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7440-06-4

7440-06-4 Structure

7440-06-4 Structure
IdentificationMore
[Name]

Platinum
[CAS]

7440-06-4
[EINECS(EC#)]

231-116-1
[Molecular Formula]

Pt
[MDL Number]

MFCD00011179
[Molecular Weight]

195.08
[MOL File]

7440-06-4.mol
Chemical PropertiesBack Directory
[Appearance]

Black Powder
[Appearance]

Platinum is a soft, ductile, malleable, silverwhite metal. It is found in the metallic form and as the arsenide, sperrylite. It forms complex soluble salts, such as Na2PtCl6. It also forms halides. Metallic platinum is insoluble in water. Platinum(IV) chloride is red-brown crystals or powder.
[mp ]

1772 °C(lit.)
[bp ]

3827 °C(lit.)
[density ]

21.45 g/cm 3 (lit.)
[refractive index ]

n20/D 1.347
[Fp ]

3825°C
[storage temp. ]

Flammables area
[form ]

wire
[Stability:]

Stable. Platinum black is highly flammable.
[Water Solubility ]

Insoluble
[Merck ]

14,7529
[History]

Discovered in South America by Ulloa in 1735 and by Wood in 1741. Platinum was used by pre-Columbian Indians. Platinum occurs native, accompanied by small quantities of iridium, osmium, palladium, ruthenium, and rhodium, all belonging to the same group of metals. These are found in the alluvial deposits of the Ural mountains and in Columbia. Sperrylite (PtAs2), occurring with the nickel-bearing deposits of Sudbury, Ontario, is a source of a considerable amount of metal. The large production of nickel offsets there being only one part of the platinum metals in two million parts of ore. The largest supplier of the platinum group of metals is now South Africa, followed by Russia and Canada. Platinum is a beautiful silvery-white metal, when pure, and is malleable and ductile. It has a coefficient of expansion almost equal to that of soda–lime–silica glass, and is therefore used to make sealed electrodes in glass systems. The metal does not oxidize in air at any temperature, but is corroded by halogens, cyanides, sulfur, and caustic alkalis. It is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but dissolves when they are mixed as aqua regia, forming chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6), an important compound. Natural platinum contains six isotopes, one of which, 190Pt, is radioactive with a long half-life. Thirtyseven other radioactive isotopes and isomers are recognized. The metal is used extensively in jewelry, wire, and vessels for laboratory use, and in many valuable instruments including thermocouple elements. It is also used for electrical contacts, corrosion-resistant apparatus, and in dentistry. Platinum–cobalt alloys have magnetic properties. One such alloy made of 76.7% Pt and 23.3% Co, by weight, is an extremely powerful magnet that offers a B-H (max) almost twice that of Alnico V. Platinum resistance wires are used for constructing hightemperature electric furnaces. The metal is used for coating missile nose cones, jet engine fuel nozzles, etc., which must perform reliably for long periods of time at high temperatures. The metal, like palladium, absorbs large volumes of hydrogen, retaining it at ordinary temperatures but giving it up at red heat. In the finely divided state platinum is an excellent catalyst, having long been used in the contact process for producing sulfuric acid. It is also used as a catalyst in cracking petroleum products. There is also much current interest in the use of platinum as a catalyst in fuel cells and in its use as antipollution devices for automobiles. Platinum anodes are extensively used in cathodic protection systems for large ships and ocean-going vessels, pipelines, steel piers, etc. Pure platinum wire will glow red hot when placed in the vapor of methyl alcohol. It acts here as a catalyst, converting the alcohol to formaldehyde. This phenomenon has been used commercially to produce cigarette lighters and hand warmers. Hydrogen and oxygen explode in the presence of platinum. The price of platinum has varied widely; more than a century ago it was used to adulterate gold. It was nearly eight times as valuable as gold in 1920. The price in January 2002 was about $430/troy oz. ($15/g), higher than the price of gold.
[Uses]

Platinum is a white noble metal that looks very much like metallic silver found in copper ore. The name platinum comes from the Spanish word plata, meaning silver. Platinum compounds were used in the platinum printing process and for toning silver images.
[CAS DataBase Reference]

7440-06-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Platinum(7440-06-4)
[EPA Substance Registry System]

