Hydrocarbons and derivatives

Hydrocarbon compounds are also known as hydrocarbons. They are compounds only containing two elements, hydrogen and carbon. When their molecular hydrogen atoms are replaced by various kinds of other element atoms or atom groups, we can obtain various kinds of hydrocarbon derivatives. German chemist Schorlemmer had discovered butane and other hydrocarbons, and is thus known as the founder of the hydrocarbon chemistry. There are many types of hydrocarbons with number of hydrocarbons with known structure being over 2,000 kinds. Based on the connecting way of carbon bonds, they are divided into chain hydrocarbon and cyclic hydrocarbon, two types with the former one having its carbon atoms connected in a chain shape. According to the saturation degree of hydrogen atom on valence bonds, they are divided into saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons are namely alkanes, such as methane, ethane and so on; unsaturated hydrocarbons include olefin and alkynes with representation being ethylene and acetylene. Cyclic hydrocarbon has its intramolecular carbon bonds connected into a closed ring. It includes two kinds, alicyclic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. There are many similarities between alicyclic hydrocarbons and chain hydrocarbon. General cyclic hydrocarbons are similar to hydrocarbons while cyclic olefin and cyclic alkyne are respectively similar as alkenes and alkynes. Aromatic hydrocarbons mainly refer to hydrocarbons containing benzene ring structure.

Chain hydrocarbon is also known as aliphatic hydrocarbon due to that during the initial study; it was found that oil lipid contained many of these open chain compounds. The naming of alicyclic hydrocarbons is due to its similar nature as aliphatic hydrocarbons. The nature of aromatic hydrocarbon is different from other hydrocarbons while first discovered several compounds are all scented, leading to the name which is still in use today.

Oil, gas and coal are the main source of hydrocarbons. Petroleum refining can give a variety of alkane mixture such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel, etc; oil cracking, reforming give various kinds of olefins, alicyclic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. Coal tar contains various kinds of aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, naphthalene, etc.). Many kinds of higher hydrocarbons are presented in plants such as the pigments contained in tomatoes and carrots. The wax of many kinds of plants and animals also contains higher content of alkanes. For example, beeswax contains C27H56 and C31H64; wax of spinach leaves contains C33H68, C35H72, and C37H76; wax of cabbage leaves contains C29H60 and so on. The main component of natural rubber, polyisoprene also belongs to hydrocarbon. An important application of hydrocarbons is being used as fuel and chemical raw materials. Through secondary processing of petroleum, it can give ethylene, propylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene, xylene and naphthalene, and other basic organic industrial raw materials. From these materials, we can further prepare styrene, ethanol, acetone and other chemicals. Re-use of these raw materials can be used for manufacturing of a variety of plastics, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibers and fine chemical products. Hydrocarbons may also be used as food for certain bacteria to utilize with those proteins (oil protein) excreted by these bacteria proteins being applied as feed. The national scale and level of processing and application of hydrocarbons may reflect the extent of economic and technological development of a country.

