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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid Basic information
Chemical structure History Occurrence Psysical properties Chemical properties Uses Annual production of sulfuric acid Production methods of sulfuric acid Uses Toxicity information Hazards & Safety Information References
Product Name:Sulfuric acid
Synonyms:SULFURIC ACID REAGENT GRADE 95-98%;0,05 MOL SULFURIC ACID FIXANAL;SULFURIC ACID 30% 1 L;Sulfuric acid 96 %;SULFURIC ACID 98% TECHNICAL 5 L;SULFURIC ACID 95-97%, 4X25 ML;SULFURIC ACID 95-97 %, GLASS BOTTLE, R.G., REAG. ISO, REAG. PH. EUR.;SULFURIC ACID 30% 0.5 L
CAS:7664-93-9
MF:C11H13NO4S
MW:255.29
EINECS:231-639-5
Product Categories:Refined & Fuming Sulfuric Acid(Oleum);Sulfur;Inorganics;Eluent concentrates for ICAlphabetic;Chromatography/CE Reagents;Ion Chromatography;S;SN - SZ;Inorganic AcidsAnalytical Reagents;Puriss;Acid solutionsVolumetric Solutions;Puriss p.a.;Q-S, Puriss p.a.;Acid ConcentratesConcentrates (e.g. FIXANAL);By Reference Material;Concentrates (e.g. FIXANAL);Reference Material Sodium carbonate;Titration;Acid SolutionsTitration;Inorganic AcidsVolumetric Solutions;Acid solutionsChemical Synthesis;Solution containers (VOLPAC);Volumetric Solutions;Acid solutions;Electronic Chemicals;Inorganic AcidsMicro/Nanoelectronics;Semiconductor Grade Chemicals;Trace Analysis ReagentsEssential Chemicals;Analytical Reagents;Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS);Digestion Reagents;Pure Reagents for Wet Digestion (Trace SELECT)Analytical/Chromatography;TraceSelect;Other Drying Agents;ACS GradeChemical Synthesis;Adsorbents, Filter Aids and Drying Agents;Inorganic AcidsEssential Chemicals;Analytical Reagents for General Use;Puriss p.a. ACS;Q-S, Puriss p.a. ACS;Acids&Bases;Essential Chemicals;Reagent Grade;Inorganic Acids;Chemical Synthesis;Synthetic Reagents;HPLC Buffer;HPLC Buffers;HPLC Buffers - SolutionDerivatization Reagents TLC;Organic Acids, Carboxylic AcidsChromatography/CE Reagents;SolutionDerivatization Reagents TLC;TLC Reagents, S-Z;TLC Visualization Reagents (alphabetic sort);TLC Visualization Reagents (by application);HPLC;Inorganic AcidsPesticides&Metabolites;AcidsChemical Synthesis;Herbicides;Micro/Nanoelectronics;TraceSelectUltraAtomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS);Ultrapure Reagents for Wet Digestion (Trace SELECTUltra);Decomposition Reagents;Special Applications;Sulphonic Acid
Mol File:7664-93-9.mol
Sulfuric acid Structure
Sulfuric acid Chemical Properties
Melting point 10°C
Boiling point ~290 °C(lit.)
density 1.840 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density <0.3 (25 °C, vs air)
vapor pressure 1 mm Hg ( 146 °C)
Fp 11 °C
storage temp. Store at RT.
solubility H2O: soluble
form Viscous Liquid
pka-3-2(at 25℃)
color Pale yellow to slight tan
Water Solubility miscible
Sensitive Hygroscopic
Merck 14,8974
Stability:Stable, but reacts with moisture very exothermically, which may enhance its ability to act as an oxidizing agent. Substances to be avoided include water, most common metals, organic materials, strong reducing agents, combustible materials, bases, oxidising agents. Reacts violently with water - when diluting concentrated acid, carefully and slo
CAS DataBase Reference7664-93-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceSulfuric acid(7664-93-9)
EPA Substance Registry SystemSulfuric acid(7664-93-9)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes C,T,F,Xi
Risk Statements 36/38-35-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11
Safety Statements 26-30-45-36/37-16
RIDADR UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 1
RTECS WS5600000
3
TSCA Yes
HazardClass 8
PackingGroup II
HS Code 28070010
Hazardous Substances Data7664-93-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
Sulfuric acid English
Sulfuric acid Usage And Synthesis
Chemical structure
Lewis structure

