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コバルト

コバルト 化学構造式
7440-48-4
CAS番号.
7440-48-4
化学名:
コバルト
别名:
コバルト;スポンジコバルト触媒;コバルト(キューブ),5N;コバルト(粉末);コバルト,スポンジ状;コバルト,粉末;コバルト,粒状;コバルト及びその化合物;コバルト(スポンジ);コバルト(粉末) 400メッシュ;コバルト.粉末;コバルト.塊状;コバルト, 粉末;コバルト, スポンジ,99.99%;コバルト, ホイル;コバルトナノワイヤ;コバルト pieces (99.9+%);コバルト powder (99.8%);コバルト powder (99.99%);コバルト foil (99.9%)
英語化学名:
Cobalt
英語别名:
Kobalt;COBALT;Aquacat;CO005085;CO004500;CO000070;CO000050;CO000295;CO004850;CO000292
CBNumber:
CB9408267
化学式:
Co
分子量:
58.93
MOL File:
7440-48-4.mol

コバルト 物理性質

融点 :
1495°C
沸点 :
2900 °C (lit.)
比重(密度) :
8.9 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
貯蔵温度 :
no restrictions.
溶解性:
H2O: soluble
外見 :
wire
色:
Pink to red to violet
比重:
8.9
電気抵抗率 (resistivity):
6.24 μΩ-cm, 20°C
水溶解度 :
insoluble
Merck :
13,2452
暴露限界値:
TLV-TWA 0.05 mg as Co/m3 (ACGIH)
PEL-TWA: 0.05 mg as Co/m3 (NIOSH, OSHA)
TLV-STEL 0.1 mg as Co/m3 (ACGIH)
IDLH 20 mg as Co/m3 (NIOSH)
.
安定性::
Stable, but pyrophoric in air when finely divided. Incompatible with acetylene, hydrazinium nitrate, oxidizing agents, acids.
CAS データベース:
7440-48-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報:
Cobalt(7440-48-4)
IARC:
2B (Vol. 52) 1991, 2B (Vol. 86) 2006, 2A (Vol. 86) 2006
EPAの化学物質情報:
Cobalt (7440-48-4)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  T,Xn,F
Rフレーズ  45-23/24/25-34-53-42/43-40-36/37-36/38-17-11-15
Sフレーズ  53-23-26-36/37/39-45-61-37-24-22-36/37-5-43
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS 番号 GF8750000
TSCA  Yes
HSコード  8105 20 00
国連危険物分類  4.1
容器等級  III
有毒物質データの 7440-48-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
毒性 LD50 orally in Rabbit: 6170 mg/kg
消防法 危-2-M-1-II
安衛法 特定化学物質障害予防規則:第2類物質,57,57-2
PRTR法 1-132
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H228 可燃性固体 可燃性固体 1
2
危険
警告
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H317 アレルギー性皮膚反応を起こすおそれ 感作性、皮膚 1 警告 P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H334 吸入するとアレルギー、喘息または、呼吸困難 を起こすおそれ 感作性、呼吸器 1 危険 P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
H351 発がんのおそれの疑い 発がん性 2 警告 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H401 水生生物に毒性 水生環境有害性、急性毒性 2 P273, P501
H411 長期的影響により水生生物に毒性 水生環境有害性、慢性毒性 2
H413 長期的影響により水生生物に有害のおそれ 水生環境有害性、慢性毒性 4
注意書き
P201 使用前に取扱説明書を入手すること。
P210 熱/火花/裸火/高温のもののような着火源から遠ざ けること。-禁煙。
P261 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーの吸入を避ける こと。
P280 保護手袋/保護衣/保護眼鏡/保護面を着用するこ と。
P284 呼吸用保護具を着用すること。
P304+P340 吸入した場合:空気の新鮮な場所に移し、呼吸しやすい 姿勢で休息させること。
P342+P311 呼吸に関する症状が出た場合:医師に連絡すること。
P405 施錠して保管すること。

