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7647-01-0 Structure

7647-01-0 Structure

Hydrochloric acid


Chlorohydric acid
Acide chlorhydrique
Acido cloridrico
Anhydrous hydrochloric acid
Anhydrous hydrogen chloride

[Molecular Formula]

[MDL Number]

[Molecular Weight]

[MOL File]

Chemical PropertiesBack Directory

colourless gas
[mp ]

-35 °C
[bp ]

57 °C
[density ]

1.2 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
[vapor density ]

1.3 (vs air)
[vapor pressure ]

613 psi ( 21.1 °C)
[Fp ]

[storage temp. ]

[solubility ]

H2O: soluble
[form ]


Stable. Incompatible with alkalies, most metals. Avoid contact with water.
[Water Solubility ]

[Sensitive ]

Air & Light Sensitive
[Merck ]


Hydrochloric Acid is an acid that is the aqueous solution of hydro- gen chloride of varying concentrations. it is miscible with water and with alcohol. it is used as an acidulant and neutralizing agent.
[CAS DataBase Reference]

7647-01-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Hydrogen chloride(7647-01-0)
[EPA Substance Registry System]

7647-01-0(EPA Substance)
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

Hydrochloric acid, or hydrogen chloride, is either a colorless liquid with a pungent odor, or a colorless to slightly yellow gas that can be shipped as a liquefi ed compressed gas. The acid is used in the production of fertilizers, dyes, dyestuffs, artifi cial silk, and paint pig- ments, and in refi ning edible oils and fats. Hydrochloric acid is also used in electroplating, leather tanning, ore refi ning, soap refi ning, petroleum extraction, and pickling of metals, and is used in the photographic, textile, and rubber industries. In addition, hydrochloric acid is used as an antiseptic in toilet bowls against animal pathogenic bacteria, and in food processing as a starch modifi er.
[Reactivity Profile]

ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE is an anhydrous (no water) strong acid. Reacts rapidly and exothermically with bases of all kinds (including amines and amides). Reacts exothermically with carbonates (including limestone and building materials containing limestone) and hydrogen carbonates to generate carbon dioxide. Reacts with sulfides, carbides, borides, and phosphides to generate toxic or flammable gases. Reacts with many metals (including aluminum, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, tin and all of the alkali metals) to generate flammable hydrogen gas. Reacts violently with acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, calcium phosphide, chlorosulfonic acid, 1,1-difluoroethylene, ethylenediamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, perchloric acid, b-propiolactone, propylene oxide, silver perchlorate/carbon tetrachloride mixture, sodium hydroxide, uranium(IV) phosphide, vinyl acetate, calcium carbide, rubidium carbide, cesium acetylide, rubidium acetylide, magnesium boride, mercury(II) sulfate [Lewis]. Undergoes a very energetic reaction with calcium phosphide [Mellor 8:841(1946-1947)]. Corrosive to metals and tissues and irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. Corrodes galvanized or copper-alloy metals (brass, bronze); fittings of stainless steel or mild or cast steel must therefore be used. Reacts with calcium carbide with incandescence [Mellor 5:862(1946-1947]. Absorption on mercuric sulfate becomes violent at 125°C. [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:462(1956)].
[Air & Water Reactions]

Fumes strongly in moist air. Soluble in water with evolution of heat.

Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant to eyes and skin. Questionable carcinogen.
[Health Hazard]

Gas concentrations of 50 to 100 ppm are tolerable for 1 hour. Concentrations of 1,000 to 2,000 ppm are dangerous, even for brief exposures. More severe exposures will result in serious respiratory distress and prolonged exposures will result in death. Mists of hydrochloric acid are considered less harmful than anhydrous hydrochloric acid, because droplets have no dehydrating action. Individuals with respiratory problems and digestive diseases may be adversely affected by low level exposures to the gas or mist.
[Health Hazard]

