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94-36-0

94-36-0 Structure

94-36-0 Structure
IdentificationMore
[Name]

Benzoyl peroxide
[CAS]

94-36-0
[Synonyms]

BENZOPEROXIDE
BENZOYL BENZENECARBOPEROXOATE
BENZOYL DIOXIDE
BENZOYL PEROXIDE
Benzoyl superoxide
DIBENZOYL PEROXIDE
LUPEROX A70S
LUPEROX A75
LUPEROX A75FP
LUPEROX AFR40
LUPEROX ATC50
Perkadox L
VAROX ANS
Abcure S-40-25
Acetoxyl
AcetOxyl 2.5 and 5
Acne-Aid Cream
Acnegel
Akneroxid 5
Akneroxid L
[EINECS(EC#)]

202-327-6
[Molecular Formula]

C14H10O4
[MDL Number]

MFCD00003071
[Molecular Weight]

242.23
[MOL File]

94-36-0.mol
Chemical PropertiesBack Directory
[Appearance]

Benzoyl peroxide is an odorless, white or colorless crystalline powder.
[Appearance]

white powder or crystals
[Melting point ]

105 °C(lit.)
[mp ]

105 °C(lit.)
[Boiling point ]

176°F
[bp ]

176°F
[density ]

1.16 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
[refractive index ]

1.5430 (estimate)
[Fp ]

>230 °F
[storage temp. ]

2-8°C
[solubility ]

0.35mg/l
[form ]

powder
[color ]

White
[Stability:]

Strong oxidizer. Highly flammable. Do not grind or subject to shock or friction. Incompatible with reducing agents, acids, bases, alcohols, metals, organic materials. Contact with combustible material, heating or friction may cause fire or explosion.
[Water Solubility ]

Insoluble
[Merck ]

14,1116
[BRN ]

984320
[InChIKey]

OMPJBNCRMGITSC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
[Contact allergens]

Benzoyl peroxide is an oxidizing agent widely employed in acne topical therapy. It is also used as a polymerization catalyst of dental or industrial plastics and as a decolorizing agent of flours, oils, fats, and waxes. Irritant or allergic dermatitis may affect workers in the electronics and plastics (epoxy resins and catalysts) industries, electricians, ceramic workers, dentists and dental technicians, laboratory technicians, bakers, and acne patients. As it was contained in candles, it also induced contact dermatitis in a sacristan. Patch tests may be irritant.
[Uses]

Benzoyl Peroxide is a colorless, crystalline solid with a faint odor of benzaldehyde resulting from the interaction of benzoyl chloride and a cooled sodium peroxide solution. it is insoluble in water. it is used in specified cheeses at 0.0002% of milk level. it is used for the bleaching of flour, slowly decomposing to exert its full bleaching action, which results in whiter flour and bread.
[Uses]

benzoyl peroxide is an antibacterial ingredient commonly used in acne treatments. It functions by forcing an oxidant (peroxide in this case) into the philosebaceous orifice where it releases oxygen, thereby diminishing the P. acnes population. This reduces the level of free fatty acids and skin infection. Benzoyl peroxide may cause skin irritation in people with sensitive skin.
[CAS DataBase Reference]

94-36-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Benzoyl peroxide(94-36-0)
[EPA Substance Registry System]

94-36-0(EPA Substance)
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

white powder or crystals
[Uses]

vitamin B complex
[Uses]

Benzoyl Peroxide is a widely used organic compound of the peroxide family. Benzoyl Peroxide is often used in acne treatments , bleaching and polymerizing polyester and many other uses.
[Uses]

Source of free radicals for industrial processes. Oxidizing agent in bleaching oils, flour, etc.; catalyst in the plastics industry; initiator in polymerization.
[General Description]

White, odorless powder, moderately toxic.
[Reactivity Profile]