コバルト 価格 もっと(709)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01ALF042658 コバルト, ホイル
Cobalt foil, 0.1mm (0.004in) thick, 99.95% (metals basis)
7440-48-4 25×25mm ¥14900 2018-12-26 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01ALF042658 コバルト, ホイル
Cobalt foil, 0.1mm (0.004in) thick, 99.95% (metals basis)
7440-48-4 50×50mm ¥42200 2018-12-26 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 07385-32 コバルト(粉末) >99.0%(T)
Cobalt, powder >99.0%(T)
7440-48-4 25g ¥3800 2021-03-23 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 07385-02 コバルト(粉末) >99.0%(T)
Cobalt, powder >99.0%(T)
7440-48-4 500g ¥27000 2021-03-23 購入
Sigma-Aldrich Japan 203076 コバルト granular, 99.99% trace metals basis
Cobalt granular, 99.99% trace metals basis
7440-48-4 5g ¥14400 2018-12-25 購入

コバルト 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

灰色, 粉末又は塊

溶解性

水および有機溶媒に不溶。希塩酸, 希硫酸, 希硝酸に水素を発生して溶ける。希塩酸及び希硫酸には徐々に溶け、硝酸には溶けやすい。

主な性質

  1. 単体コバルトは灰白色の金属で、酸化物の色は黄色か黒
  2. コバルトは化学的性質にはニッケル及び鉄に近い
  3. コバルトは通常は空気や水の影響を受けない(硫酸、塩酸、硝酸等に激しく反応し、アルカリには溶けない)
  4. 硬度、引張強度、切削性、熱的性質もニッケルや鉄に似ている
  5. コバルトは強磁性合金である
  6. コバルトにニッケル、クロム及びモリブデンを含む合金は、高温強度が強い
  7. コバルトにクロム、タングステン、鉄を含む合金は耐クリープ性、耐摩耗性、耐食性が高い(切削道具に広く用いられる)
  8. コバルト?クロム基合金は人の体液と反応しない(医療に用いられる)

用途

合金結合材、耐熱材料、磁性材料、触媒。

用途

合金材料、磁性材料、触媒。

用途

触媒、合金材料。

主な用途

  1. 超硬合金工具(切削工具、耐磨工具)
  2. 特殊鋼部品(高速度鋼、一般工具、工作機械部品、航空機エンジン部品、ガスタービン部品)
  3. 磁性材料部品(永久磁石、テレビ、音響部材、磁気ディスク)
  4. 化成品(触媒、磁気テープ)
  5. その他(顔料、ガラスの消光剤、ホウロウの下塗)

説明

Cobalt was discovered by George Brandt in 1737. Cobalt exists in valence states from 0 to 5, with the most stable (+2 and +3) being the most common. Although there is only one stable isotope of cobalt, there are a number of unstable isotopes. Two of these, cobalt-60 and cobalt-57, are in use commercially. Cobalt-60 is used for cancer treatment and food irradiation. Cobalt-57 has research applications.

化学的特性

There are two allotropic modifications of cobalt, a close-packed hexagonal form (ε) with space group P63/mmc, stable at temperatures below 417 °C; and a face-centered cubic form (α) with space group Fm3m, stable at higher temperatures—up to the melting point. The metal is silvery gray in color. The only naturally occurring isotope, 59Co, is stable, but the other twelve known isotopes are radioactive, their mass numbers ranging from 54 to 64. Half lives range from 0.2 second for 54Co to 5.3 years for the industrially and medically important 60Co.
Cobalt was identified and described by Georg Brandt in 1735, but had to wait until the last decade of the nineteenth century before the new sources of metal supply from New Caledonia and Canada stimulated its metallurgical usage.

化学的特性

Cobalt is a silver-gray to black, hard, brittle, magnetic metal. It is relatively rare; the important mineral sources are the arsenides, sulfides, and oxidized forms. It is generally obtained as a by-product of other metals, particularly copper. The fume and dust of cobalt metal is odorless and black. The appearance and odor of cobalt compounds and their dusts and fumes vary with the compound. Cobalt metal in powdered form is incompatible with fused ammonium nitrate, hydrozinium nitrate, and strong oxidizing agents and should be avoided. It ignites on contact with bromide pentafl uoride. Powdered cobalt ignites spontaneously in air. Exposure to cobalt metal fume and dust can occur through inhalation, ingestion, and eye or skin contact.

