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Oxalic acid

description Chemical properties Uses First aid Protective measures Medical Surveillance Storage waste disposal
Oxalic acid
Oxalic acid structure
Chemical Name:
Oxalic acid
oxalic;Aquisal;Aktisal;HOOCCOOH;BETZ 0295;Kleesαure;Oxaalzuur;Oxalsαure;DeerClean;NSC 62774
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Oxalic acid Properties

Melting point:
189.5 °C (dec.)(lit.)
Boiling point:
365.1°C (estimate)
0.99 g/mL at 25 °C
vapor density 
4.4 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
<0.01 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
1.4261 (estimate)
Flash point:
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
water: soluble108g/L at 25°C
1.23(at 25℃)
1 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Water Solubility 
90 g/L (20 ºC)
101-157 ºC
Henry's Law Constant
1.43 at pH 4 (quoted, Gaffney et al., 1987)
Stable, but moisture sensitive. Incompatible with metals.
CAS DataBase Reference
144-62-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Oxalic acid(144-62-7)
EPA Substance Registry System
Ethanedioic acid(144-62-7)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  Xn
Risk Statements  21/22-63-34-41
Safety Statements  24/25-23-36/37/39-27-26-39-37-36-36/37
RIDADR  UN 3261 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  RO2450000
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  29171110
Hazardous Substances Data 144-62-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 orally in Rabbit: 375 mg/kg
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H312 Harmful in contact with skin Acute toxicity,dermal Category 4 Warning P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
Precautionary statements:
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P321 Specific treatment (see … on this label).
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
3 0
Health   3 Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury (e.g. liquid hydrogen, sulfuric acid, calcium hypochlorite, hexafluorosilicic acid)
Flammability   1 Materials that require considerable preheating, under all ambient temperature conditions, before ignition and combustion can occur. Includes some finely divided suspended solids that do not require heating before ignition can occur. Flash point at or above 93.3 °C (200 °F). (e.g. mineral oil, ammonia)
Instability   0 Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water (e.g. helium,N2)

(NFPA, 2010)

Oxalic acid price More Price(15)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 194131 Oxalic acid 98% 144-62-7 5g $23.7 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 194131 Oxalic acid 98% 144-62-7 1kg $92.6 2018-11-13 Buy
Alfa Aesar 044410 Oxalic acid, anhydrous, 98% 144-62-7 50g $25.7 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 044410 Oxalic acid, anhydrous, 98% 144-62-7 250g $41.8 2018-11-16 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 75688 Oxalic acid puriss. p.a., anhydrous, ≥99.0% (RT) 144-62-7 50g $44.5 2018-11-13 Buy

Oxalic acid Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


Oxalic acid is a strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables, usually as its calcium or potassium salts. Oxalic acid is the only possible compound in which two carboxyl groups are joined directly; for this reason oxalic acid is one of the strongest organic acids. Unlike other carboxylic acids (except formic acid), it is readily oxidized; this makes it useful as a reducing agent for photography, bleaching, and ink removal. Oxalic acid is usually prepared by heating sodium formate with sodium hydroxide to form sodium oxalate, which is converted to calcium oxalate and treated with sulfuric acid to obtain free oxalic acid.
concentrations of oxalic acid are pretty low in most plants and plant-based foods, but there’s enough in spinach, chard and beet greens to interfere with the absorption of the calcium these plants also contain.
It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Oxalic acid is a natural acaricide used for treatment against varroa mites in colonies with no/low brood, packages, or swarms. Vaporized oxalic acid is used by some beekeepers as an insecticide against the parasitic Varroa mite.

