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Ammonium hydroxide

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Products Intro: CAS:1336-21-6
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Ammonium hydroxide Basic information
Product Name:Ammonium hydroxide
Synonyms:Ammonia Solution (28% in Water);Ammonia 25%;Ammonium hydroxide solution >=25% NH3 in H2O, semiconductor grade VLSI PURANAL(TM) (Honeywell 17605);Ammonium hydroxide solution 28% NH3 in H2O, >=99.99% trace metals basis;Ammonium hydroxide solution ACS reagent, 28.0-30.0% NH3 basis;Ammonium hydroxide solution puriss. p.a. plus, >=25% NH3 in H2O;Ammonium hydroxide solution puriss. p.a., reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ~25% NH3 basis;Ammonium hydroxide solution puriss., 30-33% NH3 in H2O
Product Categories:Industrial/Fine Chemicals;Inorganics
Mol File:1336-21-6.mol
Ammonium hydroxide Structure
Ammonium hydroxide Chemical Properties
Melting point -77°C
Boiling point 36°C
density 0.91 g/mL at 20 °C
vapor density 1.2 (vs air)
vapor pressure 115 mmHg at 20 °C for 29% solution
storage temp. Store at RT.
form Liquid, Single Sub-Boiling Quartz Distillation
pka9.3(at 25℃)
color Colorless
OdorStrong pungent ammonia odor detectable at 17 ppm
explosive limit27%
Water Solubility Miscible with water.
λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.01
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck 14,494
BRN 3587154
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with copper, copper alloys, acids, galvanised iron, zinc, aluminium, bronze, dimethyl sulphate, mercury, alkali metals.
CAS DataBase Reference1336-21-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry SystemAmmonium hydroxide ((NH4)(OH))(1336-21-6)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes C,N
Risk Statements 34-50-22
Safety Statements 26-36/37/39-45-61
RIDADR UN 2672 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 2
RTECS BQ9625000
Autoignition Temperature690 °C (for ammonia)
HazardClass 8
PackingGroup III
HS Code 28142000
Hazardous Substances Data1336-21-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
ToxicityLD50 oral (rat) 350 mg/kg
PEL (OSHA) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 25 ppm (17 mg/m3)
STEL (ACGIH) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
MSDS Information
Ammonia solution English
SigmaAldrich English
ALFA English
Ammonium hydroxide Usage And Synthesis
DescriptionAmmonium hydroxide is a colorless, liquid solution with a characteristic and pungent odor. It is ammonia combined with water. Ammonia (NH3) is a compound consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen. Both ammonia and ammonium hydroxide are very common compounds, found naturally in the environment (in air, water, and soil) and in all plants and animals, including humans. Ammonia is a source of nitrogen, an essential element for plants and animals. Ammonia is also produced by the human body – by our organs and tissues and by beneficial bacteria living in our intestines.
Ammonia plays an important role in protein synthesis in the human body. In brief summary, all living things need proteins, which are comprised of some 20 different amino acids. While plants and microorganisms can synthesize most amino acids from the nitrogen in the atmosphere, animals cannot. For humans, some amino acids cannot be synthesized at all and must be consumed as intact amino acids. Other amino acids, however, can be synthesized by microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract with the help of ammonia ions. Thus, ammonia is a key player in the nitrogen cycle and in protein synthesis. Ammonia also helps maintain the body's pH balance.
Chemical PropertiesColorless liquid, strong odor. Concentration of solutions range up to approximately 30% ammonia.
Chemical PropertiesAmmonium Hydroxide is a colorless to milkywhite solution of ammonia, with a strong, irritating odor.
UsesAmmonium Hydroxide is an alkaline that is a clear, colorless solu- tion of ammonia which is used as a leavening agent, a ph control agent, and a surface finishing agent. it is used in baked goods, cheese, puddings, processed fruits, and in the production of caramels.
