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Harnstoff Produkt Beschreibung

Urea Struktur
Englisch Name:

Harnstoff Eigenschaften

132-135 °C(lit.)
332.48°C (estimate)
1.335 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
<0.1 hPa (20 °C)
n20/D 1.40
storage temp. 
H2O: 8 M at 20 °C
0.10(at 25℃)
8.0-10.0 (20℃, 8M in H2O)
1080 g/L (20 ºC)
maximale Wellenlänge (λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.03
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.02
Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents. Protect from moisture.
CAS Datenbank
57-13-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
EPA chemische Informationen
Urea (57-13-6)


Kennzeichnung gefährlicher Xn,Xi
R-Sätze: 36/37/38-40-38
S-Sätze: 26-36-24/25-37
RIDADR  Not regulated
WGK Germany  1
RTECS-Nr. YR6250000
HS Code  31021010
Giftige Stoffe Daten 57-13-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 orally in Rabbit: 8471 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rat 8200 mg/kg

Harnstoff Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden




Zersetzung beim Erhitzen über den Schmelzpunkt unter Bildung giftiger Gase. Reagiert sehr heftig mit starken Oxidationsmitteln, Nitriten, anorganischen Chloriden, Chloriten und Perchloraten unter Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr.


TLV nicht festgelegt (ACGIH 2005).
MAK nicht festgelegt (DFG 2005).


Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation des Aerosols und durch Verschlucken.


Verdampfen bei 20°C vernachlässigbar; eine belästigende Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann jedoch schnell erreicht werden, vor allem als Pulver.


Die Substanz reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege.


Wiederholter oder andauernder Hautkontakt kann Dermatitis hervorrufen.


Verschüttetes Material in Behältern sammeln; falls erforderlich durch Anfeuchten Staubentwicklung verhindern. Reste mit viel Wasser wegspülen.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R40:Verdacht auf krebserzeugende Wirkung.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.


Urea is a stable highly water-soluble compound of high nitrogen content (47%), with good storage properties that make it the most commonly used nitrogen fertilizer. The synthesis process has remained essentially unchanged since it was first developed by the BASF Corporation in 1922. In this process, liquid ammonia is reacted with carbon dioxide to produce ammonium carbamate, which is then dehydrated to form urea. The reactions are:
2NH3 + CO2 ===? NH2·CO2·NH4
NH2·CO2·NH4 ===? (NH2)2CO + H2O

Chemische Eigenschaften

Urea,CO(HN2)2, also known as carbamide, is a white crystalline powder that has a melting point of l32.7 °C (270 °F). It is a natural product of animal protein metabolism and is the chief nitrogen constituent of urine. Commercially, urea is produced by the reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is soluble in water, alcohol, and benzene.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Urea is a white crystalline so lid.


The compound was discovered by Hilaire Rouelle in 1773 as a constituent of urine.


Urea has the distinction of being the first synthesized organic compound. Until the mid-18th century, scientists believed organic compounds came only from live plants and animals. The first serious blow to the theory of vitalism, which marked the beginning of modern organic chemistry, occurred when Friedrich W?hler (1800 1882) synthesized urea from the two inorganic substances, lead cyanate and ammonium hydroxide: Pb(OCN)2 + 2NH4OH→2(NH2)2CO + Pb(OH)2. W?hler's discoveries on urea occurred while he was studying cyanates; he was attempting to synthesize ammonium cyanate when he discovered crystals of urea in his samples. He first prepared urea in 1824, but he did not identify this product and report his findings until 1828. W?hler's synthesis of urea signaled the birth of organic chemistry.


The primary use of urea is as a nitrogen source in fertilizers, with about 90% of the urea production being used for this purpose. Urea's high nitrogen content (46%) makes it a concentrated source for adding fixed nitrogen to soils. It can be applied to the soil alone, but its high nitrogen content can stress plants and impact the soil negatively, so it is often blended with other nutrients. Blending also reduces the nitrogen content of the fertilizer. For example, blending with ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3, in different proportions produces fertilizers with various nitrogen contents. Urea in the soil is converted to ammonium nitrogen and taken up by plants. It can be applied in solid granule form or dissolved in water and used as a spray. Urea is also used agriculturally as a supplement in livestock feeds to assist protein synthesis.
Another use of urea is for resins, which are used in numerous applications including plastics, adhesives, moldings, laminates, plywood, particleboard, textiles, and coatings. Resins are organic liquid substances exuded from plants that harden on exposure to air. The term now includes numerous synthetically produced resins. Urea resins are thermosetting, which means they harden when heated, often with the aid of a catalyst. The polymerization of urea and formaldehyde produces urea-formaldehyde resins, which is the second most abundant use of urea. Urea is dehydrated to melamine, which, when combined with formaldehyde, produces melamine-formaldehyde resins.


