|Company Name:||J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. |
|Company Name:||Alfa Aesar |
|Biphenyl Chemical Properties|
|Melting point ||68-70 °C(lit.)|
|Boiling point ||255 °C(lit.)|
|vapor density ||5.31 (vs air)|
|vapor pressure ||9.46 mm Hg ( 115 °C)|
|refractive index ||1.475|
|Fp ||113 °C
|storage temp. ||0-6°C
|Water Solubility ||insoluble|
|Stability:||Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidising agents.|
|CAS DataBase Reference||92-52-4(CAS DataBase Reference)|
|NIST Chemistry Reference||Biphenyl(92-52-4)|
|EPA Substance Registry System||1,1'-Biphenyl(92-52-4)|
|Biphenyl Usage And Synthesis|
|Organic Chemicals||Biphenyl is also called phenyl benzene, it is formed by two connected phenyl compounds, is white or colorless to light yellow crystal plate, industrial products is slightly yellow with special fragrance. The melting temperature is 69.2 ℃, boiling point is 69.2 ℃. Insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents. Commonly used for organic synthesis precursor, is one of the key components of the organic high temperature heating medium. Its derivatives include benzidine, diphenyl ether, eight bromine diphenyl ether, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. Natural biphenyl exists in coal tar, crude oil and natural gas, the mass fraction is 0.20% to 0.20% in coal tar, current preparation methods of biphenyl include coal tar extraction and chemical synthesis. The chemical bond in the middle of biphenyls can rotate freely, but if there were bulky groups in the four orthos, restricts rotation and would produce resistance isomer. This type of compounds (such as BINAP) can be used as a chiral ligands. Replace the PCB by Suzuki reaction and Ullmann coupling reactions. PCB is a kind of important organic raw materials, widely used in medicine, pesticides, dyes, liquid crystal materials, etc. Can be used in the synthesis of plasticizer, preservatives, can also be used to make fuel, engineering plastic and high energy fuel. |
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Duan Yalan.
|Content Analysis||Accurate take a sample of about 100 mg, dissolves in methanol to the capacity of 1000 ml, take 10 ml of the solution, add methanol to 200 ml, as a liquid sample. With methanol as the controlled liquid, with 1 cm long l liquid layer, determine the absorbance at 248 nm wavelength. A, press type: PCB content. |
Content (%) = 20 x 10000 A / 1118 x/sample (mg) by 100%
|Toxicity||ADI 0 ~ 0.05 mg/kg (under some conditions 0.05 ~ 0.25 mg/kg FAO/WHO, 2001). |
LD50 3.28 ~ 5.04 g/kg (mice, through the mouth).
|Limited use||FAO/WHO, the United States and Canada regulations, its residual ≤110 mg/kg or less; Japan, France, Germany, the Netherlands, rules ≤70 mg/kg or less.|
|Chemical property||White or slightly yellow scaly crystal, has a unique fragrance. Insoluble in water, acid and alkali, soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene and other organic solvents.|
|Uses||It is the raw material of engineering plastic polysulfone, for making cross-linked with biphenyl, five PCB, used as a heat transfer medium, preservative, etc. |
Used as the standard substance for chromatographic analysis.
Used for fresh citrus fruits such as grapefruit, orange, lemon skin mouldproof.
Commonly put the paper macerated of this product in the top and bottom of container, biphenyl sublimation in the storage and transportation process, adsorption on the skin of fruit, has mouldproof effect.
PCB with high thermal stability and low vapor pressure, long often alone or with diphenyl ether and blend to used as heating medium. Component of biphenyl and terphenyl (including PCB13%, terphenyl61%) can effectively absorb radiation, can be used as a heating medium for nuclear power plant. And three biphenyl ([91-94-4]) is the byproduct of benzene pyrolysis to produce PCB, according to the different reaction conditions, the proportion of the reaction product of biphenyl and terphenyl within a certain range of change, in general, PCB: terphenyl = 7-8. PCB is used as a carrier, and its derivatives of ethyl biphenyl, diethyl biphenyl and triethyl biphenyl senior can be used as solvents, used in pressure sensitive dye solvent of carbon paper.