Hydrocarbon derivative refers to the general term of many kinds of complicated compound derived from hydrocarbon molecules with one or more hydrogen atoms being substituted by other atoms or atoms groups. Compounds derived from halogen substitution are called halogenated hydrocarbon; derived from hydroxy substitution are called alcohols or phenols; derived from carboxy substitution are called carboxylic acids. Ester, acyl halide, acid anhydride, amides, aldehydes, ketones, amines and nitriles, etc. can be considered to be the compounds derived from hydrocarbons with intramolecular hydrogen atoms being substituted by corresponding atoms. During early 19th century, German chemist Schorlemmer, based on years of experimental and theoretical studies, had first defined organic chemistry as chemistry concerning hydrocarbons and their derivatives. This definition is formulated based on the principles of atom combination theory, being more reasonable and advanced than all the previous definitions, thus further being adopted by many chemists. However, the problem is that it doesn’t distinguish the difference between organic and inorganic substances. The definition of Schorlemmer had greatly promoted the development of the theory regarding to the organic chemistry structure. He was the first man who defined organic compound as above scientific classifications, establishing a scientific system. He was the first man who divided organics into aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and further classified aliphatic compounds into hydrocarbons (saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons), halocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters and so on.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
3-Nitrophthalonitrile 3-Nitrophthalonitrile 51762-67-5 C8H3N3O2
2-Methoxybenzonitrile 2-Methoxybenzonitrile 6609-56-9 C8H7NO
4-Methylsulfonylphenol 4-Methylsulfonylphenol 14763-60-1 C7H8O3S
5-Chloro-2-nitroaniline 5-Chloro-2-nitroaniline 1635-61-6 C6H5ClN2O2
1-Bromo-5-chloropentane 1-Bromo-5-chloropentane 54512-75-3 C5H10BrCl
4-BROMO-2,5-DIFLUOROBENZENESULFONYL CHLORIDE 4-BROMO-2,5-DIFLUOROBENZENESULFONYL CHLORIDE 207974-14-9 C6H2BrClF2O2S
3-BROMO-4-CHLORONITROBENZENE 3-BROMO-4-CHLORONITROBENZENE 16588-26-4 C6H3BrClNO2
2-CHLORO-5-NITROACETOPHENONE 2-CHLORO-5-NITROACETOPHENONE 23082-50-0 C8H6ClNO3
4-Chlorostyrene 4-Chlorostyrene 1073-67-2 C8H7Cl
2,6-DICHLOROIODOBENZENE 2,6-DICHLOROIODOBENZENE 19230-28-5 C6H3Cl2I
3-(Trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonyl chloride 3-(Trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonyl chloride 777-44-6 C7H4ClF3O2S
O-TOLUENESULFONYL CHLORIDE O-TOLUENESULFONYL CHLORIDE 133-59-5 C7H7ClO2S
1,4-Diiodobenzene 1,4-Diiodobenzene 624-38-4 C6H4I2
2-Nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride 2-Nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride 1694-92-4 C6H4ClNO4S
2-Cyano-4'-methylbiphenyl 2-Cyano-4'-methylbiphenyl 93717-55-6 C14H11N
3,4-Dinitrobenzoic acid 3,4-Dinitrobenzoic acid 528-45-0 C7H4N2O6
4-NITROPHENYL TRIFLUOROACETATE 4-NITROPHENYL TRIFLUOROACETATE 658-78-6 C8H4F3NO4