Exposures to hydrochloric acid cause severe health effects and corrosive reactions. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (fuming hydrochloric acid) forms acidic mists. Both the mist and the solution have a corrosive effect on human tissue, with the potential to damage the respiratory organs, eyes, skin, and intestines. Inhalation of vapors can cause coughing, choking, infl ammation of the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract, and in severe cases, pulmonary edema, circulatory failure, and death. Accidental ingestion and/or swallow- ing of hydrochloric acid at workplaces causes immediate pain and burns of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and gastrointestinal tract. It also causes nausea, vomiting, and diar- rhea, and in severe cases, death. Any kind of contact of the skin surfaces to hydrochloric acid causes redness, pain, and severe skin burns. Concentrated solutions of hydrochloric acid cause deep ulcers and discolor the skin. Vapors of hydrochloric acid cause irritat- ing effects to the eyes and eye damage, leading to severe burns and permanent eye dam- age. Long-term exposures to concentrated vapors of hydrochloric acid cause erosion of the teeth. Occupational workers and persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye disease are more susceptible to the effects of hydrochloric acid.
[Fire Hazard]

Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Containers may explode in heat of fire. At high temperatures, HYDROGEN CHLORIDE, ANHYDROUS decomposes into hydrogen and chlorine. The following materials should be avoided: Mercuric sulfate--violent reaction with gaseous hydrochloric acid at 250F. Sodium--reacts vigorously with gaseous hydrochloric acid. Acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene diamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, propiolactone, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, and vinyl acetate--increase in temperature and pressure when mixed with hydrochloric acid. Calcium phosphide--energetic reaction with hydrochloric acid. Silver perchlorate and carbon tetrachloride--when mixed in combination with hydrochloric acid forms a compound that detonates at 105F. Formaldehyde--when mixed with hydrochloric acid forms a human carcinogen. Material reacts violently with bases and is corrosive with the generation of heat. Reacts with base metals, forming combustible gas (hydrogen). Reacts violently with strong oxidants forming toxic gas (chlorine). Avoid heat; at high temperatures HYDROGEN CHLORIDE, ANHYDROUS will decompose into hydrogen and chlorine.
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

[Risk Statements ]

R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
R37:Irritating to the respiratory system.
R34:Causes burns.
R35:Causes severe burns.
R23:Toxic by inhalation.
R20:Harmful by inhalation.
R11:Highly Flammable.
R67:Vapors may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
R66:Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R19:May form explosive peroxides.
R12:Extremely Flammable.
R40:Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R20/22:Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed .
[Safety Statements ]

S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S9:Keep container in a well-ventilated place .
S33:Take precautionary measures against static discharges .
S29:Do not empty into drains .
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition-No smoking .
S46:If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label .

UN 2924 3/PG 2
[WGK Germany ]


[F ]

[HazardClass ]

[PackingGroup ]

[HS Code ]

[Hazardous Substances Data]

7647-01-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
【Raw materials】

Sodium carbonate-->Sodium chloride-->Nitrogen-->Chlorine-->Hydrogen-->Oxygen-->Potassium chloride-->Compressor
【Preparation Products】

2-FLUOROPHENETHYL ALCOHOL-->2,4-Dimethoxybenzoic acid-->(E)-2-(2-Nitroethenyl)thiophene-->3-Phenoxypropionic acid-->trans-Ferulic acid-->3-Hydroxy-2-iodo-6-methylpyridine-->4-CARBOXYPHENYL ISOTHIOCYANATE-->4-NITROISOPHTHALIC ACID-->1,2,3,4-THIATRIAZOL-5-AMINE-->4,6-DIMETHOXYPYRIMIDINE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID-->QUINUCLIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE-->4-METHOXY-3-METHYLBENZYL CHLORIDE-->METHYLENEDIPHOSPHONIC ACID-->QUINOXALINE-2,3-DICARBOXYLIC ACID-->2-Chloro-3,4-diaminopyridine-->Daidzein-->2-(2-Chloroethoxy)ethanol-->Chlortetracycline hydrochloride-->N-(2-Naphthyl)aniline-->STRONTIUM HYDROXIDE OCTAHYDRATE-->2-Chloroethyl chloroformate-->1,2-Difluorobenzene-->Rubber peptizer-->Pigment Yellow 14-->Potassium clavulanate-->Sodium 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene-6-sulfonate-->C.I.Vat Red 29-->4,6-DIMETHYL-2-THIOPYRIMIDINE-->1H-Benzimidazole-5-carboxylic acid-->4-Deoxypyridoxine hydrochloride-->C^{12^} fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether ammonium sulfate-->3,5-Dichlorophenyl isocyanate-->tert-Butylferrocene-->Norfloxacin Hcl-->Ethylenediamine dihydrochloride-->4-Nitrophenyl isocyanate-->1-Methylindazole-3-carboxylic acid-->Propyl chloroformate-->1,2,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzene-->1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