Ball-and-stick diagram

Space-filling model The chemical formula of sulfuric acid is H2SO4 and its molecular weight is 98.079g/mol. Its chemical structure is shown above. The sulfur atom is bound to two oxygen atoms through double bonds, and two hydroxyl groups (OH) through single bonds. It is a diprotic acid, as it can release two protons.
HistoryAlthough sulfuric acid is now one of the most widely used chemicals, it was probably little known before the 16th cent. It was prepared by Johann Van Helmont (c.1600) by destructive distillation of green vitriol (ferrous sulfate) and by burning sulfur. The first major industrial demand for sulfuric acid was the Leblanc process for making sodium carbonate (developed c.1790). Sulfuric acid was produced at Nordhausen from green vitriol but was expensive. A process for its synthesis by burning sulfur with saltpeter (potassium nitrate) was first used by Johann Glauber in the 17th cent. and developed commercially by Joshua Ward in England c.1740. It was soon superseded by the lead chamber process, invented by John Roebuck in 1746 and since improved by many others. The contact process was originally developed c.1830 by Peregrine Phillips in England; it was little used until a need for concentrated acid arose, particularly for the manufacture of synthetic organic dyes.
OccurrenceSulfuric acid is formed naturally by oxidation of sulfide minerals in rocks. Dilute sulfuric acid is also formed in the atmosphere by oxidation of sulfur dioxide (from burning of fuels) in the presence of moisture, eventually precipitating as 'acid rain'.
Psysical properties
H2SO4 is a colorless or slightly yellow viscous liquid with a pungent odor. It has a density of 1.84 g/mL, boiling point of 337 °C, and melting point of 10 °C. "Concentrated" sulfuric acid is 98% in water, and is the most stable form. Many other concentrations, with different names, are available for various purposes. Battery acid is 29–32%, chamber acid is 62-70%, and tower acid is 78-80%.
Chemical propertiesSulfuric acid is a very strong, diprotic acid. It is hygroscopic and readily absorbs moisture from air. It is a powerful oxidizing agent and reacts with many metals at high temperatures. Concentrated H2SO4 is also a strong dehydrating agent. Addition of water to concentrated sulfuric acid is a very exothermic reaction and can lead to explosions.
C(s) + H2SO4(aq) → 2SO2(g)+2H2O(l)
Fe(s) + H2SO4(aq) → H2(g) + FeSO4(aq)
Sn(s) + 2 H2SO4(aq) → SnSO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) + SO2(g)
Fig.2 Oxidizing ability of sulfuric acid

Fig.3 Dehydrating nature of sulfuric acid

Fig.4 Reaction of sulfuric acid with water
Uses
Industry Application Role/benefit
Chemical manufacture Manufacture of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid and many other industrial chemicals Raw material
Fertilizers Manufacture of ammonium sulfate and aluminium sulfate Raw material
Hydrogen Sulfur-iodine cycle for hydrogen production Raw material/ no requirement of hydrocarbons
Cleaning Removing oxidation, rust and scaling from rolled sheet and billets Cleaning agent
Preparation of piranha solution (a powerful cleaning solution) Raw material
Acidic drain cleaners Main ingredient
Nylon manufacture Catalyzing the conversion of cyclohexanone oxime to caprolactam Acid catalyst
Petroleum refining SAAU or sulphuric acid Alkylation Unit
Electrochemistry Lead-acid batteries Electrolyte
Medicine Manufacture of alkylating antineoplastic agents Raw material
Manufacture of topical ointment called Debacterol Key ingredient
Others Potato Harvesting Spraying solution/helps to dry out the stem
Manufacture of Rayon Pcocessing reagent
Manufacture of explosives Component
Production of acid dyes Raw material/helps to set the color of the dye
 
Annual production of sulfuric acidThese figures relate to 2011 - 2012. It was expected that by 2012, the World production would be over 250 million tonnes (mcgroup.com) and 260 million tonnes by 2018 (marketsandmarkets.com) with the upward trend forecasted to at least 2023 (transparencymarketresearch.com).
World 231 million tonnes
China 74 million tonnes
U.S. 37 million tonnes
India 16 million tonnes
Russia 14 million tonnes
Morocco 7 million tonnes
  Tab. 1 Annual production of sulfuric acid (Data estimated from:Merchant Research & Consulting Ltd.)
Production methods of sulfuric acidLean Chamber Process

Fig.5 Lead chambers for large scale production of sulphuric acid 1874
In 1746 in Birmingham, England, John Roebuck began producing sulfuric acid in lead-lined chambers, which were stronger and less expensive, and could be made much larger, than the glass containers which had been used previously. This allowed the effective industrialization of sulfuric acid production and, with several refinements, this process remained the standard method of production for almost two centuries. So robust was the process that as late as 1946, the chamber process still accounted for 25% of sulfuric acid manufactured.