物理的性質

Cobalt is a bluish steel-gray metal that can be polished to a bright shine. It is brittle andis not malleable unless alloyed with other metals. It is magnetic, and when alloyed with aluminum and nickel, it is called alnico metal, which acts as a super-magnet with many uses inindustry. Chemically and physically, cobalt acts much as do its two partners, iron (Fe) andnickel (Ni), located on each side of it in period 4 on the periodic table. In particular, iron,cobalt, and nickelare unique in that they possess natural magnetic properties. Cobalt’s meltingpoint is 1,495°C, its boiling point is 2,927°C, and its density is 8.86 g/cm3.

同位体

There are 33 isotopes of cobalt, ranging from Co-48 to Co-75, with half-livesranging from a few nanoseconds to 5.272 years for cobalt-60. Cobalt-59 is the onlystable isotope that constitutes almost all (roughly 100%) of the element’s natural presence on Earth. All the other isotopes are radioactive and are created artificially in nuclearreactors or nuclear explosions.

名前の由来

Cobalt was given the name kobolds (or kolalds, or kololos) by German miners. It means “goblin” (see “History” for more on this story).

天然物の起源

Cobalt is the 32nd most abundant element on Earth even though it makes up only 0.003%of the Earth’s crust. It is not found in the free metallic state, despite being widely distributedin igneous rocks as minerals. Its two most common mineral ores are cobaltite (CoAsS) anderythrite [Co3(AsO4)2]. These ores are placed in blast furnaces to produce cobalt arsenide(Co2As), which is then treated with sulfuric acid to remove the arsenic. Finally, the productcobalt tetraoxide (Co3O4) is reduced by heat with carbon (Co3O4 + C → 3Co + 2CO2), resulting in cobalt metal.Cobalt is also found in seawater, meteorites, and other ores such as linnaeite, chloanthite,and smaltite, and traces are found mixed with the ores of silver, copper, nickel, zinc, andmanganese. Cobalt ores are found in Canada and parts of Africa, but most of the cobalt usedin the United States is recovered as a by-product of the mining, smelting, and refining of theores of iron, nickel, lead, copper, and zinc.

特性

Cobalt has the highest Curie point of any metal or alloy of cobalt. The Curie point is thetemperature at which an element will lose its magnetism before it reaches its melting point.Cobalt’s Curie point is 1,121°C, and its melting point is 1,495°C. About 25% of all cobaltmined in the world is used as an alloy with other metals. The most important is the alloyalnico, which consists of nickel, aluminum, and cobalt. Alnico is used to make powerful permanent magnets with many uses, such as CT, PET, and MRI medical instruments. It is alsoused for electroplating metals to give a fine surface that resists oxidation.

来歴

Cobalt occurs in the mineral cobaltite, smaltite, and erythrite, and is often associated with nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores, from which it is most frequently obtained as a by-product. It is also present in meteorites. Important ore deposits are found in Congo-Kinshasa, Australia, Zambia, Russia, Canada, and elsewhere. The U.S. Geological Survey has announced that the bottom of the north central Pacific Ocean may have cobalt-rich deposits at relatively shallow depths in waters close to the Hawaiian Islands and other U.S. Pacific territories. Cobalt is a brittle, hard metal, closely resembling iron and nickel in appearance. It has a magnetic permeability of about two thirds that of iron. Cobalt tends to exist as a mixture of two allotropes over a wide temperature range; the β-form predominates below 400°C, and the α above that temperature. The transformation is sluggish and accounts in part for the wide variation in reported data on physical properties of cobalt. It is alloyed with iron, nickel and other metals to make Alnico, an alloy of unusual magnetic strength with many important uses. Stellite alloys, containing cobalt, chromium, and tungsten, are used for high-speed, heavy-duty, high-temperature cutting tools, and for dies. Cobalt is also used in other magnet steels and stainless steels, and in alloys used in jet turbines and gas turbine generators. The metal is used in electroplating because of its appearance, hardness, and resistance to oxidation. The salts have been used for centuries for the production of brilliant and permanent blue colors in porcelain, glass, pottery, tiles, and enamels. It is the principal ingredient in Sevre’s and Thenard’s blue. A solution of the chloride (CoCl2 · 6H2O) is used as sympathetic ink. The cobalt ammines are of interest; the oxide and the nitrate are important. Cobalt carefully used in the form of the chloride, sulfate, acetate, or nitrate has been found effective in correcting a certain mineral deficiency disease in animals. Soils should contain 0.13 to 0.30 ppm of cobalt for proper animal nutrition. Cobalt is found in Vitamin B-12, which is essential for human nutrition. Cobalt of 99.9+% purity is priced at about $250/kg. Cobalt-60, an artificial isotope, is an important gamma ray source, and is extensively used as a tracer and a radiotherapeutic agent. Single compact sources of Cobalt-60 vary from about $1 to $10/curie, depending on quantity and specific activity. Thirty isotopes and isomers of cobalt are known.