|Production Method||High temperature coal tar contains about 3.0% biphenyl, can be recycled from wash oil fractions. In 1926, the Dow chemical company started to produce PCB via benzene pyrolysis. Another source of PCB is by-product of toluene pyrolysis to produce alkyl benzene. With the development of the process, the by-product of biphenyl gradually become the main source of PCB. In the laboratory, the aniline diazotization, the diazonium salt in benzene, then add the mixture slowly to sodium hydroxide solution, mixing reaction, temperature rose gradually from 5 ℃ below to 30-35 ℃, generate PCB reaction after 8 h.|
|Acute toxicity||Oral - LD50 in rats: 2140 mg/kg. Oral LD50 in mice: 1900 mg/kg|
|Stimulus data||Eye - rabbit 100 mg light; Severe skin - rabbit 500 mg / 24 hours|
|Explosive hazardous characteristics||Mixed with air explosive; And the oxidizing reaction|
|Flammability hazard characteristics||In open flame, high temperature, strong oxidizer flammable; Combustion emissions to stimulate the smoke; Small doses of nausea, vomiting, stomach discomfort, paralysis.|
|Storage Characteristics||Packaging complete, light light; Warehouse ventilation, away from open flame, high temperature, and antioxidant.|
|Chemical Properties||white crystals|
|Definition||ChEBI: A benzenoid aromatic compound that consists of two benzene rings connected by a single covalent bond. Biphenyl occurs naturally in coal tar, crude oil, and natural gas. Formerly used as a fungicide for citrus crops.|
|Extinguishing agent||CO2, dry powder, fog water|
|Occupational standards||TWA 0.2 PPM (1 mg/m3); STEL 0.6 parts per million (3 mg/m3)|
|General Description||A clear colorless liquid with a pleasant odor. Flash point 180°F. Insoluble in water. Vapors are heavier than air. Used to manufacture other chemicals and as a fungicide.|
|Air & Water Reactions||Insoluble in water.|
|Reactivity Profile||Biphenyl is incompatible with oxidizers.|
|Health Hazard||CALL FOR MEDICAL AID. VAPOR, MIST OR DUST: Irritating to eyes, nose, throat and skin. Flush affected area with plenty of water. IF IN EYES, hold eyelids open and flush with plenty of water. SOLID OR LIQUID: Irritating to skin and eyes, nose and throat. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Flush affected areas with plenty water. IF IN EYES, hold eyelids open and flush with plenty of water. If swallowed, do not induce vomiting. Harmful if inhaled or swallowed. Causes irritation to eyes, skin and mucous membrane and upper respiratory tract. Causes central nervous system depression, paralysis and convulsion in animals. May cause headache, diffuse gastrointestinal pain, nausea, indigestion, numbness and aching of limbs, and general fatigue. Liver function test may show abnormalities. Chronic exposure is mostly characterized by central nervous system symptoms, fatigue, headache, tremor, insomnia, sensory impairment, and mood changes. Such symptoms are rare however.|
|Fire Hazard||Combustible. Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions.|
|Biphenyl Preparation Products And Raw materials|
|Raw materials||Etanol-->Sodium-->Benzene-->Bromobenzene-->COAL TAR-->Polishing oil|
|Preparation Products||Naphthalene-->6-BROMO-4-CHLOROQUINOLINE-->Bromadiolone-->2-Methyl-3-biphenylmethanol-->fluorescent whitening agent ATS-X-->2-Phenylphenol-->Estradiol-->4-AMINOBIPHENYL-->α-phenyl-2-p-tolylethylamine-->2-Phenylindole-->p-Terphenyl-->6-bromoquinolin-4(3H)-one-->4-Biphenylcarboxylic acid-->4-Phenylphenol-->6-CHLORO-2-(CHLOROMETHYL)-3-OXIDO-4-PHENYL-QUINAZOLINE-->brotianide -->3-(4'-Bromo[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenol-->4-Bromobiphenyl-->2-(2-AMINO-4-BIPHENYL)PROPIONITRILE-->Bitertanol-->polyquinoxaline-->4-BENZYLBIPHENYL-->Raloxifene-->4-(chlorophenylmethyl)-1,1'-biphenyl -->4-Acetylbiphenyl-->3-[1,1'-Biphenyl]-4-yl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthol-->4-BIPHENYLSULFONYL CHLORIDE-->4,4'-BIS(BROMOMETHYL)BIPHENYL-->4,4'-Bis(chloromethyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-->4,4'-Diacetylbiphenyl-->Bifonazole-->4-Benzoylbiphenyl-->Fenbufen|