Contact Process

Fig.6 Contact process for producing sulfuric acid
The contact process (DCDA process) is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes. This process was patented in 1831 by British vinegar merchant Peregrine Phillips. In addition to being a far more economical process for producing concentrated sulfuric acid than the previous lead chamber process, the contact process also produces sulfur trioxide and oleum. In the contact process, purified sulfur dioxide and air are mixed, heated to about 450°C, and passed over a catalyst; the sulfur dioxide is oxidized to sulfur trioxide. The catalyst is usually platinum on a silica or asbestos carrier or vanadium pentoxide on a silica carrier. The sulfur trioxide is cooled and passed through two towers. In the first tower it is washed with oleum (fuming sulfuric acid, 100% sulfuric acid with sulfur trioxide dissolved in it). In the second tower it is washed with 97% sulfuric acid; 98% sulfuric acid is usually produced in this tower. Waste gases are usually discharged into the atmosphere. Acid of any desired concentration may be produced by mixing or diluting the products of this process.

Wet sulfuric acid process
Fig.7 Wet Sulfuric Acid Process Diagram
The wet sulfuric acid process (WSA process) is one of the key gas desulfurization processes on the market today. Since the Danish catalyst company Haldor Topsoe introduced and patented this technology in the late 1980s, it has been recognised as an efficient process for recovering sulfur from various process gasses in the form of commercial quality sulfuric acid (H2SO4), with simultaneous production of high pressure steam. The WSA process is applied in all industries where removal of sulfur is an issue.
UsesSulfuric acid has many uses in different industries, such as fertilizer production, metal production, mineral processing, petroleum refining, wastewater processing, etc. It is also used in the production of cleaning agents, dyes, pigments, drugs, detergents, and explosives. It is commonly used as the electrolyte in lead-acid batteries.


Fig. 8 Uses of sulfuric acid.
Fertilizers
By far the largest amount of sulfuric acid is used to make phosphoric acid, used, in turn, to make the phosphate fertilizers, calcium dihydrogenphosphate and the ammonium phosphates. It is also used to make ammonium sulfate, which is a particularly important fertilizer in sulfur-deficient.
3.2 Industrial cleaning agent
Sulfuric acid is used in large quantities by the iron and steelmaking industry to remove oxidation, rust and scaling from rolled sheet and billets prior to sale to the automobile and major appliances industry. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be added to sulfuric acid to produce piranha solution, a powerful but very toxic cleaning solution with which substrate surfaces can be cleaned. Piranha solution is typically used in the microelectronics industry, and also in laboratory settings to clean glassware.

Fig. 9 Piranha solution Metal processing
It is widely used in metal processing for example in the manufacture of copper and the manufacture of zinc and in cleaning the surface of steel sheet, known as 'pickling', prior to it being covered in a thin layer of tin, used to make cans for food.
Catalyst
Sulfuric acid can be used as acid catalysts in many organic reactions. It covers the nitration of benzene, the hydration of ethene to manufacture ethanol, and the reactions both to produce esters and to hydrolyse them under acidic conditions.
Electrolyte
Sulfuric acid acts as the electrolyte in lead–acid batteries (lead-acid accumulator): At anode:
Pb + SO42− ? PbSO4 + 2 e−
At cathode:
PbO2 + 4 H+ + SO42− + 2 e− ? PbSO4 + 2 H2O
Overall:
Pb + PbO2 + 4 H+ + 2 SO42− ? 2 PbSO4 + 2 H2O

Fig.10 Lead–acid batterie

Domestic uses
Sulfuric acid at high concentrations is frequently the major ingredient in acidic drain cleaners[9] which are used to remove grease, hair, tissue paper, etc. Similar to their alkaline versions, such drain openers can dissolve fats and proteins via hydrolysis. Moreover, as concentrated sulfuric acid has a strong dehydrating property, it can remove tissue paper via dehydrating process as well. Since the acid may react with water vigorously, such acidic drain openers should be added slowly into the pipe to be cleaned.

