ChemicalBook > Product Catalog >Inorganic chemistry >Elementary substance >Ruthenium

Ruthenium

Ruthenium Suppliers list
Company Name: Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
Tel: +86-371-55531817
Email: info@dakenchem.com
Products Intro: Product Name:Ruthenium
CAS:7440-18-8
Purity:99% Package:100g,500g,1kg,5kg,10kg
Company Name: Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
Tel: 0371-55170693
Email: info@tianfuchem.com
Products Intro: CAS:7440-18-8
Purity:99% Package:500G;1KG;5KG;25KG
Company Name: Mainchem Co., Ltd.
Tel: +86-0592-6210733
Email: sales@mainchem.com
Products Intro: Product Name:Ruthenium
CAS:7440-18-8
Company Name: AB PharmaTech,LLC
Tel: 323-480-4688
Email: sales01@abpharmatechusa.com
Products Intro: Product Name:Ruthenium
CAS:7440-18-8
Purity:99.95% Package:10g,100g
Company Name: career henan chemical co
Tel: +86-371-86658258
Email: sales@coreychem.com
Products Intro: Product Name:Ruthenium
CAS:7440-18-8
Purity:95%-99% Package:1kg;1USD

Lastest Price from Ruthenium manufacturers

  • Ruthenium
  • US $1.00 / kg
  • 2018-12-24
  • CAS: 7440-18-8
  • Min. Order: 1kg
  • Purity: 95%-99%
  • Supply Ability: 100kg
Ruthenium Basic information
History, Occurrence, and Uses Physical Properties Production Reactions
Product Name:Ruthenium
Synonyms:Ruthenium-carbon catalyst;Ruthenium, powder 20 Mesh;5% Ruthenium-carbon catalyst;Ruthenium powder, -200 mesh, 99.99% trace metals basis excluding Ca;Ruthenium sponge, -20 mesh, 99.95% trace metals basis;Ruthenium cubes, 6mm square, 99.9% trace metals basis;Ruthenium powder, -325 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis;Ruthenium, 5% on activated carbon
CAS:7440-18-8
MF:Ru
MW:101.07
EINECS:231-127-1
Product Categories:Ru;Metal and Ceramic Science;Metals;Inorganics;Catalysts for Organic Synthesis;Classes of Metal Compounds;Heterogeneous Catalysts;Ru (Ruthenium) Compounds;Synthetic Organic Chemistry;Transition Metal Compounds;AA Standard SolutionsSpectroscopy;AAS;Alphabetic;ChlorideAnalytical Standards;Matrix Selection;Reference/Calibration Standards;RSpectroscopy;Single Solution;Standard Solutions;Fuel Cell CatalystsCatalysis and Inorganic Chemistry;Alternative Energy;Materials Science;Ru Catalysts;Ruthenium;metal or element;supported metal catalyst;chemical reaction,pharm,electronic,materials
Mol File:7440-18-8.mol
Ruthenium Structure
Ruthenium Chemical Properties
Melting point 2310 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 3900 °C(lit.)
density 1.025 g/mL at 25 °C
storage temp. Flammables area
form sponge
color Grayish-white
resistivity7.1 μΩ-cm, 0°C
Water Solubility insoluble
Sensitive Lachrymatory
Merck 14,8299
Stability:Stable. Powder is highly flammable.
CAS DataBase Reference7440-18-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceRuthenium(7440-18-8)
EPA Substance Registry SystemRuthenium(7440-18-8)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes F,C,Xn
Risk Statements 20-37-11-34
Safety Statements 22-36-38-24/25-16-14-45-36/37/39-27-26-23
RIDADR UN 3178 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
Hazard Note Corrosive/Lachrymatory
TSCA Yes
HS Code 3822 00 00
HazardClass 4.1
PackingGroup III
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Ruthenium Usage And Synthesis
History, Occurrence, and UsesRuthenium was recognized as a new element by G.W. Osann in 1828. He found it in insoluble residues from aqua regia extract of native platinum from alluvial deposits in the Ural mountains of Russia. He named it Ruthen after the Latin name Ruthenia for Russia. The discovery of this element, however, is credited to Klaus who in 1844 found that Osann’s ruthenium oxide was very impure and isolated pure Ru metal from crude platinum residues insoluble in aqua regia.
Ruthenium occurs in nature natively, found in minor quantities associated with other platinum metals. Its abundance in the earth’s crust is estimated to be 0.001 mg/kg, comparable to that of rhodium and iridium.