Hydrochloric acid(7647-01-0).msds
Questions And AnswerBack Directory

Basilus Valentinus of Italy was first to isolate the acid and reported it under the name spiritus salis in the fifteenth century. Glauber prepared this acid by the reaction of sulfuric acid with common salt in 1648. Lavoisier proposed the name muriatic acid in 1789 after muriate, the term referring to a chlorine-containing inorganic substance. Sir Humphrey Davy proved the gas was composed of only hydrogen and chlorine in 1810. Subsequently, the gas was named hydrogen chloride.
Dilute hydrochloric acid occurs in the stomachs of mammals. Gaseous hydrogen chloride occurs in trace concentrations in the atmosphere.

Hydrochloric acid is one of the most important industrial chemicals and has numerous applications. Both anhydrous hydrogen chloride and aqueous acid are used to produce a large number of chloride salts. The acid also is a common laboratory reagent. Some major applications of hydrochloric acid include processing of ores and extraction of metals from their minerals; in metal cleaning, particularly in steel pickling to dissolve oxide impurities; production of alumina, titanium dioxide, and other metal oxides by various hydrometallurgical processes; production of hydrogen; synthesis of chlorine dioxide; removal of heavy metal impurities from carbon black; activation of bentonite clays; etching of concrete surfaces for finishing operations; and as a catalyst in several organic reactions such as inversion of sugar, hydrolysis of starch to obtain sugar syrup, and esterification of aromatic acids.
Anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas is used to produce phosphonium chloride, PH4Cl, which is a flame retardant for cotton textiles. Other major applications include manufacture of a number of high purity metal chlorides, ammonium chloride, chlorosulfuric acid; recovery of waste metals; preparation of alkyl chlorides and chloroacetic acids; and as a chlorinating agent in organic syntheses.
Rubber hydrochloride, which results from the treatment of natural rubber with hydrogen chloride, can be cast in film from solutions. Such rubber hydrochloride films provide a strong, water resistant packaging material for meats and other foods, paper products, and textiles.

Hydrochloric acid can be produced by several methods. It is obtained from the reaction of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid in a cast iron retort at elevated temperature. Although reaction starts at 150°C, the complete reaction occurs at about 600°C:
2NaCl + H2SO4→ Na2SO4 + 2HCl
Hydrochloric acid also is made by the Hargreaves process in which a mixture of salt, sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water are heated at elevated temperatures, between 430 to 540°C. The reaction is exothermic and becomes selfsustaining:
4NaCl + SO2 + O2 + 2H2O→ 2Na2SO4 + 4HCl
Hydrochloric acid may be produced by hydrolysis of metal chlorides such as titanium(IV) chloride:
TiCl4 + 2H2O →TiO2 + 4HCl
High purity HCl for commerce is made directly from hydrogen and chlorine:
H2 + Cl2→ 2HCl
The above reaction is highly exothermic. The stoichiometric proportion of gaseous mixture at equilibrium flame temperature is cooled to 200°C, whereupon the elements combine rapidly to form HCl with over 99% yield.
HCl also may be prepared by several other methods including thermal dissociation of aluminum chloride hexahydrate, AlCl3•6H2O, and as a by-product of manufacturing many organic compounds.
Crude HCl gas mixture may be purified by cooling and drying over concentrated sulfuric acid, which also removes organic unsaturated contaminants.
Organic contaminants may be removed further by adsorption over molecular sieves, polystyrene foam, active carbon, or scrubbing with a high-boiling point organic liquid.
Commercial grade, concentrated hydrochloric acid is about 37.5% HCl by weight and has a normality of 12 and specific gravity 1.19.
Hydrogen chloride gas may be stored in steel cylinders free of contaminants. Monel, pure nickel, or its alloy, inconel, may also be used for storage and transportation up to 500°C. Hydrochloric acid may be stored in glass bottles or in containers made up of tantalum or tantalum-molybdenum alloys, or other alloys of zirconium, molybdenum, and tungsten.

Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

[Alfa Aesar]

Hydrogen chloride, nominally 2.5M in ethanol(7647-01-0)
[Sigma Aldrich]


Hydrogen Chloride  (ca. 4mol/L in 1,4-Dioxane)(7647-01-0)
7647-01-0 suppliers list
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