BENZOYL PEROXIDE is most dangerous when BENZOYL PEROXIDE, [> 77% BUT < 95% WITH WATER] contains less then 1% water. A moisture content of 3% allowed slow burning only, and at 5% ignition did not occur [McCloskey, C. M. et al., Chem. Abs., 1967, 66, 12613c]. Mixed with a large surplus of water (30% or more) BENZOYL PEROXIDE, [> 77% BUT < 95% WITH WATER] is relatively safe. In dry form BENZOYL PEROXIDE, [> 77% BUT < 95% WITH WATER] is a very dangerous material; BENZOYL PEROXIDE, [> 77% BUT < 95% WITH WATER] will explode spontaneously when heated above melting point (103° C). An explosion which occurred when a screw-capped bottle of the peroxide was opened was attributed to friction initiating a mixture of peroxide Ind organic dust in the cap threads [Lappin, G. R., Chem. Eng. News, 1948, 26, p.3518]. A violent explosion occurred during purification of the peroxide by Soxhlet extraction with hot chloroform [Anon., Sichere Chemiearb., 1976, 28, p. 49]. BENZOYL PEROXIDE, [> 77% BUT < 95% WITH WATER] is a powerful oxidizer, BENZOYL PEROXIDE, [> 77% BUT < 95% WITH WATER] ignites readily and burns rapidly. In contact with reducing agents BENZOYL PEROXIDE, [> 77% BUT < 95% WITH WATER] may ignite by spontaneous chemical reaction. BENZOYL PEROXIDE, [> 77% BUT < 95% WITH WATER] must be kept in a cool place in isolation, out of the sunlight or sources of heat, avoid shock or friction. BENZOYL PEROXIDE, [> 77% BUT < 95% WITH WATER] reacts violently with inorganic or organic acids, alcohols, amines, metallic naphthenates and polymerization accelerators (e.g., N,N-dimethylaniline). Explosive or violent reaction on contact with dimethyl sulfide, lithium aluminum hydride or aniline [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 1140]. Mixture with carbon tetrachloride and ethylene explodes when exposed to heat [Bolt, R. O. et al., Chem. Eng. News, 1947, 25, p. 1866]. Ignition occurred on contact with methyl methacrylate [MCA Case History No. 996], polymerization of vinyl acetate in ethyl acetate accelerated out of control leading to ignition and explosion [Vervalin, 1973, p. 81]. At 50° C a mixture of dibenzoyl peroxide and charcoal reacts violently producing dense white smoke of benzoic acid, benzene, phenyls and carbon dioxide [Leleu, Cahiers, 1980, 99, p. 279].
[Air & Water Reactions]

Insoluble in water.
[Hazard]

Highly toxic via inhalation. May explode spontaneously when dry (<1% of water). Never mix unless at least 33% water is present. Skin and upper respiratory tract irritant. Questionable carcinogen.
[Potential Exposure]

Used as polymerization initiator, curing agent, and cross-linking agent.
[First aid]

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.
[Shipping]

UN3104 : Organic peroxide type C, solid, Hazard Class: 5.2; Labels: 5.2—Organic peroxide, Technical Name Required. UN3108 : Organic peroxide type E, solid, Hazard Class: 5.2; Labels: 5.2—Organic peroxide, Technical
[Incompatibilities]

May explode when heated above melting point, 103 C. A strong oxidizer. Extremely explosionsensitive to heat, shock, friction, and concussion. May explode or cause fire on contact with reducing agents; combustible substances, organic substances, wood, paper, metal powders, lithium aluminum hydride. Violent reaction with alcohols, organic and inorganic acids, and amines.
[Waste Disposal]

Pretreatment involves decomposition with sodium hydroxide. The final solution of sodium benzoate, which is very biodegradable, may be flushed into the drain. Disposal of large quantities of solution may require pH adjustment before release into the sewer or controlled incineration after mixing with a noncombustible material.
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

O,Xn,N,Xi,E,T
[Risk Statements ]