Usesammonium hydroxide is used in cosmetic preparations as an alkali to neutralize excessive acidity in a formulation.
Industry Application Role/benefit
Food processing Baked goods, cheeses, chocolates, other confectionery (e.g., caramel), and puddings Leavening agent, pH control agent and surface-finishing agent/safe and weakly alkaline
Meat products Antimicrobial agent/ lowers the acidity of meet, making it difficult for pathogens to survive
Cleaning Household and industrial cleansers Cleansing ingredient/ helps to kill microbial agents like bacteria
Alkaline disinfectant Main ingredient/disinfects sarin
Agriculture Manufacture of fertilizers Source of nitrogen
Chemical manufacture Manufacture of alkyl amine Precursor/source of amino
Cosmetics Hair dyes and colors pH adjusters/alkaline and safe
Chemical analysis Determination of certain elements such as copper and nickel Precipitant/ helps to precipitate various elements
Organic synthesis Amide coupling reactions Reagent/source of NH3
SNAr reactions Nucleophile
Catalytic reduction of nitriles Additive
Others Wood staining Stain agent/better for the wood containing tannic acids
Circuit board manufacturing Etching agent/has high alkalinity which makes it very corrosive to certain metals
Tobacco processing Processing aid/enhances tobacco flavor
Treatment of straw for cattle Produce "ammoniated straw" which is more edible for cattle
Coagulation of natural rubber latex pH adjusters/helps to stabilize the natural rubber lattices
UsesAmmonium hydroxide is utilized in numerous applications:
  1. Ammonium hydroxide is used as a cleaning agent and sanitizer in many household and industrial cleaners.
  2. Ammonium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of products such as fertilizer, plastic, rayon and rubber.
  3. Aqueous ammonia is corrosive to aluminum alloys, copper, copper alloys, and galvanized surfaces.
  4. Aqueous ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer.
  5. In furniture making, ammonium hydroxide is used to darken or stain wood containing tannic acid.
  6. In food production, ammonium hydroxide is used as a leavening agent or acidity regulator and is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Its pH control abilities make it an effective antimicrobial agent. Ammonium hydroxide is also used to treat straw, producing "ammoniated straw" that is edible for cattle.
  7. In the tobacco industry, ammonium hydroxide is used for flavor enhancement and as a processing aid.
  8. Aqueous ammonia is used in the laboratory most often as a complexant and base in inorganic analysis. It can dissolve silver residues, and when used with copper (II) solutions, provides a deep blue coloration.
DefinitionAmmonium hydroxide,NH40H, is a hydrate of anunonia and exists in crystalline form at -79°C. Normally, it is only found in an aqueous solution also known as aquaanunonia and anunonia water. It is prepared by dissolving NH3 inH20. Reagent grade anunonium hydroxide contains from 28 to 30% NH3 at 15.6 °C. Industrial sales specify the concentration of NH3 in solution in terms of specific gravity. Common concentrations are 20 °Be, which would bea concentration of 17.8% NH3 (specific gravity 0.933) and 26 °Be (specific gravity 0.897), or a concentration of 29.4% NH3. Ammonium hydroxide is an excellent medium for the reaction of NH3 (which becomes the NH4 radical in solution) with other compounds for the preparation of anunonium salts and other nitrogen-containing chemicals. It is an ingredientin deodorants, etching compounds, and cleaning and bleaching materials. Ammoniumhydroxide, as aqua ammonia, finds wide use as a neutralizing agent,because it is inexpensive and strongly alkaline.
General DescriptionAmmonium hydroxide is a colorless aqueous solution. Concentration of ammonia ranges up to approximately 30%. Ammonia vapors (which arise from the solution) irritate the eyes.
Air & Water ReactionsWater soluble. Generates a small amount of heat when diluted with water.