Chemical properties

Oxalic acid is widely distributed in the plant in nature, most existing in the form of oxalic acid salt. C.W. Scheele had for the first time manufactured oxalate in 1776.
Oxalate is the strongest acid among the dicarboxylic acid. Besides having the general properties of the carboxylic acid, it also has reducing property and can quantitatively reduce the seven valence manganese to bivalent manganese. This property is often used for quantitative analysis of potassium permanganate.
5 C2H2O4 + 2 KMnO4 + 3 H2SO4 →K2SO4 + 2 MNSO4 + 8H2O + 10 CO2;
Oxalic acid can also reduce the trivalent iron into bivalent iron. Because of the high solubility of the bivalent iron in the water, we can apply this principle to remove rust on the clothes.
Oxalic acid can react with phosphorus pentachloride to generate phosphorus oxychloride. C2H2O4 + PCl5 → POCl3 + CO + CO2 + 2 HCL.
Oxalic acid can react with many metals to produce oxalic acid salt. In addition to the alkali metal salt and bivalent iron salts with the rest of the oxalic acid salt being poorly soluble in water. Some metal salt, although is poorly soluble in water, can generate complex that is soluble in water.
Fe2 (C2O4) 3 + 3 K2C2O4 + 6 H2O →2 K3 [Fe (C2O4) 3] • 6 H2O.
Upon heating, alkali metal and alkaline earth metal oxalic acid salt can lose carbon monoxide and form carbonates with carbonate continuing to be subject to heating to be further decomposed into oxide and carbon dioxide. The oxalic acid salt of nickel, cobalt and silver can finally produce metal instead of nonmetal oxide.
The decomposing products of the oxalate are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water.
Oxalate and oxalic acid salt are toxic. Mice, through oral administration, has LD50 of 2000~4000 mg/kg.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.


1. Oxalic acid can be mainly used as reducing agent and bleaching agent, mordant for dyeing and printing industry, also used in refining rare metal, the synthesis of various oxalate ester amide, oxalate and grass, etc.
2. Used as analytical reagent.
3. Used as laboratory reagents, chromatography analysis reagent, dye intermediates and standard material.
4. Oxalic acid is mainly used for producing drugs such as antibiotics and borneol and solvent for extracting the rare metal, reducing agent and dye, tanning agent, etc. In addition, oxalic acid can also be used for the synthesis of various kinds of oxalate ester, oxalate, and oxamide with diethyl oxalate, sodium oxalate and calcium oxalate having the largest yield. Oxalate can also be used for the production of cobalt-molybdenum-alumina catalyst, cleaning of metal and marble as well as the bleaching of textiles.

First aid

This kind of chemical, in case of contact with eyes and skin, should be quickly rinsed with plenty of water; Upon inhaling of large amount, we should immediately move the victim away from the scene to fresh air place; if necessary, apply artificial respiration; if be swallowed, immediately give medical injection with plenty of water for rapid gastric lavage and apply symptomatic treatment.

Protective measures

Upon productive operation, we must wear protective work cloth in order to prevent the skin repeatedly or long-term contact. Wear protective glasses to prevent eye contact. For the nitrogen oxide gas produced during the production process, measures should be taken to absorb before discharge. Work clothes if contaminated, should be replaced every day. Permeable work clothes, if getting wet, should be taken off quickly.

Medical Surveillance

During employment and regular physical examination, we should check the skin, respiratory tract, and kidney function. If there is growing oxalic acid salt crystal in the urine, it is helpful to ascertain the oral poisoning. We should pay attention to follow-up. The determination of blood calcium and blood oxalic acid salt content is also suitable for this purpose.


We should hold it with glass bottle, cask, multi-layer paper bag or metal barrel to prevent mechanical damage. It should be placed in cool, ventilated, dry place for sealed storage. It is best to use the open warehouse and should be placed far away from any places that have potential risk of serious fire. It should be stored separately from antioxidant.

waste disposal

Pre-processing includes chemical reaction with limestone or calcium oxide to generate calcium oxalate. It can be then subject to calcination and can put into particle collection device to collect for reuse.

Chemical Properties

white crystalline powder

Chemical Properties

Oxalic acid is a colorless, odorless powder, or granular solid. The anhydrous form (COOH)2 is an odorless, white solid; the solution is a colorless liquid.


Oxalic acid is made by the action of nitric acid on sugars, starch, or cellulose. This highly poisonous colorless crystal is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. It was used to make ferric oxalate, as a preservative for pyrogallic acid developers, as a sensitizer for platinum papers, and to reduce the density of cyanotype prints.


An impurity of oxaliplatin which is a coordination complex that is used in cancer chemotherapy.


Oxalic acid was used: · in the synthesis of hemicellulose hydrolysates of yellow poplars; · in the synthesis of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous metal oxides or carbonates via templating with polystyrene spheres; · as supporting electrolyte in the electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite coatings.


ChEBI: An alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid that is ethane substituted by carboxyl groups at positions 1 and 2.


A white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in rhubarb, sorrel, and other plants of the genus Oxalis. It is slightly soluble in water, highly toxic, and used in dyeing and as a chemical reagent.

General Description

Odorless white solid. Sinks and mixes with water.