R8:Contact with combustible material may cause fire.
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
R43:May cause sensitization by skin contact.
R36:Irritating to the eyes.
R2:Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition.
R7:May cause fire.
R1:Explosive when dry.
R51/53:Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R21/22:Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R62:Possible risk of impaired fertility.
R50:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms.
R61:May cause harm to the unborn child.
[Safety Statements ]

S53:Avoid exposure-obtain special instruction before use .
S17:Keep away from combustible material .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S60:This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S3/7:Keep container tightly closed in a cool place .
S14:Keep away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer) .
S47:Keep at temperature not exceeding ... E C (to be specified by the manufacturer) .
S35:This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way .
S7:Keep container tightly closed .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
[RIDADR ]

UN 3108 5.2
[WGK Germany ]

2
[RTECS ]

DM8575000
[TSCA ]

Yes
[HazardClass ]

5.2
[PackingGroup ]

II
[HS Code ]

29163200
[Hazardous Substances Data]

94-36-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Raw materials]

Sodium hydroxide-->Hydrogen peroxide-->Benzoyl chloride-->Carbomer 940-->Benzoic acid-->Phenylacetone
[Preparation Products]

4-METHYL-2-OXO-2 H-CHROMENE-7-CARBALDEHYDE-->3-BROMO-2-((CYCLOPROPYLAMINO)METHYL)BENZALDEHYDE-->4-bromoisoindoline-->4-Bromomethylbenzamide-->ANION EXCHANGE RESIN 717-->3-CYANOMETHYLPHENYLBORONIC ACID-->(3-FLUORO-PHENYL)-METHANESULFONYL CHLORIDE-->(4-FLUORO-PHENYL)-METHANESULFONYL CHLORIDE-->7-BROMOMETHYL-4-METHYL-CHROMEN-2-ONE-->sulfonic ion exchange membrane based on polypropylene/poly (ST-DVB)-->5-BROMOISOINDOLINE-->POLY(VINYL ACETATE)-->Flour improver-->optical diskbase material modified PMMA copolymer-->Anagrelide-->Methyl 3-(bromomethyl)benzoate-->METHYL 2,5-DICHLOROTHIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLATE-->4-(4-METHYLPIPERAZINOMETHYL)BENZOIC ACID-->alpha,alpha'-Dibromo-p-xylene-->METHYL ALPHA-BROMOPHENYLACETATE-->ETHOPERMETHRIN,95%-->the preparation and adsorption of poly (p-hydroxystyrene) adsorbents-->Perbenzoic acid-->Polymaleic acid-->Maleic acid-allyl alcohol copolymer-->Ozagrel-->4-Cyanobenzaldehyde-->2,5-DICHLOROTHIOPHENE-3-CARBONYL CHLORIDE-->3-Nitrobenzyl bromide-->2,5-DICHLOROTHIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACID-->Ethyl 4-bromocrotonate-->1,4-BIS(TRICHLOROMETHYL)BENZENE-->N-CHLOROMETHYL-N-PHENYLCARBAMOYL CHLORIDE-->new Ni/carbonized resin catalyst-->POLYETHYLENE, CHLORINATED-->Methyl 2-bromomethylbenzoate-->2-(Bromomethyl)pyridine hydrobromide-->maleic anhydride-benzylethylene sulfonated acid copolyer-->ethyl 4,6,6,6-tetrachloro-3,3-dimethylhexanoate -->DIBROM
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

Perkadox L(94-36-0).msds
Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[Acne vulgaris]

Although the precise cause of acne is unclear, it appears to be associated with at least four factors: increased sebum production, follicular keratinisation, bacterial colonisation and inflammation.
Study suggests the prevalent bacterium implicated in the clinical course of acne is Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes), a gram-positive anaerobe that normally inhabits the skin and is implicated in the inflammatory phase of acne.
Benzoyl peroxide is mainly indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate acne and is often prescribed in conjunction with oral antibiotics (erythromycin or clindamycin) in the treatment of moderate to severe acne.
[Active Ingredients for Acne Medications]

