 Ethylbenzene, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid
IncompatibilitiesVapors may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids,oxoacids, and epoxides. Attacks plastics and rubber. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors.
Waste DisposalDissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed
Tag:Ethylbenzene(100-41-4) Related Product Information
Ethylbenzene Xylenes, ACS, 98.5+% (Assay, isomers plus ethylbenzene) 4-Ethylphenol 4-Nitroethylbenzene p-Nitroethylbenzene 2-BROMO-2-METHYLPROPIOPHENONE Bromodiphenylmethane 1,2-DIBROMO-1,2-DIPHENYLETHANE Triphenylmethyl bromide 4'-Bromopropiophenone 4-BROMOBENZOPHENONE 2-BROMO-2-PHENYLACETOPHENONE 1-Bromo-4-tert-butylbenzene 4'-Bromoacetophenone 4-Bromoethylbenzene 2,3,4,5,6-PENTABROMOETHYLBENZENE 3'-Bromopropiophenone 3'-Bromoacetophenone 2'-Bromoacetophenone