Ruthenium alloyed to platinum, palladium, titanium and molybdenum have many applications. It is an effective hardening element for platinum and palladium. Such alloys have high resistance to corrosion and oxidation and are used to make electrical contacts for resistance to severe wear. Ruthenium–palladium alloys are used in jewelry, decorations, and dental work. Addition of 0.1% ruthenium markedly improves corrosion resistance of titanium. Ruthenium alloys make tips for fountain pen nibs, instrument pivots, and electrical goods. Ruthenium catalysts are used in selective hydrogenation of carbonyl groups to convert aldehydes and ketones to alcohols.
Physical PropertiesHard silvery-white metal; hexagonal close-packed crystal structure; density 12.41 g/cm3 at 20°C; melts at 2,334°C; vaporizes at 4,150°C; electrical resistivity 7.1 microhm-cm at 0°C; hardness (annealed) 200-350 Vickers units; Young’s modulus 3.0×104 tons/in2; magnetic susceptibility 0.427 cm3/g; thermal neutron absorption cross section 2.6 barns; insoluble in water, cold or hot acids, and aqua regia; can be brought into aqueous phase by fusion of finely divided metal with alkaline hydroxides, peroxides, carbonates and cyanides.
ProductionRuthenium is derived from platinum metal ores. Method of production depends on the type of ore. However, the extraction processes are similar to those of other noble metals (see Platinum, Rhodium and Iridium). Ruthenium, like Rhodium, may be obtained from accumulated anode sludges in electrolytic refining of nickel or copper from certain types of ores. Also, residues from refining nickel by Mond carbonyl process contain ruthenium and other precious metals at very low concentrations. The extraction processes are very lengthy, involving smelting with suitable fluxes and acid treatments.
Metals, such as gold, platinum, and palladium, are separated by digesting refining residues with aqua regia. These metals are soluble in aqua regia, leaving ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, osmium, and silver in the insoluble residue.
The treatment of this insoluble residue may vary. In one typical process, residue is subjected to fusion with sodium peroxide. Ruthenium and osmium are converted to water-soluble sodium ruthenate and osmate, which are leached with water. The aqueous solution is treated with chlorine gas and heated. The ruthenate and the osmate are converted to their tetroxides. Ruthenium tetroxide is distilled out and collected in hydrochloric acid. The tetroxide is converted into ruthenium chloride. Traces of osmium are removed from ruthenium chloride solution by boiling with nitric acid.
Nitric acid converts osmium to volatile osmium tetroxide but forms a nitrosyl complex with ruthenium that remains in the solution. After removal of trace osmium, the solution is treated with ammonium chloride. This precipitates ruthenium as crystals of ammonium chlororuthenate, NH4RuCl6. The precipitate is washed, dried, and ignited to form ruthenium black. This is reduced with hydrogen at 1,000°C to form very pure ruthenium powder.
ReactionsWhen heated in air at 500 to 700°C, ruthenium converts to its dioxide, RuO2, a black crystalline solid of rutile structure. A trioxide of ruthenium, RuO3, also is known; formed when the metal is heated above 1,000°C. Above 1,100°C the metal loses weight because trioxide partially volatilizes. Ruthenium also forms a tetroxide, RuO4, which, unlike osmium, is not produced by direct union of the elements.
Halogens react with the metal at elevated temperatures. Fluorine reacts with ruthenium at 300°C forming colorless vapors of pentafluoride, RuF5, which at ordinary temperatures converts to a green solid. Chlorine combines with the metal at 450°C to form black trichloride, RuCl3, which is insoluble in water. Ru metal at ambient temperature is attacked by chlorine water, bromine water, or alcoholic solution of iodine.
Ruthenium is stable in practically all acids including aqua regia. Fusion with an alkali in the presence of an oxidizing agent forms ruthenate, RuO42– and perruthenate, RuO4¯.
When finely-divided Ru metal is heated with carbon monoxide under 200 atm pressure, ruthenium converts to pentacarbonyl, Ru(CO)5, a colorless liquid that decomposes on heating to diruthenium nonacarbonyl, Ru2(CO)9, a yellow crystalline solid. Ruthenium reacts with cyclopentadiene in ether to form a sandwich complex, a yellow crystalline compound, bis(cyclopentadiene) ruthenium(0), also known as ruthenocene.