使用

Cobalt has many practical uses.Historically, as well as today, different compounds of cobalt have been used for their colorsknown as cobalt blue, cerulean, new blue, smalt, cobalt yellow, and green.For many centuries cobalt was used to color glass, pottery, and porcelain and as an enamel.It is also used as a dye and paint pigment.As mentioned, cobalt alloyed with iron and nickel is used to make powerful permanentmagnets that are used in many industries.A major use is as an alloy with chromium to produce high-speed machine-cutting toolsthat are resistant to high temperatures.A cobalt alloy of copper and tungsten, called “stellite,” also maintains its hardness at hightemperatures, making it an ideal alloy for high-speed drills and cutting tools.The radioisotope cobalt-60, with a half-life of 5.27 years (1925.3 days) through beta (β)emission, decays to form the stable element nickel-60. It is used to test welds and metal castsfor flaws, to irradiate food crops to prolong freshness, as a portable source of ionizing gamma(γ) radiation, for radiation research, and for a medical source of radiation to treat cancers andother diseases.Cobalt is an important trace element for proper human nutrition. It is also a natural component of vitamin B12.

使用

For alloys; manufacture of cobalt salts; in nuclear technology. Since 60Co can be encapsulated compactly, it has replaced radium in experimental medicine and cancer research. Cobalt is also used in the cobalt bomb, a hydrogen bomb surrounded by a cobalt metal shell. When the nuclear explosion occurs 60Co is formed from 59Co by neutron capture. Considered a "dirty bomb" because of long half-life and intense b- and g radiation. Max permissible concentration of 60Co in air: 10-7mCi/cc, Natl. Bur. Stand. Handb. 69, 31 (1959).

使用

Cobalt is used in steel alloys, cementedcarbide abrasives and jet engines.

定義

cobalt: Symbol Co. A light-greytransition element; a.n. 27; r.a.m.58.933; r.d. 8.9; m.p. 1495°C; b.p.2870°C. Cobalt is ferromagneticbelow its Curie point of 1150°C.Small amounts of metallic cobalt arepresent in meteorites but it is usuallyextracted from ore deposits workedin Canada, Morocco, and Za?re. It ispresent in the minerals cobaltite,smaltite, and erythrite but also associatedwith copper and nickel as sulphidesand arsenides. Cobalt ores areusually roasted to the oxide and thenreduced with carbon or water gas.Cobalt is usually alloyed for use. Alnicois a well-known magnetic alloyand cobalt is also used to make stainlesssteels and in high-strength alloysthat are resistant to oxidation at hightemperatures (for turbine blades andcutting tools).
The metal is oxidized by hot airand also reacts with carbon, phosphorus,sulphur, and dilute mineralacids. Cobalt salts, usual oxidationstates II and III, are used to give abrilliant blue colour in glass, tiles,and pottery. Anhydrous cobalt(II)chloride paper is used as a qualitativetest for water and as a heat-sensitiveink. Small amounts of cobalt salts areessential in a balanced diet for mam-mals. Artificiallyproduced cobalt–60 is an importantradioactive tracer andcancer-treatment agent. The elementwas discovered by Georg Brandt(1694–1768) in 1737.

定義

A lustrous silveryblue hard ferromagnetic transition metal occurring in association with nickel. It is used in alloys for magnets, cutting tools, and electrical heating elements and in catalysts and some paints.