Fig. 11 Acidic drain cleaner

Others
Fluorapatite is treated with 93% sulfuric acid to produce calcium sulfate, hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphoric acid. The HF is removed as hydrofluoric acid. The overall process can be represented as:
Ca5F(PO4)3 + 5 H2SO4 + 10 H2O → 5 CaSO4•2 H2O + HF + 3 H3PO4
Another important use for sulfuric acid is for the manufacture of aluminium sulfate, also known as paper maker's alum.
2 AlO(OH) + 3 H2SO4 → Al2(SO4)3 + 4 H2O
Sulfuric acid is also important in the manufacture of dyestuffs solutions, pigments and drugs. Whatsmore, sulfuric acid can be used in mineral processing, petroleum refining and wastewater processing.
Toxicity informationToxicity Level
High toxicity

Acute Toxicity
Oral-Rat LD50: 2140 mg/kg; Inhalation-mouse LC50: 320 mg /m3/2 h

Hazards
Health hazards
Corrosive to all body tissues. Inhalation of vapor may cause serious lung damage. Contact with eyes may result in total loss of vision. Skin contact may produce severe necrosis. Fatal amount for adult: between 1 teaspoonful and one-half ounce of the concentrated chemical. Even a few drops may be fatal if the acid gains access to the trachea. Chronic exposure may cause tracheobronchitis, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, and gastritis. Gastric perforation and peritonitis may occur and may be followed by circulatory collapse. Circulatory shock is often the immediate cause of death. Those with chronic respiratory, gastrointestinal, or nervous diseases and any eye and skin diseases are at greater risk.