Chemical PropertiesBlack Powder
HistoryBerzelius and Osann in 1827 examined the residues left after dissolving crude platinum from the Ural mountains in aqua regia. While Berzelius found no unusual metals, Osann thought he found three new metals, one of which he named ruthenium. In 1844 Klaus, generally recognized as the discoverer, showed that Osann’s ruthenium oxide was very impure and that it contained a new metal. Klaus obtained 6 g of ruthenium from the portion of crude platinum that is insoluble in aqua regia. A member of the platinum group, ruthenium occurs native with other members of the group of ores found in the Ural mountains and in North and South America. It is also found along with other platinum metals in small but commercial quantities in pentlandite of the Sudbury, Ontario, nickel-mining region, and in pyroxinite deposits of South Africa. Natural ruthenium contains seven isotopes. Twenty-eight other isotopes and isomers are known, all of which are radioactive. The metal is isolated commercially by a complex chemical process, the final stage of which is the hydrogen reduction of ammonium ruthenium chloride, which yields a powder. The powder is consolidated by powder metallurgy techniques or by argon-arc welding. Ruthenium is a hard, white metal and has four crystal modifications. It does not tarnish at room temperatures, but oxidizes in air at about 800°C. The metal is not attacked by hot or cold acids or aqua regia, but when potassium chlorate is added to the solution, it oxidizes explosively. It is attacked by halogens, hydroxides, etc. Ruthenium can be plated by electrodeposition or by thermal decomposition methods. The metal is one of the most effective hardeners for platinum and palladium, and is alloyed with these metals to make electrical contacts for severe wear resistance. A ruthenium–molybdenum alloy is said to be superconductive at 10.6 K. The corrosion resistance of titanium is improved a hundredfold by addition of 0.1% ruthenium. It is a versatile catalyst. Hydrogen sulfide can be split catalytically by light using an aqueous suspension of CdS particles loaded with ruthenium dioxide. It is thought this may have application to removal of H2S in oil refining and other industrial processes. Compounds in at least eight oxidation states have been found, but of these, the +2. +3. and +4 states are the most common. Ruthenium tetroxide, like osmium tetroxide, is highly toxic. In addition, it may explode. Ruthenium compounds show a marked resemblance to those of osmium. The metal is priced at about $25/g (99.95% pure).
UsesAntihypertensive
UsesAs substitute for platinum in jewelry; for pen nibs; as hardener in electrical contact alloys, electrical filaments; in ceramic colors; catalyst in synthesis of long chain hydrocarbons.
DefinitionMetallic element of atomic number 44, group VIII of the periodic table, aw 101.07, valences = 3, 4, 5, 6, 8. Seven stable isotopes.
Safety ProfileMost ruthenium compounds are poisons. Ruthenium is retained in the bones for a long time. Flammable in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. Violent reaction with ruthenium oxide. Explosive reaction with aqua rega + potassium chlorate. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of RuO, and Ru, which are hghly injurious to the eyes and lung and can produce nasal ulcerations. See also RUTHENIUM COMPOUNDS.
Ruthenium Preparation Products And Raw materials
Preparation Products1,4-Dicyanobutane-->Iridium-->RUTHENIUM TETROXIDE-->ammonia synthesis Ru catalyst-->NIPECOTAMIDE
Tag:Ruthenium(7440-18-8) Related Product Information
(R)-(+)-2,2'-[BIS(DIPHENYLPHOSPHINO)-1,1'-BINAPHTHYL]CHLORO(P-CYMENE)RUTHENIUM,(R)-(+)-2,2'-BIS(DIPHENYLPHOSPHINO)-1,1'-BINAPHTHALENECHLORO(P-CYMENE)RUTHENIUM CHLORIDE RUTHENIUM-103 (R)-2-[(R)-2-(DIPHENYLPHOSPHINO)FERROCENYL]-4-ISOPROPYL-2-OXAZOLINE TRIPHENYLPHOSPHINE RUTHENIUM(II) CHLORIDE COMPLEX Ruthenium dioxide CIS-DICHLOROBIS(2,2'-BIPYRIDINE)RUTHENIUM(II) DIHYDRATE BENZYL ISOCYANIDE Ruthenium acetylacetonate TERT-BUTYL ISOCYANIDE PHENYLSELENOL 1,1,3,3-TETRAMETHYLBUTYL ISOCYANIDE Tosylmethyl isocyanide CIS-BIS-(2,2'-BIPYRIDINE)DICHLORORUTHENIUM(II) RUTHENIUM CHLORIDE OXIDE, AMMONIATE Tris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II) chloride RUTHENIUM AMMONIUM CHLORIDE Ruthenium RUTHENIUM(+3)CHLORIDE HYDRATE,RUTHENIUM CHLORIDE, HYDROUS RUTHENIUM CHLORIDE