urea is incorporated into cosmetics for a variety of purposes, including moisturizing, desquamating, anti-microbial, and buffering. urea is regarded as a “true” moisturizer rather than a humectant because it attracts and retains moisture in the corneum layer. It facilitates the natural exfoliation of keratinocytes given its ability to dissolve intercellular cement in the corneum layer. Through its anti-microbial properties that inhibit the growth of micro-organisms in a product, urea can also be part of a larger preservative system. This ingredient’s buffering action is attributed to its ability to regulate the hydrolipid mantle. In addition, urea is found to enhance the penetration and absorption of other active ingredients, relieve itchiness, and help leave the skin feeling soft and supple. Anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, and deodorizing actions allow it to protect the skin’s surface against negative changes and help maintain healthy skin. Studies show that urea does not induce photoallergy, phototoxicity, or sensitization. The safest concentration of use in skin care preparations is between 2 and 8 percent. High concentrations of urea seem to be unstable when incorporated into skin care preparations and can also cause irritation. Acidic urea solutions can produce burning or stinging sensations.


Used for the denaturation of proteins and as a mild solubilization agent for insoluble or denatured proteins. Useful for renaturing proteins from samples already denatured with 6 M guanidine chloride such as inclusion bodies. May be used with guanidine hydrochloride and dithiothreitrol (DTT) in the refolding of denatured proteins into their native or active form.


anticholelithogenic; LD50(rat) 890 mg/kg ip


Urea is a physiological regulator of nitrogen excretion in mammals; synthesized in the liver as an end-product of protein catabolism and excreted in urine. Also occurs normally in skin. Emollient; diu retic.


1) UREA, FCC is an odorless and colorless solid that is an important nitrogen-containing substance found in mammal urine.2) Urea has little or no nutritional value to monogastric mammals but Urea is used in sugar-free chewing gum to adjust the texture


ChEBI: A carbonyl group with two C-bound amine groups.

Vorbereitung Methode

Urea is an important industrial compound. The synthesis of urea was discovered in 1870.Commercial production of urea involves the reaction of carbon dioxide and ammonia at highpressure and temperature to produce ammonium carbamate. Ammonium carbamate is thendehydrated to produce urea (Figure 96.1). The reaction uses a molar ratio of ammonia tocarbon dioxide that is approximately 3:1 and is carried out at pressures of approximately 150atmospheres and temperatures of approximately 180°C.


A white crystalline compound made from ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is used in the manufacture of urea–formaldehyde (methanal) resins. Urea is the end product of metabolism in many animals and is present in urine.


Urea-containing preparations have a softening and moisturizing effect on the stratum corneum and, at times, may provide good therapy for dry skin and the pruritus associated with it. They appear to have an antipruritic effect apart from their hydrating qualities. Urea compounds disrupt the normal hydrogen bonds of epidermal proteins; therefore, their effect in dry hyperkeratotic diseases such as ichthyosis vulgaris and psoriasis is not only to make the skin more pliable but also to help remove adherent scales. Lactic acid also has a softening and moisturizing effect on the stratum corneum.
Urea 40% ointment may be useful in removing hypertrophic or dystrophic psoriatic nails. Subsequent topical therapy to the denuded nail bed and proximal nail fold may result in regrowth of ‘‘normal’’ nails in half of those treated.


Ureaphil (Hospira).

Biologische Funktion

The use of urea (Ureaphil, Urevert) has declined in recent years owing both to its disagreeable taste and to the increasing use of mannitol for the same purposes. When used to reduce cerebrospinal fluid pressure, urea is generally given by intravenous drip. Because of its potential to expand the extracellular fluid volume, urea is contraindicated in patients with severe impairment of renal, hepatic, or cardiac function or active intracranial bleeding.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

Solid odorless white crystals or pellets. Density 1.335 g /cc. Noncombustible.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Water soluble.

