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7439-97-6

7439-97-6 Structure

7439-97-6 Structure
IdentificationMore
[Name]

MERCURY
[CAS]

7439-97-6
[EINECS(EC#)]

231-106-7
[Molecular Formula]

Hg
[MDL Number]

MFCD00011035
[Molecular Weight]

200.59
[MOL File]

7439-97-6.mol
Chemical PropertiesBack Directory
[Definition]

Metallic element of atomic number 80, group IIB of the periodic table, aw 200.59, valences = 1,2; 4 stable isotopes and 12 artificially radioactive isotopes.
[Appearance]

Mercury is a silvery, mobile, odorless liquid
[Appearance]

silvery liquid metal
[Appearance]

Silvery, extremely heavy liquid, sometimes found native. Insoluble in hydrochloric acid; soluble in sulfuric acid upon boiling; readily soluble in nitric acid; insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether; soluble in lipids;, extremely high surface tension (48
[Melting point ]

-38.9 °C
[mp ]

-38.9 °C
[Boiling point ]

356.6 °C(lit.)
[bp ]

356.6 °C(lit.)
[density ]

13.54
[vapor density ]

7 (vs air)
[vapor pressure ]

<0.01 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
[storage temp. ]

Poison room
[solubility ]

H2O: soluble
[form ]

Triple Distilled Liquid
[color ]

passes test
[Stability:]

Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, sodium thiosulfate, ammonium hydroxide.
[Water Solubility ]

20–30μg/L in H2O; soluble in boiling H2SO4, HNO3 [KIR81] [HAW93]
[Merck ]

13,5925
[Uses]

Amalgams, catalyst, electrical apparatus, cathodes for production of chlorine and caustic soda, instruments (thermometers, barometers, etc.), mercury vapor lamps, extractive metallurgy, mirror coating, arc lamps, boilers, coolant, and neutron absorber in nuclear power plants.
[CAS DataBase Reference]

7439-97-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

Mercury is a silvery, mobile, odorless liquid
[Chemical Properties]

Silvery, extremely heavy liquid, sometimes found native. Insoluble in hydrochloric acid; soluble in sulfuric acid upon boiling; readily soluble in nitric acid; insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether; soluble in lipids;, extremely high surface tension (48
[General Description]

An odorless, silvery metallic liquid. Insoluble in water. Toxic by ingestion, absorption and inhalation of the fumes. Corrosive to aluminum. Used as a catalyst in instruments, boilers, mirror coatings.
[Reactivity Profile]

MERCURY(7439-97-6) forms an explosive acelylide when mixed with acetylene. Can form explosive compounds with ammonia (a residue resulting from such a reaction exploded when an attempt was made to clean MERCURY(7439-97-6) off a steel rod [Chem. Eng. News 25:2138. 1947]. Chlorine dioxide (also other oxidants, such as: chlorine, bromine, nitric acid, performic acid), and MERCURY(7439-97-6) explode when mixed [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:381. 1956]. Methyl azide in the presence of MERCURY(7439-97-6) is potentially explosive [Can. J. Chem. 41:1048. 1963]. Ground mixtures of sodium carbide and MERCURY(7439-97-6) can react vigorously [Mellor 5:848. 1946-47]. Ammonia forms explosive compounds with gold, MERCURY(7439-97-6), or silver. (Eggeman, Tim. mmonia Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2001.).
[Air & Water Reactions]

Insoluble in water.
[Hazard]

Central nervous system impairment, peripheral nervous system impairment, and kidney damage. (1) Mercury, metallic: Highly toxic by skin absorption and inhalation of fume or vapor, absorbed by respiratory and intestinal tract. FDA permits zero addition to
[Health Hazard]

No immediate symptoms. As poisoning becomes established, slight muscular tremor, loss of appetite, nausea, and diarrhea are observed. Psychic, kidney, and cardiovascular disturbances may occur.
[Potential Exposure]

Mercury is used as a catalyst, in dental applications; and in pharmaceuticals; as a liquid cathode in cells for the electrolytic production of caustic and chlorine. It is used in electrical apparatus (lamps, rectifiers, and batteries) and in control instruments (switches, thermometers, and barometers)
[Fire Hazard]

Behavior in Fire: Not flammable
[First aid]

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and do induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
Antidotes and Special Procedures for medical personnel: The drug NAP has been used to treat mercury poisoning, with mixed success
[Shipping]

UN2809 Mercury, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, 6.1-Poisonous material
[Incompatibilities]

Heating mercury causes the formation of toxic mercury oxide fumes. Reacts violently with alkali metals; acetylene, azides, ammonia gas; chlorine, chlorine dioxide; many acids; most metals; ground mixtures of sodium carbide, and ethylene oxide. Contact with methyl azide forms shock- and spark-sensitive explosives. Attacks copper and many other metals, forming amalgams
[Waste Disposal]

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Accumulate for purification and re-use if possible. Mercury vapors may be adsorbed or treated with sulfide solutions and then sent to mercury recovery operations
[Purification Methods]

After air has been bubbled through mercury for several hours to oxidise metallic impurities, it is filtered to remove coarser particles of oxide and dirt, then sprayed through a 4-ft column containing 10% HNO3. It is washed with distilled water, dried with filter paper and distilled under vacuum. [Schenk in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p8 1963.]
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

T,N,Xn,C
[Risk Statements ]

R25:Toxic if swallowed.
R48/21/22:Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R51/53:Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R50/53:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R33:Danger of cumulative effects.
R23:Toxic by inhalation.
R20/21/22:Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R34:Causes burns.
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
R23/24/25:Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
[Safety Statements ]

S7:Keep container tightly closed .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S60:This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
[RIDADR ]

UN 3289 6.1/PG 2
[WGK Germany ]

3
[RTECS ]