7440-06-4(EPA Substance)
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

F,Xi,Xn
[Risk Statements ]

R11:Highly Flammable.
R37:Irritating to the respiratory system.
R20:Harmful by inhalation.
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
R36/37:Irritating to eyes and respiratory system .
[Safety Statements ]

S36:Wear suitable protective clothing .
S7/9:Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place .
S33:Take precautionary measures against static discharges .
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition-No smoking .
S38:In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment .
S22:Do not breathe dust .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S14:Keep away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer) .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S27:Take off immediately all contaminated clothing .
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes .
[RIDADR ]

UN 3264 8/PG 3
[WGK Germany ]

3
[RTECS ]

TP2160000
[HazardClass ]

4.1
[PackingGroup ]

III
[HS Code ]

28439000
[Safety Profile]

Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data by implant route. Finely divided platinum is a powerful catalyst and can be dangerous to handle. Used catalysts are especially dangerous and may be explosive. May undergo hazardous reactions with aluminum, acetone, arsenic, carbon + methanol, nitrosyl chloride, dioxygen difluoride, ethanol, hydrazine, hydrogen + air, hydrogen peroxide, lithium, methyl hydroperoxide, ozonides, peroxpmonosulfuric acid, phosphorus, selenium, tellurium, vanadium dichloride + water. See also PLATINUM COMPOUNDS.
[Hazardous Substances Data]

7440-06-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Raw materials]

Sulfuric acid -->Ammonium hydroxide-->Ammonium chloride -->Chlorine-->Sulfur dioxide-->Sodium chlorate-->Nitrohydrochloric acid-->Ammonium chloroplatinate
[Preparation Products]

Toluene-->Nitric acid-->Benzene-->Xylene-->Styrene-->Vinyl acetate-->Disodium 5'-Inosinate-->Inosine-->Dextran-->1-METHYL-[4,4']BIPIPERIDINYL-->4-Piperidineethanol-->Cyclopentanol-->Chloroplatinic acid
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[General Description]

Silvery, whitish-gray, malleable, ductile metal. Mp: 1772°C; bp: 2187°C. Density: 21.45 g cm-3 at room conditions (very dense). Also shipped as a finely divided powder (PLATINUM(7440-06-4) black), as a sponge, and as particles deposited on a supporting material such as alumina. Has strong catalytic activity in these forms; finely divided PLATINUM(7440-06-4) can be dangerous to handle in the vicinity of other chemicals on this account. Used PLATINUM(7440-06-4) catalysts are particularly dangerous and can be explosive.
[Reactivity Profile]

Massive platinum (lump, ingot, etc.) is generally inert. Dissolves readily in aqua regia (mixture of concentrated hydrochloride and concentrated nitric acids). Reacts rapidly with molten alkali metal oxides and peroxides. Reacts with F2 and Cl2 at red heat. Absorbs large volumes of hydrogen when hot. Catalyzes the exothermic oxidation of ammonia by air. Finely divided platinum is incompatible with aluminum, acetone, arsenic, ethane, hydrazine, hydrogen peroxide, lithium, phosphorus, selenium, tellurium and many fluorides. Explosion can occur upon contact with hydrogen peroxide. Platinum black, sponge and supported catalysts have strong catalytic activity; can be dangerous to handle in the vicinity of other chemicals on this account. Used platinum catalysts are particularly dangerous and can cause explosions. Ethanol or methanol can ignite on contact with a platinum-black catalyst. (Urben 1794).
[Potential Exposure]

Platinum and its alloys have high electrical conductivity and excellent catalytic properties. They are used in relays, contacts and tubes in electronic equipment, in spark plug electrodes for aircraft; and windings in high-temperature electrical furnaces. Platinum alloys are used for standards for weight, length, and temperature measurement. Platinum and platinum catalysts, for example, hexachloroplatinic acid and H2PtCl6, are widely used in the chemical industry in persulfuric, nitric, and sulfuric acid production, in the synthesis of organic compounds and vitamins, and for producing higher octane gasoline. They are coming into use in catalyst systems for control of exhaust pollutants from automobiles. They are used in the equipment for handling molten glass and manufacturing fibrous glass; in laboratory, medical, and dental apparatus; in electroplating; in photography; in jewelry; and in X-ray fluorescent screens. Because platinum complexes are used as antitumor agents, the potential for carcinogenic activity is present; tests to clarify this aspect should be conducted. While low levels of emissions of platinum particulate have been observed from some catalyst-equipped automobiles, the major potential source of Pt is from the disposal of spent catalysts.
[First aid]