Reaktivität anzeigen

Urea is a weak base. Reacts with hypochlorites to form nitrogen trichloride which explodes spontaneously in air [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63:3530-32]. Same is true for phosphorus pentachloride. Urea reacts with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases. Reacts with strong reducing agents to form flammable gases (hydrogen). The heating of improper stoichiometric amounts of Urea and sodium nitrite lead to an explosion. Heated mixtures of oxalic acid and Urea yielded rapid evolution of gases, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia (if hot, can be explosive). Titanium tetrachloride and Urea slowly formed a complex during 6 weeks at 80°C., decomposed violently at 90°C., [Chem. Abs., 1966, 64, 9219b]. Urea ignites spontaneously on stirring with nitrosyl perchlorate, (due to the formation of the diazonium perchlorate). Oxalic acid and Urea react at high temperatures to form toxic and flammable ammonia and carbon monoxide gasses, and inert CO2 gas [Von Bentzinger, R. et al., Praxis Naturwiss. Chem., 1987, 36(8), 41-42].

Health Hazard

May irritate eyes.


Behavior in Fire: Melts and decomposes, generating ammonia.

Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung

Urea, CO(NH2)2, also referred to as carbamide, is a white, crystalline, organic, water-soluble fertilizer. It contains around 46 % nitrogen, the highest N percentage any solid fertilizer can have.
Apart from its major use as a fertilizer, urea is also employed in the manufacture of paints, glues, plastics, paper, textiles, feed and weed control chemicals as well as a source of non-protein nitrogen.
Urea is an acceptable fertilizer for rice and preferable to nitrates for flooded rice because of the reduction of nitrates to N,O and/or nitrogen (in anaerobic conditions) which is lost to the atmosphere. Also, rice can utilize the ammonium form of nitrogen efficiently. Hydrolysis and nitrification (in aerobic conditions) are rapid in tropical, sub-tropical and warm climates.
Urea can thus be used efficiently but its use requires a better understanding than that required for other inorganic salts. It is applied to flooded soil three times: at the time of planting, tillering and panicle development. Similar to other nitrogenous fertilizers, urea promotes the growth of both weeds and crops. Urea solution after evaporation in vacuum evaporators, can be finally spraydried into pellets or prills. When protected from moisture (to which it is susceptible), urea is non-caking, freeflowing and suitable for storage and handling.
However, the benefits of urea outweigh its disadvantages. Insofar as the weed growth is concerned, effective methods should be devised to minimize it to a manageable level.
Urea is converted rapidly to ammonia by hydrolysis in the soil via the ammonium carbonate formation route, the latter being unstable (decomposing to ammonia and carbon dioxide). Urea is not as quick acting as ammonium nitrate because the nitrifying bacteria require a few days of warm and moist soil conditions to convert ammonia to the nitrate form. The formation of ammonium ion is slightly acidic in its ultimate reaction with the soil.
Urea is decomposed by the enzyme urease and a part of urea is lost as gaseous nitrogen. The time between urea application and the first availability of water to the soil is important, as also the temperature, because the enzyme is less reactive in cold than at high temperature (25 to 30°C). Prevention and retardation of the hydrolytic action of urease is important following the addition of urea to soil. This may help to avoid difficulties associated with ammonia formation and alkalization.
Many substances are urease inhibitors, but very few meet the rather specific requirements of being (a) effective at low concentrations, (b) relatively non-toxic to higher forms of life, (c) inexpensive, and (d) compatible with urea.
Urea can be sprayed on leaves and can also be mixed with insecticides or herbicides for soil application. A urea-ammonium nitrate mixture with herbicide is also used for weed control.
Urea, although an excellent fertilizer, suffers from the following drawbacks: (i) When applied to a bare soil surface, urea hydrolyzes rapidly and loses a significant quantity of ammonia by volatilization. Such losses vary from soil to soil and are greater for urea in a pellet form rather than in a solution form. Burning residues on the field is suggested as a practical means to control the ammonia loss because the burning reduces the concentration of the enzyme urease in plants. (ii) Rapid hydrolysis of urea in soils can cause injury to the seedlings by ammonia, if large quantities of the fertilizer are placed too close to the seeds. (iii) The fertilizer grade urea may contain toxic biuret which is formed during urea manufacture by an excessive temperature rise. A large concentration of biuret in urea ( > 2 %) causes injury to plants. Feed-grade urea is sometimes referred to by the number 262 which is the product of its nitrogen content (42%) multiplied by 6.25, the latter being the factor used by chemists to convert nitrogen to its protein equiva

Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung

Fertilizer, Fungicide: Used in fertilizers and animal feeds, as a fungicide, in the manufacture of resins and plastics, as a stabilizer in explosives and in medicines, and others. Urea is used to protect against frost and is used in some pesticides as an inert ingredient as a stabilizer, as an inhibitor and as an intensifier for herbicides. Registered for use in EU countries . Registered for use in the U.S.



