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91-20-3 Structure

91-20-3 Structure



[Molecular Formula]

[MDL Number]

[Molecular Weight]

[MOL File]

Chemical PropertiesBack Directory

white to almost white crystals, crystalline flakes
[mp ]

80-82 °C(lit.)
[bp ]

218 °C(lit.)
[density ]

[vapor density ]

4.4 (vs air)
[vapor pressure ]

0.03 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
[refractive index ]

[Fp ]

174 °F
[storage temp. ]

[Water Solubility ]

30 mg/L (25 ºC)
[Merck ]

[BRN ]

[CAS DataBase Reference]

91-20-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

[EPA Substance Registry System]

91-20-3(EPA Substance)
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

[Risk Statements ]

R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R40:Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R50/53:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R67:Vapors may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
R65:Harmful: May cause lung damage if swallowed.
R38:Irritating to the skin.
R11:Highly Flammable.
R39/23/24/25:Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R23/24/25:Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R52/53:Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
[Safety Statements ]

S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
S46:If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label .
S60:This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
S62:If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition-No smoking .
S7:Keep container tightly closed .

UN 1334 4.1/PG 3
[WGK Germany ]


[HazardClass ]

[PackingGroup ]

[HS Code ]

[Hazardous Substances Data]

91-20-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Raw materials]

PETROLEUM ETHER-->Biphenyl-->KAOLIN-->COAL TAR-->COAL TAR-->Indene-->ETHYLENE-->1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene-->DODECYLBENZENE-->Technical naphthalene-->Phenol oil
[Preparation Products]

Phthalic anhydride-->1-Naphthol-->2-Naphthol-->Benzoic acid-->1-Aminonaphthalene-->Glycerite-->Linolenic acid-->2-Amino-4,8-naphthalenedisulfonic acid-->DIBENZANTHRONE-->NAPHTHENIC ACID-->Peri acid-->1-Naphthalene acetic acid-->1'-Acetonaphthone-->1-Aminonaphthalene-6-sulfonic acid-->5-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid-->Vat Yellow 2-->1,4,5,8-Naphthalenetetracarboxylic acid-->2-Methylbutane-->1-Iodonaphthalene-->BUTYLNAPHTHALENESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT-->1,5-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid-->Vat Yellow 4-->Vat Brown 5-->Slushing agent,high efficiency-->SEC-BUTYLAMINE-->BARIUM DINONYLNAPHTHALENESULFONATE-->Slushing agent-->1,5-Dihydroxy naphthalene-->synthetic fiber oil QDC-201-->disodium methylenebisnaphthalenesulphonate-->1-Nitronaphthalene-->Sodium poly[(naphthaleneformaldehyde)sulfonate]-->2,6-DIMETHYLNAPHTHALENE-->Dispersing agent DN-->dispersing agent CNF-->1-Naphthol-5-sulfonic acid
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Reactivity Profile]

Vigorous reactions, sometimes amounting to explosions, can result from the contact between aromatic hydrocarbons, such as NAPHTHALENE, and strong oxidizing agents. They can react exothermically with bases and with diazo compounds. Substitution at the benzene nucleus occurs by halogenation (acid catalyst), nitration, sulfonation, and the Friedel-Crafts reaction. Naphthalene, camphor, glycerol, or turpentine will react violently with chromic anhydride [Haz. Chem. Data 1967. p 68]. Friedel-Crafts acylation of naphthalene using benzoyl chloride, catalyzed by AlCl3, must be conducted above the melting point of the mixture, or the reaction may be violent [Clar, E. et al., Tetrahedron, 1974, 30, 3296].
[Air & Water Reactions]

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.
[Health Hazard]

Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.
[Fire Hazard]

Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by friction, heat, sparks or flames. Some may burn rapidly with flare burning effect. Powders, dusts, shavings, borings, turnings or cuttings may explode or burn with explosive violence. Substance may be transported in a molten form at a temperature that may be above its flash point. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished.
Questions And AnswerBack Directory