調製方法

World sources of the metal and the oxide are chiefly from Zaire, Belgium–Luxembourg, Norway, and Finland, in that order, with Zaire furnishing 58% of the world’s supply.
Practically all cobalt produced is a by- or coproduct of other metals, chiefly copper; accordingly, a description of the mining process is omitted. The processes used in extracting cobalt from its ores vary according to the type of ore and locations of the ore deposit.
Arsenical ores are concentrated by hand sorting, gravity separation, or froth flotation, and are smelted in a blast furnace with coke and limestone to a speiss (an impure mixture of iron, cobalt, and nickel arsenides). The speiss is ground, roasted with salt, and leached with water. Insoluble chlorides remaining after the leaching process are ground with sulfuric acid, washed, and filtered, and the washings are added to the liquid from the leaching step. The combined solution is oxidized and then neutralized with lime.
Basic ferric arsenate precipitates and is removed, leaving a solution-containing cobalt and nickel. The addition of successive portions of sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite precipitates cobalt as the hydroxide, which is initially pure but finally admixes with nickel hydroxide. The cobalt precipitate is dried, ground, and formed into pellets, which are reduced by heating with charcoal to cobalt metal.

定義

ChEBI: A cobalt group element atom that has atomic number 27.

反応性

Cobalt absorbs very little hydrogen even at high temperatures and nitrogen is practically insoluble up to 1200°C. Finely divided cobalt is pyrophoric in air, but the massive metal is scarcely attacked below 300°C. The oxide scale on cobalt heated in air or oxygen up to 900° consists of an outside layer of CO3O4 and a layer of CoO next to the metal ; above 900°, Co3O4 decomposes and the scale consists of CoO only. Cobalt reacts with many non-metals when heated, e.g. the halogens, boron, sulphur, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, the reactions often proceeding with incandescence. Fluorine forms CoF3, while the other halogens give the cobalt(II) halide.

brand name

C.i. 77320;Cobalt-59;Impromin;Inter-con;Kometileneamin;Levacide-c;Orkomin;Panacur;Sofracaps;Tasvite;Trelenium.

世界保健機関(WHO)

WHO Comment(non-radioactive forms): The World Health Organization has no information further to the above regarding preparations containing cobalt or to indicate that they are still commercially manufactured.

空気と水の反応

Burns brilliantly when exposed to air [Mellor 14:453(1946-1947)]. Insoluble in water.

反応プロフィール

Pyrophoric Cobalt is a reducing agent. Decomposes acetylene in the cold as the metal becomes incandescent [Mellor 14:513(1946-1947]. Incompatible with oxidizing agents such as ammonium nitrate, bromine pentafluoride, and nitryl fluoride.

危険性

Cobalt is found in most natural foods. Although a necessary trace element, it is toxic to humans if ingested in large amounts. The human body does excrete in urine excessive amounts of cobalt compounds such as found in vitamin B12.
Cobaltous chromate (CoCrO4) is brownish-yellow to grayish-black (the color depends on its purity) is a dangerous carcinogen (causes cancer).
Some years ago, a cobalt additive was used by some beer makers to maintain a foam head on their beer. Those who imbibed excessively developed what is known as beer drinkers syndrome, which caused some deaths from enlarged and flabby hearts.

健康ハザード

Cobalt is an essential element. Its deficiencycan result in pernicious anemia. It is present invitamin B12. Excessive intake of this elementmay result in polycythemia or overproductionof erythrocytes and heart lesions. Exposure toits dusts can produce cough and respiratoryirritation. Chronic inhalation of its dusts orfumes can decrease pulmonary functions andmay cause diffuse nodular fibrosis and otherpulmonary diseases. Skin contact may inducedermal hypersensitivity reactions, producingan allergy-type dermatitis.
Co(II) ion is reported to be genotoxicin vitro and in vivo and carcinogenic inrodents (De Boeck et al. 2003) Occupationalexposure to hard metal (cemented carbide)dust is linked to an increased risk of lungcancer.

火災危険

Literature sources indicate that the dust of Cobalt is flammable.