4-Methyl-2-nitrobenzonitrile 4-Methyl-2-nitrobenzonitrile 26830-95-5 C8H6N2O2
Piperonyl chloride Piperonyl chloride 20850-43-5 C8H7ClO2
1,3,5-Trimethoxybenzene 1,3,5-Trimethoxybenzene 621-23-8 C9H12O3
3-(Trifluoromethyl)benzyl bromide 3-(Trifluoromethyl)benzyl bromide 402-23-3 C8H6BrF3
1-Iado-4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzene 1-Iado-4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzene 103962-05-6 C7H4F3IO
2,6-Difluorobenzenesulfonyl chloride 2,6-Difluorobenzenesulfonyl chloride 60230-36-6 C6H3ClF2O2S
(2-Bromoethyl)benzene (2-Bromoethyl)benzene 103-63-9 C8H9Br
4-(METHYLAMINO)-3-NITROBENZOIC ACID 4-(METHYLAMINO)-3-NITROBENZOIC ACID 41263-74-5 C8H8N2O4
2,6-Difluorobenzyl bromide 2,6-Difluorobenzyl bromide 85118-00-9 C7H5BrF2
O-TERPHENYL O-TERPHENYL 84-15-1 C18H14
2,3-Dimethylbromobenzene 2,3-Dimethylbromobenzene 576-23-8 C8H9Br
3-FLUORO-5-NITROBENZOIC ACID 3-FLUORO-5-NITROBENZOIC ACID 14027-75-9 C7H4FNO4
Iodobenzene Iodobenzene 591-50-4 C6H5I
tert-Amylbenzene tert-Amylbenzene 2049-95-8 C11H16
4-Chloro-3-nitroanisole 4-Chloro-3-nitroanisole 10298-80-3 C7H6ClNO3
1-Bromo-4-chlorobutane 1-Bromo-4-chlorobutane 6940-78-9 C4H8BrCl
1-Bromo-2-chloroethane 1-Bromo-2-chloroethane 107-04-0 C2H4BrCl
N-DOCOSANE N-DOCOSANE 629-97-0 C22H46
4-Chloro-3-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride 4-Chloro-3-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride 97-08-5 C6H3Cl2NO4S
4-Chloro-3-nitrocinnamic acid 4-Chloro-3-nitrocinnamic acid 20797-48-2 C9H6ClNO4
1-BROMO-2,3,5,6-TETRAFLUOROBENZENE 1-BROMO-2,3,5,6-TETRAFLUOROBENZENE 1559-88-2 C6HBrF4
(S)-(+)-Glycidyl nosylate (S)-(+)-Glycidyl nosylate 115314-14-2 C9H9NO6S
3-Nitro-N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-4-aminophenol 3-Nitro-N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-4-aminophenol 92952-81-3 C9H12N2O4
3,5-DIFLUOROBENZENESULFONAMIDE 3,5-DIFLUOROBENZENESULFONAMIDE 140480-89-3 C6H5F2NO2S
HEXATRIACONTANE HEXATRIACONTANE 630-06-8 C36H74
3-Buten-1-ol 3-Buten-1-ol 627-27-0 C4H8O
2-Bromo-m-xylene 2-Bromo-m-xylene 576-22-7 C8H9Br
2,3-DIFLUORO-6-NITROPHENOL 2,3-DIFLUORO-6-NITROPHENOL 82419-26-9 C6H3F2NO3
2-(Trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide 2-(Trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide 1869-24-5 C7H6F3NO2S
2-Methyl-5-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride 2-Methyl-5-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride 121-02-8 C7H6ClNO4S
4,4'-Diacetylbiphenyl 4,4'-Diacetylbiphenyl 787-69-9 C16H14O2
2,5-Difluorobenzyl bromide 2,5-Difluorobenzyl bromide 85117-99-3 C7H5BrF2
2-Chloro-4-fluoro-5-nitrophenol 2-Chloro-4-fluoro-5-nitrophenol 84478-75-1 C6H3ClFNO3
2,3-Difluorobenzyl bromide 2,3-Difluorobenzyl bromide 113211-94-2 C7H5BrF2
2-Fluoro-6-nitrotoluene 2-Fluoro-6-nitrotoluene 769-10-8 C7H6FNO2
1-Bromo-4-chloro-2-fluorobenzene 1-Bromo-4-chloro-2-fluorobenzene 1996-29-8 C6H3BrClF
3-NITROPHENYLACETIC ACID 3-NITROPHENYLACETIC ACID 1877-73-2 C8H7NO4
N-EICOSANE N-EICOSANE 112-95-8 C20H42
2-Methoxy-5-nitrophenol 2-Methoxy-5-nitrophenol 636-93-1 C7H7NO4
4,4'-Diiodobiphenyl 4,4'-Diiodobiphenyl 3001-15-8 C12H8I2
