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Toluene

Introduction Uses Production Reaction Hazards & Heath Effects
Toluene
Toluene
CAS No.
108-88-3
Chemical Name:
Toluene
Synonyms
TOL;cp25;HOXC6;Dracyl;Toluen;TOLUNE;HHO.C8;Hox-3C;TOLUOL;Tolueen
CBNumber:
CB4233905
Molecular Formula:
C7H8
Formula Weight:
92.14
MOL File:
108-88-3.mol

Toluene Properties

Melting point:
-95 °C
Boiling point:
111 °C
Density 
0.866
vapor density 
3.2 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
22 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
n/D 1.496(lit.)
Flash point:
40 °F
storage temp. 
0-6°C
pka
40(at 25℃)
form 
Liquid
color 
Colorless
Relative polarity
0.099
Water Solubility 
0.5 g/L (20 ºC)
Merck 
14,9529
BRN 
635760
CAS DataBase Reference
108-88-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Toluene(108-88-3)
EPA Substance Registry System
Benzene, methyl-(108-88-3)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  F,Xn,T
Risk Statements  11-38-48/20-63-65-67-39/23/24/25-23/24/25
Safety Statements  36/37-46-62-45-16-7
RIDADR  UN 1294 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  XS5250000
3-10
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  II
HS Code  29023000
Hazardous Substances Data 108-88-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word:
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways Aspiration hazard Category 1 Danger
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H333 May be harmful if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 5 P304+P312
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H361 Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child Reproductive toxicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P405 Store locked up.

Toluene price More Price(5)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
TCI Chemical T0260 Toluene [for Spectrophotometry] >99.5%(GC) 108-88-3 100mL $38 2017-12-01 Buy
Alfa Aesar 31755 Toluene, ACS, 99.5% 108-88-3 1L $29.8 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 31755 Toluene, ACS, 99.5% 108-88-3 *4x1L $98.6 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 31755 Toluene, ACS, 99.5% 108-88-3 500ml $23.3 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 31755 Toluene, ACS, 99.5% 108-88-3 4L $75.3 2017-11-08 Buy

Toluene Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Introduction

Toluene (molecular formula: C7H8) is a homologue of benzene, also known as "methyl benzene" and "phenyl methane". It is a colorless, volatile liquid with a special aroma. Toluene is a member of aromatic hydrocarbons. In the air, toluene can only incompletely burn and the flame is yellow. Many of its properties are similar to those of benzene and have aromatic odors similar to those of benzene. In practice, they are often used as organic solvents instead of the rather toxic benzene.
Toluene is prone to chlorination and produces benzene-chloromethane or benzene-trichloromethane, both of which are good industrial solvents; it can extract bromine from the bromine water, but cannot react with bromine water; it is also easy to nitrify and produce nitrotoluene or o-nitrotoluene, both of which are the raw materials of dyes; one part of toluene and three parts of nitric acid are nitrated to give trinitrotoluene (common name TNT); it is also easily sulfonated to generate o-toluenesulfonic acid or p-toluenesulfonate which are the raw materials for making dyes or making saccharin. Toluene vapor mixes with air to form explosive substances, so it can make TNT explosives.

Uses

Toluene is a component of gasoline, paints, inks, lacquers, paint thinners, adhesives, fingernail polish, cleaning agents, and rubber. BTX (a mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene) is added to gasoline to improve octane ratings. Toluene is used to produce benzene, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nylon, plastics, and polyurethanes. It is also used in production of drugs of abuse. Toluene is a favorite of solvent abusers, who intentionally inhale high concentrations to achieve a euphoric effect. It is used in the production of pharmaceuticals, dyes, and cosmetic nail products. It is used against roundworms and hookworms.