Air & Water Reactions

Water soluble. Hygroscopic

Reactivity Profile

Oxalic acid is hygroscopic and sensitive to heat. Oxalic acid may react violently with furfuryl alcohol, silver, sodium, perchlorate, sodium hypochlorite, strong oxidizers, sodium chlorite, acid chlorides, metals and alkali metals. . The heating of mixtures of Oxalic acid and urea has lead to explosions. This is due to the rapid generation of the gases, CO2, CO, and NH3, [Praxis Naturwiss. Chem., 1987, 36(8), 41-42]. Oxalic acid and urea react at high temperatures to form toxic and flammable ammonia and carbon monoxide gasses, and inert CO2 gas [Von Bentzinger, R. et al., Praxis Naturwiss. Chem., 1987, 36(8), 41-42].

Health Hazard

As dust or as a solution, can cause severe burns of eyes, skin, or mucous membranes. Ingestion of 5 grams has caused death with symptoms of nausea, shock, collapse, and convulsions coming on rapidly. Repeated or prolonged skin exposure can cause dermatitis and slow-healing ulcers.

Fire Hazard

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Generates poisonous gases

Agricultural Uses

Oxalic acid, (COOH)2, also called ethanedioic acid, is a white, crystalline solid, slightly soluble in water. It is a naturally occurring highly oxidized organic compound with significant chelating activity. It is strongly acidic and poisonous, produced by many plants like sorrel (sourwood), the leaf blades of rhubarb, bark of eucalyptus and many plant roots. In plant cells and tissues, oxalic acid gets accumulated as either sodium, potassium or calcium oxalate, of which the latter occurs as crystals. In turn, salts of oxalic acids enter the bodies of animals and human beings, causing pathological disorders, depending upon the amount consumed. Many species of fungi like Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, as well as some lichens and slime moulds produce calcium oxalate crystals. Upon the death of these microorganisms, plants and animals, the salts get released into the soil, causing some amount of toxicity. However, oxalate-degrading microbes, called Oxalobacter formigenes, decrease oxalate absorption in animals and humans.
Oxalic acid is the first of a series of dicarboxylic acids. It is used (a) as a bleaching agent for stains like rust or ink, (b) in textile and leather production, and (c) as monoglyceryl oxalate in the production of ally1 alcohol and formic acid.

Safety Profile

Poison by subcutaneous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. A skin and severe eye irritant. Acute oxalic poisoning results from ingestion of a solution of the acid. There is marked corrosion of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach, with symptoms of vomiting, burning abdominal pain, collapse, and sometimes convulsions. Death may follow quickly. The systemic effects are attributed to the removal by the oxalic acid of the calcium in the blood. The renal tubules become obstructed by the insoluble calcium oxalate, and there is profound hdney dlsturbance. The chief effects of inhalation of the dusts or vapor are severe irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal disturbances, albuminuria, gradual loss of weight, increasing weakness and nervous system complaints, ulceration of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, epistaxis, headache, irritation, and nervousness. Oxalic acid has a caustic action on the skin and may cause dermatitis; a case of early gangrene of the fingers resembling that caused by phenol has been described. More severe cases may show albuminuria, chronic cough, vomiting, pain in the back, and gradual emaciation and weakness. The skin lesions are characterized by crachng and fissuring of the skin and the development of slow-healing ulcers. The skin may be bluish in color, and the nails brittle and yellow. Violent reaction with furfuryl alcohol, Ag, NaClO3, NaOCl. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also OXALATES

Potential Exposure

Oxalic acid is used in textile finishing, paint stripping; metal and equipment cleaning; as an intermediate; as an analytic reagent and in the manufacture of dyes, inks, bleaches, and paint removers; varnishes, wood, and metal cleansers; dextrin, cream of tartar, celluloid, oxalates, tartaric acid, purified methyl alcohol, glycerol, and stable hydrogen cyanide. It is also used in the photographic, ceramic, metallurgic, rubber, leather, engraving, pharmaceutical, paper, and lithographic industries.