农业用途

Cobalt (Co), a metallic element with an atomic weight of 58.94, is one of the transition elements belonging to the Group 9 (formerly Group VIII ) of the Periodic Table. However, in extremely low concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10parts per billion (ppb), cobalt have been observed to improve growth, transpiration and photosynthesis of cotton, mustard and beans. Cobalt is required by symbiotic micro-organisms (e.g., rhizobia) for the fixation of elemental nitrogen through the formation of vitaminB12.
Cobalt forms a complex with nitrogen atoms of the porphyrin ring structure and provides a prosthetic group for association with nucleotides in vitamin B12 co-enzyme. This complex is called cobamide. Other cobalt functions include leghemoglobin metabolism and ribonucleotide reductase in Rhizobium, and activation of enolase, lecithinase and succinic kinase.
The concentration of cobalt in dry matter of plants ranges from 0.02 to 0.5 ppm. One ppb of cobalt in nutrient solution was found adequate for nitrogen fixation in alfalfa. The water content and catalase activity in leaves increased and the concentration of the cell sap decreased with cobalt application.
Cobalt content in soil is low and variable. In India, for instance, it ranges from 4 to 80ppm. The humus content of the soil influences the availability of cobalt in it. The nature of clay affects the absorption of cobalt from solutions, in the order muscovite > hematite > bentonite = kaolin. An increase in the pH of the soil decreases the availability of cobalt. Cobalt deficiency is more pronounced in coarse sandy soils and under high rainfall conditions. To overcome deficiency, cobalt fertilization with 100to 200g/ha as cobaltous sulphate (CoSO,) is recommended.

工業用途

Cobalt (symbol Co) is a lustrous, silvery-bluemetallic chemical element, resembling nickelbut with a bluish tinge instead of the yellow ofnickel. It is rarer and costlier than nickel andits price has varied widely in recent years.Although allied to nickel, it has distinctive differences.It is more active chemically thannickel. It is dissolved by dilute H2SO4, HNO3,or HCl acids, and is attacked slowly by alkalis.The oxidation rate of pure cobalt is 25 timesthat of nickel. Its power of whitening copperalloys is inferior to that of nickel, but smallamounts in Ni–Cu alloys will neutralize theyellowish tinge of the nickel and make themwhiter. The metal is diamagnetic like nickel, buthas three times the maximum permeability.Like tungsten, it imparts red-hardness to toolsteels. It also hardens alloys to a greater extentthan nickel, especially in the presence of carbon,and can form more chemical compoundsin alloys than nickel.
Its chemical properties resemble, in part,those of both nickel and iron. Cobalt is themetal with the highest Curie temperature(1121°C) and the lowest allotropic transformationtemperature (399°C). Below 421°C, cobaltis close-packed hexagonal; above, it is facecenteredcubic.

生物活性

Cobalt is a vital trace element in animal nutrition. Ruminants grazing upon cobaltdeficient pastures exhibit retarded growth, loss of appetite and anaemia ; rapid recovery from these symptoms occurs upon feeding the animals with a cobalt-supplemented diet. Cobalt salts are not therefore considered to be particularly toxic to animals, but to man they can in sufficiently large doses irritate the gastro-intestinal tract and cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Small amounts of cobalt, however, are invaluable in the treatment of pernicious anaemia. The discovery in 1926 of the antipernicious anaemia factor in liver led to the discovery in 1948 of vitamin B12, which was very soon after shown to contain cobalt.

安全性プロファイル

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic and tumorigenic data. Poison by intravenous, intratracheal, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Inhalation of the dust may cause pulmonary damage. The powder may cause dermatitis. Ingestion of soluble salts produces nausea and vomiting by local irritation. Powdered cobalt igmtes spontaneously in air. Flammable when exposed to heat or flame. Explosive reaction with hydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate + heat, and 1,3,4,7-tetramethylisoindole (at 39OOC). Ignites on contact with bromine pentafluoride. Incandescent reaction with acetylene or nitryl fluoride. See also COBALT COMPOUNDS.

職業ばく露

Possible risk of forming tumors, Suspected reprotoxic hazard. Nickel-aluminumcobalt alloys are used for permanent magnets. Alloys with nickel, aluminum, copper, beryllium, chromium, and molybdenum are used in the electrical, automobile, and aircraft industries. Cobalt is added to tool steels to improve their cutting qualities and is used as a binder in the manufacture of tungsten carbide tools. Various cobalt compounds are used as pigments in enamels, glazes, and paints; as catalysts in afterburners; and in the glass, pottery, photographic, electroplating industries. Radioactive cobalt (60Co) is used in the treatment of cancer. Cobalt has been added to beer to promote formation of foam but cobalt acts with alcohol to produce severe cardiac effects at concentrations as low as 1.2-1.5 mg/L of beer. Cobalt is part of the vitamin B12 molecule and as such is an essential nutrient. The requirement of humans for cobalt in the form of vitamin B12 is about 0.13 μg/day.