Detailed applications are summarized here:
Industry Applications Role/Benefit
Chemical manufacture Production of benzene and dimethyl benzene Main feedstock
Production of benzoic acid The oxidation products of toluene
Production of benzene chloromethane or benzene trichloromethane The chlorination products of toluene
Production of p-nitrotoluene or o-nitrotoluene The nitration products of toluene
Production of o-toluenesulfonic acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid The sulfonation products of toluene
Gasoline High-octane gasoline Used as octane booster to increase the octane value of gasoline
Adhesives manufacture Carpet adhesive solvents Good solubility for adhesive
Chemical analysis ICP-AES, AAS, AFS, ICP-MS and ion chromatography Stander material
Titration analysis Stander solution
Biology Hemoglobin extraction Help to break or disrupt red blood cells
Cosmetic and personal care Nail products Added to help the evaporation of solvents
Others Paint, varnish, lacquer, adhesive,nitrocellulose and ink Solvents and diluents
Production of saccharin, dyes, drugs and explosives,etc. Raw material

Production

The crude benzene fraction of coking coke contains 15-20% of toluene, which was once the main source of toluene, and can generate 1.1-1.3kg of toluene per ton of coke. Since the 1950s, the main source of toluene in the world has changed from coking by-products to catalytic reforming and hydrocarbon cracking. In 1982, petroleum toluene accounted for more than 96% of total production. Catalytic reforming oil contains 50-60% aromatics ( by volume), of which the toluene content can reach 40-45%; the content of aromatics in pyrolysis gasoline is about 70% (by mass), of which 15-20% is toluene.

Reaction


Reaction Temp. O-toluenesulfonic acid p-toluenesulfonic acid M-toluene sulfonic acid
At 0°C (%) 43   53 4
At 100°C (%)   13 79 8

Hazards & Heath Effects

Metabolism in body
80% of Toluene absorbed in the body is oxidized to benzyl alcohol in the presence of NADP (transconjugase II), oxidized to benzaldehyde in the presence of NAD (transconjugase I), and then oxidized to benzoic acid. Then, it is combined with glycine to form hippuric acid in the presence of adenosine triphosphate. Therefore, 16%-20% of toluene absorbed into the body is exhaled by the respiratory tract, and 80% are excreted in the form of hippuric acid through the kidneys.

Human Health Effects
People are most likely to be exposed to toluene by smoking or using consumer products containing toluene (paints, varnish, nail polish, paint cleaners, stain removers, etc.) especially if there is not good ventilation.
Eye and upper airway irritation occurred after a 6.5 hr exposure to an air level of 100 ppm (377 mg/cu m) toluene, and lacrymation was seen at 500 mg/cu m. Volunteers exposed to 100 ppm (377 mg/cu m) toluene for 6 hr/day for four days suffered from subjective complaints of headache, dizziness and a sensation of intoxication. In subjects exposed to 750 mg/cu m for 8 hr, fatigue, muscular weakness, confusion, impaired coordination, enlarged pupils and accommodation disturbances were experienced; at about 3000 mg/cu m, severe fatigue, pronounced nausea, mental confusion, considerable in coordination with staggering gait and strongly affected pupillary light reflexes were observed. After exposure at the high level, muscular fatigue, nervousness and insomnia lasted for several days. Heavy accidental exposure leads to coma.
There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of toluene in humans. There is evidence suggesting lack of carcinogenicity of toluene in experimental animals. Therefore, Toluene is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.

Chemical Properties

Colorless liquid

Definition

ChEBI: The simplest member of the class toluenes consisting of a benzene core which bears a single methyl substituent.

Uses

In manufacture of benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, explosives, dyes, and many other organic Compounds; as a solvent for paints, lacquers, gums, resins; thinner for inks, perfumes, dyes; in the extraction of various principles from plants; as gasoline additive.

General Description

A clear colorless liquid with a characteristic aromatic odor. Flash point 40°F. Less dense than water (7.2 lb / gal) and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors heavier than air. May be toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact. Used in aviation and automotive fuels, as a solvent, and to make other chemicals.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Toluene reacts vigorously with allyl chloride or other alkyl halides even at minus 70° C in the presence of ethyl aluminum dichloride or ethyl aluminum sesquichloride. Explosions have been reported [NFPA 491M 1991]. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. When added to a tank of sulfur dichloride, the tank over pressurized and ruptured in a reaction thought to be catalyzed by iron or iron(III) chloride [Chem. Eng. News, 1988, 66(32), 2].

Health Hazard

Vapors irritate eyes and upper respiratory tract; cause dizziness, headache, anesthesia, respiratory arrest. Liquid irritates eyes and causes drying of skin. If aspirated, causes coughing, gagging, distress, and rapidly developing pulmonary edema. If ingested causes vomiting, griping, diarrhea, depressed respiration.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.

Toluene Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


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