OV4550000
[F ]

10
[TSCA ]

Yes
[HazardClass ]

8
[PackingGroup ]

III
[Safety Profile]

Poison by inhalation. Human systemic effects by inhalation: wakefulness, muscle weakness, anorexia, headache, tinnitus, hypermotihty, darrhea, liver changes, dermatitis, fever. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Human mutation data reported. Used in dental applications, electronics, and chemical synthesis. bromopropyne, alkynes + silver perchlorate, ethylene oxide, lithium, methylsilane + oxygen (explodes when shaken), peroxyformic acid, chlorine dioxide, tetracarbonylnickel + oxygen. May react with ammonia to form an explosive product. Mixtures with methyl azide are shockand spark-sensitive explosives. The vapor iptes on contact with boron diiodophosphide. Reacts violently with acetylenic compounds (e.g., acetylene, sodmm acetylide, 2-butyne-l,4 do1 + acid), metals (e.g., aluminum, calcium, potassium, sodium, rubidium, exothermic formation of amalgams), Cl2, ClO2, CH3N3, NazCz, nitromethane. Incompatible with methyl azide, oxidants. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Hg. See also MERCURY COMPOUNDS.
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Preparation Products]

Acetic acid glacial-->Potassium hydroxide -->2-Chlorobenzaldehyde -->3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propanoic acid-->Mercury chloride -->6-Chloronicotinonitrile-->14-METHYLPENTADECANOIC ACID-->TRICOSANOIC ACID-->LIGNOCERIC ACID-->OCTACOSANOIC ACID-->PHENYLMERCURIC ACETATE-->MERCURIC ACETATE-->1-Anthraquinonesulfonic acid-->1 5-ANTHRAQUINONEDISULFONIC ACID-->diammonium tetrachloromercurate -->Aminomercuric chloride-->MERCURY(II) IODIDE-->MERCURY(I) ACETATE-->PHENYLMERCURY NITRATE-->mercurous bromide-->MERCUROUS CHLORIDE-->Mercury iodide-->MERCURY(II) SULFIDE-->NESSLER'S REAGENT-->MERCUROUS NITRATE-->MERCURIC NITRATE, MONOHYDRATE
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

mercury(7439-97-6).msds
Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[History]

Although mercury is known from early times and was used by alchemists, its first modern scientific applications date back to 1643 when Torricelli used it in the barometer to measure pressure and about eight decades later Fahrenheit used it in the thermometer to measure temperature. Before this, mercury’s use was confined to decorative work, gold extraction and medicines. The element was named after the planet mercury and its symbol Hg is taken from the Latin word hydrargyrum, which means liquid silver.
The element does not occur in nature in native form. Its principal mineral is cinnabar, the red mercuric sulfide, HgS. Black mercuric sulfide, metacinnabar, also is found in nature. Other ores are livingstonite, HgSb4S7; coloradite, HgTe; tiemannite, HgSe; and calomel, HgCl. Its concentration in the earth’s crust is estimated to be 0.08 mg/kg. The average concentration in sea water is about 0.03 µg/L.
[Uses]

Some of the most important uses of mercury are in the electrical and electrolytic applications. A broad range of such applications include mercury batteries and cells in portable radios, microphones, cameras, hearing aids, watches, smoke alarms, and wiring and switching devices. Other notable applications are in mercury vapor lamps, fluorescent tubes and electrical discharge tubes. Mercury electrodes are widely used in electrolytic cells. Mercury cathodes are employed in the electrolysis of sodium chloride to produce caustic soda and chlorine. Another major use, as mentioned earlier, is in thermometers, manometers, barometers and other pressure-sensing devices. Mercury also is used as a catalyst in making urethane foams and vinyl chloride monomers. Mercury and its compounds long have been used as fungicides in paints and in agriculture. Mercury compounds are used in medicines, pigments and analytical reagents.
In mercury arc lamps producing ultraviolet rays; in mercury boilers; manufacture of all mercury salts, mirrors; as catalyst in oxidation of organic Compounds; extracting gold and silver from ores; making amalgams, electric rectifiers, mercury fulminate; also in dentistry; in determining N by Kjeldahl method, for Millon's reagent; as cathode in electrolysis, electroanalysis, and many other uses. Also in pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, anti-fouling paints.
[Production Methods]

Mercury mostly is obtained from its sulfide ore, cinnabar. The process involves roasting cinnabar in a furnace between 600 to 700°C. Mercury vapors are cooled and condensed into metal:
HgS + O2 → Hg + SO2
Mercury may also be extracted from cinnabar by reduction of the ore with lime at elevated temperature:
4HgS + 4CaO → 4Hg + 3CaS + CaSO4
Smaller quantities of metal are recovered from mercury-containing industrial and municipal wastes, such as amalgams and batteries. The scrap material is heated in a retort and the vapors of mercury are condensed into highpurity metal.
[Toxicity]

Elemental mercury and all its compounds are highly toxic by all routes of exposure. The element has significant vapor pressure at ambient temperatures (0.0018 torr at 25°C) that can produce severe inhalation hazard. The symptoms from short exposure to high concentration of mercury vapors are bronchitis, coughing, chest pain, respiratory distress, salivation and diarrhea (Patnaik, P. 1999. A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons). Other symptoms are tremor, insomnia and depression. Mercury can cause damage to kidney, liver, lungs and brain. Organomercury compounds and inorganic salt solutions can be absorbed into the body through skin contact and cause severe poisoning. It accumulates as Hg2+ in the brain and kidneys. US EPA has classified mercury as one of the priority pollutant metals in environmental matrices.
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Mercury(7439-97-6)
[Alfa Aesar]

Mercury, redistilled, 99.9+%(7439-97-6)
[Sigma Aldrich]

7439-97-6(sigmaaldrich)
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