Fire Hazards
Sulfuric acid is highly reactive and capable of igniting finely-divided combustible materials on contact. When heated, Sulfuric acid emits highly toxic fumes. Avoid heat; water and organic materials. Sulfuric acid is explosive or incompatible with an enormous array of substances. Can undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressure. May react violently with water. When heated, Sulfuric acid emits highly toxic fumes. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.
Hazards & Safety InformationCategory : Corrosive items
Toxicity classification  : high toxic
Acute toxicity :
Oral-Rat LD50: 2140 mg/kg; Inhalation-mouse LC50: 320 mg /m 3/2 h
Stimulation Data :  Eye-Rabbit 5 mg/30 sec Severe
Hazardous properties of explosives :  exploded after encounter with water; combustion-supporting after encounter with combustible; react with the metal to generate flammable explosive hydrogen
Flammable hazardous nature :  burned after encounter with organic matter; release combustible hydrogen after encounter with metal
Storage and transportation characteristics : ventilation; low-temperature; dry; stored separately with organic matter, reducing material and flammable materials
Extinguishing agent :  carbon dioxide, dry sand; prohibit the use of columnar water
Occupational Standard : TWA 1 mg /m3; STEL 3 mg /m3
Referenceshttp://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/chemicals/sulfuric-acid.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfuric_acid#Uses
http://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/compounds-and-elements/sulfuric-acid
http://www.qsstudy.com/chemistry/uses-sulphuric-acid
Chemical PropertiesClear colorless oily liquid
DefinitionChEBI: A sulfur oxoacid that consits of two oxo and two hydroxy groups joined covalently to a central sulfur atom.
Air & Water ReactionsReaction with water is negligible unless acid strength is above 80-90% then heat from hydrolysis is extreme, may cause severe burns [Merck, 11th ed. 1989]. During sulfonation of mononitrobenzene by fuming Sulfuric acid , a leak from an internal cooling coil permitted water to enter the reaction tank. A violent eruption occurred due to the heat of solution [MCA Case History 944 1963].
Reactivity ProfileSulfuric acid is strongly acidic. Reacts violently with bromine pentafluoride [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:172 1956]. Exploded with para-nitrotoluene at 80 °C [Chem. Eng. News 27:2504]. An explosion occurred when concentrated Sulfuric acid was mixed with crystalline potassium permanganate in a vessel containing moisture. Manganese heptoxide was formed, which explodes at 70°C [Delhez 1967]. A mixture of acrylonitrile with concentrated Sulfuric acid must be kept well chilled, otherwise a vigorous exothermic reaction occurs [Chem. Safety Data Sheet SD-31:8. 1949]. Mixing Sulfuric acid (96%) in equal portions with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: acetonitrile, acrolein, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide (28%), aniline, n-butyraldehyde, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene diamine, ethyleneimine, epichlorohydrin, ethylene cyanohydrin, hydrochloric acid (36%), hydrofluoric acid (48.7%), propiolactone, propylene oxide, sodium hydroxide, styrene monomer [NFPA 1991]. Sulfuric acid (concentrated) is extremely hazardous in contact with carbides, bromates, chlorates, fulminates, picrates, and powdered metals [Haz. Chem. Data 1966]. Allyl chloride may polymerize violently under conditions involving an acid catalyst, such as Sulfuric acid [Ventrone 1971]. React exothermically with sodium hypochlorite to produce chlorine gas. Mixing chloroSulfuric acid and 98% Sulfuric acid may evolve HCl [Subref: Anon, Loss Prev. Bull. 1977, (013), 2-3]. Zinc iodide reacts violently with H2SO4. (Pascal, 1962, Vol. 5, 168).
Health HazardCorrosive to all body tissues. Inhalation of vapor may cause serious lung damage. Contact with eyes may result in total loss of vision. Skin contact may produce severe necrosis. Fatal amount for adult: between 1 teaspoonful and one-half ounce of the concentrated chemical. Even a few drops may be fatal if the acid gains access to the trachea. Chronic exposure may cause tracheobronchitis, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, and gastritis. Gastric perforation and peritonitis may occur and may be followed by circulatory collapse. Circulatory shock is often the immediate cause of death. Those with chronic respiratory, gastrointestinal, or nervous diseases and any eye and skin diseases are at greater risk.
Fire HazardSulfuric acid is highly reactive and capable of igniting finely-divided combustible materials on contact. When heated, Sulfuric acid emits highly toxic fumes. Avoid heat; water and organic materials. Sulfuric acid is explosive or incompatible with an enormous array of substances. Can undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressure. May react violently with water. When heated, Sulfuric acid emits highly toxic fumes. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.
Sulfuric acid Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materialsHydrochloric acid-->Hydrogen peroxide-->Sulfur-->Sulfur dioxide-->Sulphur-->Sulfur trioxide-->ROCK PHOSPHATE-->PYRITE-->CALCIUM SULFATE HEMIHYDRATE-->Microvoid filter film-->CHALCOPYRITE
Preparation ProductsCoumalic acid-->3,3'-DINITROBENZOPHENONE-->2-ethyl-5-nitrobenzenamine-->Methyl 3-bromo-4-methylbenzoate-->2,6-Dimethyl-3-nitropyridine-->ETHYL 3-BROMOBENZOATE-->2-NITROTHIOPHENE-4-CARBOXALDEHYDE-->Thiodiglycolic acid-->Conditioner for metal surface-->TITANIUM OXYSULFATE-->4-(N,N-Diethyl)-2-methyl-p-phenylenediamine monohydrochloride-->4-(N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methylphenylenediamine sulfate-->1,1'-Oxydi-2-propanol-->N,N-Diethyl-p-phenylenediamine sulfate-->Sulfosalicylic acid -->Tricobalt tetraoxide-->2-HYDROXY-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)QUINOLINE-->Dispersing agent DN-->Zirconium sulfate tetrahydrate-->2-METHYL-5-NITROBENZONITRILE-->6-Fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2(1H)-quinolinone-->2-NITROTHIOPHENE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID-->2-Amino-3,6,8-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid-->4-CHLOROMETHYL-7-METHOXY-CHROMEN-2-ONE-->TRIETHYLENETETRAMINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE-->2-Amino-5-bromo-3-nitropyridine-->2,6-DIFLUORO-4-NITROANILINE-->4-Chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid-->1-BENZOTHIOPHENE-3-SULFONYL CHLORIDE-->tert-Amylbenzene -->2-Amino-5-nitro-4-picoline-->METHYL TRICOSANOATE-->4-NITRO-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZOIC ACID-->6-AMINO-5-METHYLPYRIDINE-3-SULFONIC ACID-->3-BROMOQUINOLINE-8-SULFONIC ACID-->Amikacin sulfate salt-->Amikacin disulfate salt -->Sesamol-->Vat Blue BC-->Sulfur-magnesium fertilizer
Tag:Sulfuric acid(7664-93-9) Related Product Information
PERCHLORIC ACID NA Sodium sulfate Ammonium sulfate Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate METHYL ISOCYANOACETATE BENZYL ISOCYANIDE Ethyl isocyanoacetate N-BUTYLISOCYANIDE Tosylmethyl isocyanide 1,1,3,3-TETRAMETHYLBUTYL ISOCYANIDE PHENYLSELENOL TERT-BUTYL ISOCYANIDE ASCORBICACID ACETIC ACID Citric acid Glycine