3,4-(Methylenedioxy)phenylacetonitrile 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)phenylacetonitrile 4439-02-5 C9H7NO2
1,5-Dibromopentane 1,5-Dibromopentane 111-24-0 C5H10Br2
Oleyl alcohol Oleyl alcohol 143-28-2 C18H36O
3,4-Dimethoxytoluene 3,4-Dimethoxytoluene 494-99-5 C9H12O2
4-Bromo-2-nitrobenzoic acid 4-Bromo-2-nitrobenzoic acid 99277-71-1 C7H4BrNO4
3-Carboxy-5-nitrophenylboronic acid 3-Carboxy-5-nitrophenylboronic acid 101084-81-5 C7H6BNO6
4-Nitro-o-phenylenediamine 4-Nitro-o-phenylenediamine 99-56-9 C6H7N3O2
4-METHOXY-2-NITRO-BENZALDEHYDE 4-METHOXY-2-NITRO-BENZALDEHYDE 22996-21-0 C8H7NO4
4-Bromo-2-fluorobenzenesulfonyl chloride 4-Bromo-2-fluorobenzenesulfonyl chloride 216159-03-4 C6H3BrClFO2S
4-Nitrophenylacetic acid 4-Nitrophenylacetic acid 104-03-0 C8H7NO4
1-Bromo-2,4,6-trifluorobenzene 1-Bromo-2,4,6-trifluorobenzene 2367-76-2 C6H2BrF3
3-Nitrobenzoic acid 3-Nitrobenzoic acid 121-92-6 C7H5NO4
Orcinol Orcinol 504-15-4 C7H8O2
4-Nitrobenzophenone 4-Nitrobenzophenone 1144-74-7 C13H9NO3
2,5-Dimethylnitrobenzene 2,5-Dimethylnitrobenzene 89-58-7 C8H9NO2
3,5-BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)IODOBENZENE 3,5-BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)IODOBENZENE 328-73-4 C8H3F6I
4-Nitrobenzonitrile 4-Nitrobenzonitrile 619-72-7 C7H4N2O2
1,1-Diphenylethylene 1,1-Diphenylethylene 530-48-3 C14H12
o-Xylene o-Xylene 95-47-6 C8H10
4-tert-Butyltoluene 4-tert-Butyltoluene 98-51-1 C11H16
2-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonmethylamide 2-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonmethylamide 104295-55-8 C11H12N2O2S
1-Iodo-3,5-dimethylbenzene 1-Iodo-3,5-dimethylbenzene 22445-41-6 C8H9I
2,3,4-TRICHLORONITROBENZENE 2,3,4-TRICHLORONITROBENZENE 17700-09-3 C6H2Cl3NO2
2-Bromochlorobenzene 2-Bromochlorobenzene 694-80-4 C6H4BrCl
N-HEPTADECANE N-HEPTADECANE 629-78-7 C17H36
3-METHYLHEPTANE 3-METHYLHEPTANE 589-81-1 C8H18
5-Sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt 5-Sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt 6362-79-4 C8H5NaO7S
4-Nitrobenzoyl chloride 4-Nitrobenzoyl chloride 122-04-3 C7H4ClNO3
1,3-Diethylbenzene 1,3-Diethylbenzene 141-93-5 C10H14
2,5-Difluoro-4-nitrobenzoic acid 2,5-Difluoro-4-nitrobenzoic acid 116465-48-6 C7H3F2NO4
4-Methyl-3-nitroanisole 4-Methyl-3-nitroanisole 17484-36-5 C8H9NO3
N-NONADECANE N-NONADECANE 629-92-5 C19H40
3-Carboxy-4-nitrophenyl disulfide 3-Carboxy-4-nitrophenyl disulfide 69-78-3 C14H8N2O8S2
4-Bromo-2-fluorobenzyl bromide 4-Bromo-2-fluorobenzyl bromide 76283-09-5 C7H5Br2F
3,5-Dichlorobenzenesulfonyl chloride 3,5-Dichlorobenzenesulfonyl chloride 705-21-5 C6H3Cl3O2S
1-Nitroso-2-naphthol 1-Nitroso-2-naphthol 131-91-9 C10H7NO2
4-Chloro-3-nitrotoluene 4-Chloro-3-nitrotoluene 89-60-1 C7H6ClNO2
2,2'-Biphenol 2,2'-Biphenol 1806-29-7 C12H10O2
9-DECEN-1-OL 9-DECEN-1-OL 13019-22-2 C10H20O
1-OCTADECENE 1-OCTADECENE 112-88-9 C18H36
2,4-Dimethylaniline-6-sulfonic acid 2,4-Dimethylaniline-6-sulfonic acid 88-22-2 C8H11NO3S
2,3-DIFLUOROETHOXYBENZENE 2,3-DIFLUOROETHOXYBENZENE 121219-07-6 C8H8F2O
n-Octacosane n-Octacosane 630-02-4 C28H58
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