Biochem/physiol Actions

Urea solution is primarily used for protein denaturation. It also increases solubility of hydrocarbons and reduce micelle formation. Urea solution at high concentration leads to the destabilization of amyloid β16?22 oligomers.


Moderately toxic by intravenous and subcutaneous routes. Human reproductive effects by intraplacental route: ferthty effects. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. A human skin irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. Reacts with sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite to form the explosive nitrogen trichloride. Incompatible with NaNO2, P2Cl5, nitrosyl perchlorate. Preparation of the 15N-labeled urea is hazardous. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.

mögliche Exposition

Urea is used in ceramics, cosmetics, paper processing; resins, adhesives, in animal feeds; in the manufacture of isocyanurates; resins, and plastics; as a stabilizer in explosives; in medicines; anticholelithogenic, and others.

Environmental Fate

Terrestrial Fate
Urea is expected to have very high mobility in soil. Urea is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces based on its vapor pressure. Various field and laboratory studies have demonstrated that urea degrades rapidly in most soils. Urea is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonium ions through soil urease activity, which produces volatile gases, that is, ammonia and carbon dioxide. However, the rate of hydrolysis can be much slower, depending on the soil type, moisture content, and urea formulation.
Aquatic Fate
Urea is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediments. Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected. Urea is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia and carbon dioxide in environmental systems by the extracellular enzyme urease, which originates from microorganisms and plant roots.
Atmospheric Fate
According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, urea, which has a vapor pressure of 1.2×10-5mm Hg at 251°C, will exist in both the vapor and particulate phases in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase urea is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 9.6 days.


The high analysis and good handling properties of urea have made it the leading nitrogen fertilizer, both as a source of nitrogen alone or when compounded with other materials in mixed fertilizers. Although an excellent source of nitrogen, urea can present problems unless properly managed; due to its rapid hydrolysis to ammonia, significant volatilization loss of this may occur if prilled or granular urea is applied to and left on the soil surface without timely incorporation. Mixtures of urea and ammonium nitrate for use in mixed fertilizers are also more highly hygroscopic than ammonium nitrate itself.

läuterung methode

Crystallise urea twice from conductivity water using centrifugal drainage and keeping the temperature below 60o. The crystals are dried under vacuum at 55o for 6hours. Levy and Margouls [J Am Chem Soc 84 1345 1962] prepared a 9M solution in conductivity water (keeping the temperature below 25o) and, after filtering through a medium-porosity glass sinter, added an equal volume of absolute EtOH. The mixture was set aside at -27o for 2-3 days and filtered cold. The precipitate was washed with a small amount of EtOH and dried in air. Crystallisation from 70% EtOH between 40o and -9o has also been used. Ionic impurities such as ammonium isocyanate have been removed by treating the concentrated aqueous solution at 50o with Amberlite MB-1 cation-and anion-exchange resin, and allowing it to crystallise on evaporation. [Benesch et al. J Biol Chem 216 663 1955.] It can also be crystallised from MeOH or EtOH, and is dried under vacuum at room temperature. [Beilstein 3 H 42, 3 I 19, 3 II 35, 3 III 80.]

Toxicity evaluation

The primary mechanism of toxicity appears to be inhibition of the citric acid cycle. It leads to blockade of electron transport and a decrease in energy production and cellular respiration, which leads to convulsions.


Violent reaction with strong oxidizers, chlorine, permanganates, dichromates, nitrites, inorganic chlorides; chlorites, and perchlorates. Contact with hypochlorites can result in the formation of explosive compounds.

Waste disposal

Controlled incineration in equipment containing a scrubber or thermal unit to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions.

Harnstoff Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte


Downstream Produkte

Harnstoff Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 557)Lieferanten
Firmenname Telefon Fax E-Mail Land Produktkatalog Edge Rate
Hebei Minshang Biotechnology Co.,Ltd
+8613582176207 China 302 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 China 22607 55
Hebei Guanlang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
+8619930503282 China 5943 58
Jiangsu Kolod Food Ingredients Co.,Ltd.
+86-18652417778 +86-18805133257
+86-518-85110578 China 129 60
Shanghai Time Chemicals CO., Ltd.
+8618017249410 +86-021-57951555
+86-021-57951555 China 1807 55
Hangzhou FandaChem Co.,Ltd.
+86-571-56059825 CHINA 9134 55
Shanghai Yingrui Biopharma Co., Ltd.
+86-21-34979012 CHINA 739 60
Shanghai Zheyan Biotech Co., Ltd.
18017610038 CHINA 3623 58
Wuhan Boyuan Import & Export Co., LTD
0311-89850048 China 298 58
+8619933070948 China 687 58

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