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When chloroplatinic acid has been swallowed, get medical attention. If victim is conscious, administer water, or milk. Do not induce vomiting.
[Shipping]

UN3089 Metal powders, flammable, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid.
[Incompatibilities]

Dust or powder may form explosive mixture with air. Platinum metal is incompatible with aluminum; acetone, arsenic, ethane, hydrazine, hydrogen peroxide; lithium, phosphorus, selenium, tellurium, various fluorides.
[Waste Disposal]

Catalyst disposal is expected to be the largest contributor of Pt to the environment. The value of the metal would help to offset the cost of reclaiming the Pt from discarded catalysts. If direct vehicular emissions of Pt are found to be significant, particulate taps, which are available at reasonable cost, may provide a technological solution. In any event, recovery and recycling is the preferred technique for both health and economic reasons. Details of platinum recovery and recycling from plating wastes, platinum metal refinery effluents; spent catalysts and precious metals scrap have been published.
Questions and Answers (Q&A)Back Directory
[Description]

Platinum was discovered in Colombia, South America by Ulloa in 1735 and six years later in 1741 by Wood. The metal was isolated from native platinum by Delisle in 1775 and produced in malleable form by Chabaneau in 1786. Wollaston in 1803 developed a method of obtaining pure malleable platinum from crude platinum by extraction with aqua regia. The process led to the discovery of two other platinum group metals, palladium and rhodium, that were found in the aqua regia extract after platinum precipitated. Platinum derived its name from platina originating from the Spanish word plata for silver, because it was thought to be a trivial unwanted material associated with gold in gold mines of Central America.
Platinum occurs in nature as a bright-white cubic crystalline solid with metallic luster associated with other noble metals of its group. Platinum also occurs as the mineral sperrylite, PtAs2, found as tin-white brittle cubic crystals containing 52−57% platinum in certain nickel-bearing deposits. Some other minerals of platinum are cooperite PtS (Pt 80-86%); and braggite(Pt, Pd, Ni)S (Pt 58-60%). The abundance of platinum in the earth’s crust is estimated to be 0.005 mg/kg.
[Uses]

Platinum metal and its alloys have numerous applications. As a precious metal it is used extensively in jewelry. Other important applications include construction of laboratory crucibles and high temperature electric furnaces; in instruments as thermocouple elements; as wire; for electrical contacts; as electrodes; in dentistry; in cigarette lighters; and for coating missile and jet engine parts.
Platinum also is used extensively as a catalyst in hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, oxidation, isomerization, carbonylation, and hydrocracking. Also, it is used in organic synthesis and petroleum refining. Like palladium, platinum also exhibits remarkable ability to absorb hydrogen. An important application of platinum is in the catalytic oxidation of ammonia in Ostwald's process in the manufacture of nitric acid. Platinum is installed in the catalytic converters in automobile engines for pollution control.
Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[Reactions]

In many respects the catalytic profile of the MeOBIPHEP ligands is similar to that of other atropisomeric diphosphines such as binap and its many analogs. The nature of the PR2 group strongly influences the catalytic performance of the metal complexes. The rhodium and ruthenium MeO-BIPHEP catalysts are highly effective for the hydrogenation of various C=O, C=C and C=N bonds and several synthetically useful C-C coupling reactions.
  1. Ru and Ir catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution for the synthesis of hydroxy, amino acid derivatives.
  2. Ru-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones and alkenes.
  3. Enantioselective copper-catalyzed asymmetric hydrosilylation of aryl ketones.
  4. Synthesis of chiral 3-substituted indanones via an enantioselective reductive-Heck reaction.
  5. Gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective ring expansion of allenylcyclopropanols.
  6. Conjugate addition using 2-heteroaryl titanates and zinc reagents. 
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Platinum, powder, 99.99%(7440-06-4)
[Alfa Aesar]

Platinum, 5% on carbon, dry(7440-06-4)
[Sigma Aldrich]

7440-06-4(sigmaaldrich)
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