Reactivity ProfileAmmonium hydroxide reacts exothermically with acids. Evolves toxic gaseous ammonia with strong bases. Reacts extremely violently with dimethyl sulfate [NFPA 491M 1991]. Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate sodium hydroxide to give a black precipitate of silver nitride. Such a precipitate can explode on stirring [MCA Case History 1554 1968]. Aqueous ammonia and Hg react to form an explosive solid, likely a fulminate. (Thodos, G. Amer. Inst. Chen. Engrs. J., 1964, 10, 274.).
HazardLiquid and vapor extremely irritating, especially to eyes.
Health HazardAmmonium hydroxide solutions are alkaline solutions, meaning they have high pH level. As a result, ammonium hydroxide is a severe eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritant, and readily burns tissue with which it comes in contact. Splashes to the eye may be serious, as contact may cause severe burns, irritation pain and possibly blindness. Direct contact with skin may cause severe burns if the chemical is not quickly rinsed away with copious amounts of water. Inhaling mists of ammonium hydroxide may result in irritation of the nose and throat with symptoms including burning, coughing, choking and pain. Inhaling concentrated mist may result in pulmonary edema and shock. Ingesting ammonium hydroxide may cause pain and burns of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract.
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
Health HazardAmmonia solutions are extremely corrosive and irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Exposure by inhalation can cause irritation of the nose, throat, and mucous membranes. Exposure to high concentrations of ammonia vapor (above approximately 2500 ppm) is life threatening, causing severe damage to the respiratory tract and resulting in bronchitis, chemical pneumonitis, and pulmonary edema, which can be fatal. Eye contact with ammonia vapor is severely irritating, and exposure of the eyes to ammonium hydroxide can result in serious damage and may cause permanent eye injury and blindness. Skin contact can result in severe irritation and burns; contact with the liquid results in cryogenic burns as well. Ingestion of ammonium hydroxide burns the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract and can lead to severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and collapse. Ammonium hydroxide has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans. Chronic exposure to ammonia can cause respiratory irritation and damage.
Fire HazardNon-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
Fire HazardAmmonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.
Safety ProfileA human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by inhalation and ingestion. A severe eye irritant. Human systemic irritant effects by ocular and inhalation routes. Mutation data reported. Incompatible with acrolein, nitromethane, acrylic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, dimethyl sulfate, halogens, (Au + aqua regia), HCl, HF, HNO3, oleum, ppropiolactone, propylene oxide, AgNO3, Ag2O, (Ag20 + C2H5OH), AgMn04, H2SO4. Dangerous; liquid can inflict burns. Use with adequate ventilation. When heated to decomposition it emits NH3 and NO2.
Potential ExposureIt is used in detergents, stain removers, bleaches, dyes, fibers, and resins.
First aidMove victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.
storageAll work with this substance should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact.
Containers should be tightly sealed to prevent escape of vapor and should be stored in a cool area separate from halogens, acids, and oxidizers. Containers stored in warm locations may build up dangerous internal pressures of ammonia gas.
ShippingUN2672 Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 C in water, with .10% but not .35% ammonia, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.
Flammability and ExplosibilityAmmonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.
IncompatibilitiesSolution is strongly alkaline. Violent reaction with strong oxidizers, acids (exothermic reaction with strong mineral acids). Shock-sensitive compounds may be formed with halogens, mercury oxide; silver oxide. Fire and explosions may be caused by contact with β-propiolactone, silver nitrate; ethyl alcoho; silver permanganate; trimethylammonium amide; 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, o-chloronitrobenzene, platinum, trioxygen difluoride; selenium difluoride dioxide; boron halides; mercury, chlorine, iodine; bromine, hypochlorites, chlorine bleach; amides, organic anhydrides; isocyanates, vinyl acetate; alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin; aldehydes. Attacks some coatings, plastics and rubber. Attacks copper, brass, bronze, aluminum, steel, zinc, and their alloys.
Waste DisposalDilute with water, neutralize with HCl and discharge to sewer.
Tag:Ammonium hydroxide(1336-21-6) Related Product Information
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