Enzyme inhibitor

This dicarboxylic acid (FWfree-acid = 90.04 g/mol; CAS 144-62-7), is the simplest dicarboxylic acid (the pKa values are 1.27 and 4.29 at 25°C). Oxalate is produced by a number of plants (e.g., species of Oxalis and Rumex) and is toxic to mammals. Small amounts are formed in humans, particularly in individuals with primary hyperoxaluria. Life-threatening oxalate poisoning occurs whenever humans mistakenly consume ethylene glycol. Oxalate is also a natural product of ascorbate and proline degradation. The most common renal calculi are composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate, which is virtually insoluble in water and forms opportunistically when oxalate and calcium ions combine within renal tubules, eventually filling and occluding the renal pelvis and ureters, thereby obstructing urine flow. The physicochemical basis oxalate biomineralization and stone formation is best understood as a condensationequilibrium process. Oxalate also inhibits many enzymes, mainly as a consequence of its metal-ion chelating properties. Target(s): acetylpyruvate hydrolase; acid phosphatase; e-acyl-lysine deacylase; acylphosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; alcohol dehydrogenase; alkaline phosphatase; allantoicase; arylsulfatase A, or cerebroside-sulfatase, mildly inhibited; arylsulfatase B, or N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase; aspartate ammonia lyase; D-aspartate oxidase; atrazine chlorohydrolase; benzoate 4- monooxygenase, weakly inhibited; bothropasin; carbamoylphosphate synthetase; carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cyclase; carboxypeptidase A; catalase; catechol oxidase, or polyphenol oxidase, or tyrosinase; cholinesterase; cyanatehydratase, cyanase; cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase; dehydrogluconate dehydrogenase; esterase, or lipase; 5- formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase, or 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofilate synthetase; fumarylacetoacetase; gluconate 2-dehydrogenase; glucose-6-phosphatase; glutamate decarboxylase,; glycogen synthase; homocitrate synthase; D-2 hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase; (S)-2-hydroxy-acid oxidase; hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase (glyoxalase II)160; [3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] phosphatase; inositol oxygenase; isocitrate lyase; L-kynurenine aminotransferase; laccase; lactasephlorizin hydrolase, or glycosylceramidase; D-lactate dehydrogenase; L-lactate dehydrogenase; D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome); L-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome); lactate 2-monooxygenase, slow-binding inhibition; levanase; malate dehydrogenase; malate synthase; malic enzyme, or malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating); malyl-CoA lyase; D-mandelate dehydrogenase; L-mandelate dehydrogenase; membrane alanyl aminopeptidase, or aminopeptidase N, inhibited by ammonium salt; Nmethylglutamate dehydrogenase, mildly inhibited (/90); methylmalonyl- CoA carboxyltransferase, or transcarboxylase; nucleotidases; oxaloacetate decarboxylase; oxaloacetate tautomerase; 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase; 2 oxopent-4-enoate hydratase; pantothenase; peptidyl-dipeptidase A, or angiotensin I converting enzyme; peroxidase; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP); phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP); phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase; phosphoenolpyruvate mutase (Ki = 32 μM; phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase; phosphoenolpyruvate:protein phosphotransferase; phosphoglycerate mutase; phosphonopyruvate hydrolase; phytase; 4-phytase; procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase; pyrophosphatase; pyruvate carboxylase; pyruvate kinase; pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase; pyruvate,water dikinase; serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase; succinate dehydrogenase; tartronate semialdehyde reductase, or 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropionate reductase; thermolysin; triose phosphate isomerase; tyrosinase, or monophenol monooxygenase, or polyphenol oxidase; urease.

First aid

Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not Oxalic Acid 2261 breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth methods if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device? Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In the case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Medical observation is recommended for 2448 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.


UN3261 Corrosive solid, acidic, organic, n.o.s., Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, Technical Name Required.


The aqueous solution is a medium-strong acid. Compounds of the carboxyl group react with all bases, both inorganic and organic (i.e., amines) releasing substantial heat, water and a salt that may be harmful. Incompatible with arsenic compounds (releases hydrogen cyanide gas), diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides (releasing heat, toxic, and possibly flammable gases), thiosulfates and dithionites (releasing hydrogen sulfate and oxides of sulfur). Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from silver compounds; strong alkalis; chlorites. Contact with some silver compounds forms explosive materials.

Waste Disposal

Pretreatment involves chemical reaction with limestone or calcium oxide forming calcium oxalate. This may then be incinerated utilizing particulate collection equipment to collect calcium oxide for recycling.

Oxalic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Oxalic acid Suppliers

Global( 299)Suppliers
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View Lastest Price from Oxalic acid manufacturers

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2019-04-02 Oxalic acid Manufacturer; In stock GMP Factory
US $1.00 / KG 1KG High quality manufacturer TOP 3 largest production factory in China Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.

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