Benzoyl peroxide used in 2.5, 5, and 10 percent concentrations, depending on the acne severity. Usually these are in a gel spreading agent, but they can also be in a cream base or a drying paste. Benzoyl peroxide is a keratolytic, which means “keratin-dissolving” and works by loosening dead cells stuck in the follicles. It also releases oxygen in the follicle. Because acne bacteria are anaerobic, they cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. Benzoyl peroxide essentially works both as an interfollicular exfoliant and as an antibacterial.
[Mode of action]

Benzoyl peroxide is lipophilic that can penetrate the stratum corneum and enter the pilosebaceous follicle. It is rapidly broken down to benzoic acid and hydrogen peroxide and generates free radicals that oxidise proteins in bacterial cell membranes, exerting a bactericidal action. In addition, it has shown that benzoyl peroxide can reduce the free fatty acid content of sebum, which provides a useful marker for bacterial activity. Benzoyl peroxide has an anti-inflammatory action and vitro studies suggest that this action arises from its ability to kill polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cells) in the pilosebaceous follicles and so prevent their release of reactive oxygen species such as peroxides which enhance tissue inflammation. Involving equation about this process:
C6H5C(O)O-OC(O)C6H5 + H2O 2 C6H5COOH + ½ O2
Moreover, due to its irritant effect, benzoyl peroxide increases turnover rate of epithelial cells, thereby peeling the skin and promoting the resolution of comedones.
[Side effects as Acne Treatment]

Skin reactions such as peeling, itching, irritation, and reddened skin may occur, especially at the start of treatment. A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. This medicine may be harmful if swallowed.
[Other Uses]


Benzoyl peroxide is used as a bleaching agent for certain foods, an oxidizing agent, a polymerizing initiator in the manufacture of plastics, a curing agent for silicone rubber, and an ingredient in various industrial processes.
Benzoyl peroxide, like most peroxides, is a powerful bleaching agent. It has a long history of use in the food industry as a bleaching agent added for flour, whey, and milk for cheese making. Contact with fabrics or hair can cause permanent color dampening almost immediately. Even secondary contact can cause bleaching.
Benzoyl peroxide is widely used as a catalyst in the polymerisation of molecules like styrene (phenylethene) to form polystyrene, which used to make many things from drinking cups to packaging material.
[Benzoyl peroxide and Pregnancy]

There are no studies looking at women who use topical benzoyl peroxide during pregnancy. When benzoyl peroxide is applied topically, only 5% is absorbed through the skin, and then it is completely metabolized to benzoic acid within the skin and excreted unchanged in the urine. It is not likely to increase risk for birth defects or cause problems for the baby. However, systemic effects on a pregnant woman and her child would not be expected and therefore use of this product during pregnancy would not be of concern.
[References]

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a601026.html
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzoyl_peroxide#section=Drug-and-Medication-Information
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/benzoyl-peroxide/benzoylh.htm
https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-1344/benzoyl-peroxide-topical/details
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzoyl_peroxide#section=Top
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3114665/
https://mothertobaby.org/fact-sheets/topical-acne-treatments-pregnancy/pdf/
Spectrum DetailBack Directory
[Spectrum Detail]

Benzoyl peroxide(94-36-0)1HNMR
Benzoyl peroxide(94-36-0)MS
Benzoyl peroxide(94-36-0)Raman
Benzoyl peroxide(94-36-0)IR1
Benzoyl peroxide(94-36-0)IR2
Benzoyl peroxide(94-36-0)13CNMR
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Dibenzoyl peroxide, 75%, remainder water(94-36-0)
[Alfa Aesar]

Benzoyl peroxide, 97% (dry wt.), wet with 25% water(94-36-0)
[Sigma Aldrich]

94-36-0(sigmaaldrich)
[TCI AMERICA]

Benzoyl Peroxide  (wetted with ca. 25% Water),>75.0%(T)(94-36-0)
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