Naphthalene is a white solid chemical that vaporizes easily. It has a strong smell. You can sometimes smell naphthalene in the air or in water. Called white tar and tar camphor, naphthalene is used in mothballs and moth flakes. Petroleum and coal contain naphthalene.
Naphthalene, the simplest of the fused or condensed ring hydrocarbon compounds composed of two benzene rings sharing two adjacent carbon atoms. Naphthalene is the most abundant single constituent of coal tar, a volatile product from the destructive distillation of coal, and is also formed in modern processes for the high-temperature cracking (breaking up of large molecules) of petroleum.
1-Methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene are naphthalene-related compounds. 1-Methylnaphthalene is a clear liquid and 2-methylnaphthalene is a solid; both can be smelled in air and in water at very low concentrations. 1-Methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene are used to make other chemicals such as dyes and resins. 2-Methylnaphthalene is also used to make vitamin K.

  1. In industry, naphthalene is used to manufacture a plastic called polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In public restrooms, naphthalene can be found in toilet deodorant blocks. At home, naphthalene can be found in moth repellents.
  2. Naphthalene balls are extensively used as household preservative of woolen clothes and as a deodorant tablet for the toilets, urinals, bathrooms etc. These are manufactured from naphthalene flakes by a tabletmaking machine having its ball shape die.
  3. Naphthalene is an important hydrocarbon raw material and is primarily used to manufacture phthalic anhydride and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, but is also used in moth repellents and toilet deodorant blocks.
  4. Naphthalene was used in liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite in organic solvents for the production of graphene sheets. It was used in preparation of carbon-coated Si 70 Sn 30 nanoparticles.
  5. It was used as fluorescent probe to study the aggregation behavior of sodium cholate.
  6. It was used to investigate influence of added short chain linear and branched alcohols on the binding of 1:1 complex of naphthalene and β-cyclodextrin.
[Health Hazard]

Most of the data available on the toxic effects of naphthalene have been derived from animal studies conducted either in vivo or with in vitro preparations.
Rats and mice breathing naphthalene vapors daily for a lifetime had irritated noses and nose tumors and irritated lungs. Some female mice had lung tumors. Some animals got cloudy eyes after ingesting it.
It is not clear if naphthalene causes reproductive problems in animals. Although there is no direct data showing that naphthalene can cause cancer in people, naphthalene exposure can lead to cancer in animals.
Exposure to large amounts of naphthalene may damage or destroy red blood cells, a condition called hemolytic anemia. Symptoms of hemolytic anemia are feeling very tired or restless, lack of appetite, and pale skin. Exposure to large amounts of naphthalene may also cause upset stomach, diarrhea, blood in the urine,and yellow-colored skin. Very young children and unborn children are at higher risk if they are exposed to naphthalene, especially if they ingest the chemical. Some infants have become ill when they were close to clothing or blankets stored in naphthalene mothballs.

Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. Poisoning from naphthalene destroys or changes red blood cells so they cannot carry oxygen. This can cause organ damage.
In humans, naphthalene is broken down to alpha-naphthol, which is linked to the development of hemolytic anemia. Kidney and liver damage may also occur. Alpha-naphthol and other metabolites are excreted in urine.
In animals, naphthalene breaks down into other compounds including alpha-naphthol, which may affect the lungs and eyes. Naphthalene was found in the milk of exposed cows, but the residues disappeared quickly after the cows were no longer exposed. Nearly all the naphthalene was broken down into other compounds and excreted in their urine.
Spectrum DetailBack Directory
[Spectrum Detail]

Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Naphthalene, 98%(91-20-3)
[Alfa Aesar]

Naphthalene, 99+%(91-20-3)
[Sigma Aldrich]


Naphthalene  Zone Refined (number of passes:23),>99.8%(GC)(91-20-3)
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