Carcinogenicity

In mammalian cells in vitro cobalt compounds have caused DNA strand breaks, sister chromatid exchanges, and aneuploidy, but not chromosomal aberrations.Cobalt salts are generally nonmutagenic in prokaryotic assays.

環境運命予測

Cobalt most often depresses the activity of enzymes, including catalase, amino levulinic acid synthetase, and P-450, enzymes involved in cellular respiration. The Krebs citric acid cycle can be blocked by cobalt resulting in the inhibition of cellular energy production. Cobalt can replace zinc in a number of zincrequired enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase. Cobalt can also enhance the kinetics of some enzymes, such as heme oxidase in the liver. Cobalt interferes with and depresses iodine metabolism, resulting in reduced thyroid activity. Reduced thyroid activity can lead to goiter.

貯蔵

Cobalt metal dust (powdered metal) should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA standards. Containers of cobalt metal dust should be protected from physical damage and ignition sources, and should be stored separately from strong oxidizers.

輸送方法

UN3189 Metal powder, self-heating, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.2; Labels: 4.2-Spontaneously combustible material

Toxicity evaluation

The sources of cobalt in the environment are both natural and synthetic (anthropogenic). Natural sources include soil, seawater spray, volcanic eruptions, and forest fires. Anthropogenic sources include combustion of fossil fuels, metal smelting, sewage sludge, and processing of cobalt alloys. Cobalt is found in the atmosphere in particulate form and returns to the Earth’s surface through dry deposition and with rain or snow. Once in surface water, cobalt generally moves into sediment. Cobalt does not appear to biomagnify significantly in the aquatic food chain. The cobalt that does accumulate in fish is largely found in the nonedible parts of the fish. Seventy-nine percent of the cobalt is transported by rivers globally and precipitates in estuaries.
Under normal environmental conditions, cobalt is expected to bind strongly to soil; thus, migration through soil is very limited. Cobalt in soil can be taken up by plant roots and root vegetables, but does not translocate to the aboveground parts of plants.

廃棄物の処理

Cobalt metal may be recovered from scrap and cobalt compounds from spent catalysts as alternatives to disposal.

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7440-48-4(コバルト)キーワード:


  • 7440-48-4
  • Cobalt, plasma standard solution, Co 10μg/mL
  • Cobalt wire, 0.1mm (0.004 in.) dia.
  • Cobalt wire, 0.25mm (0.01 in.) dia.
  • Cobalt slug, 3.175mm (0.125 in.) dia. x 3.175mm (0.125 in.) length
  • Cobalt rod, 12mm (0.47 in.) dia.
  • Cobalt sputtering target, 50.8mm (2.0 in.) dia. x 3.18mm (0.125 in.) thick
  • Cobalt sputtering target, 76.2mm (3.0 in.) dia. x 6.35mm (0.250 in.) thick
  • Cobalt foil, 0.127mm (0.005 in.) thick, 50x50mm (2x2 in.)
  • Aquacat
  • Cobalt Rod/Φ8x100mm/99.99%
  • Cobalt Target//Φ25.4x6.3mm/99.99%
  • Cobalt Target//Φ50.8x3.2mm/99.99%
  • Cobalt Target//Φ50.8x6.3mm/99.99%
  • Cobalt slug
  • Cobalt Target/Φ25.4x3.2mm/99.99%
  • Cobalt powder,sphere (Co)
  • Cobalt powde
  • cobalt,metalsponge
  • Cobalt-59
  • cobaltmetaldust
  • cobaltmetaldustand
  • cobaltmetaldustandfume
  • cobaltmetaldustandfume(asco)
  • Kobalt
  • kobalt(german,polish)
  • NCI-C60311
  • Super cobalt
  • cobalt coating quality balzers
  • COBALT CYCLOHEXYLBUTYRATE
  • Cobalt foil
  • コバルト
  • スポンジコバルト触媒
  • コバルト(キューブ),5N
  • コバルト(粉末)
  • コバルト,スポンジ状
  • コバルト,粉末
  • コバルト,粒状
  • コバルト及びその化合物
  • コバルト(スポンジ)
  • コバルト(粉末) 400メッシュ
  • コバルト.粉末
  • コバルト.塊状
  • コバルト, 粉末
  • コバルト, スポンジ,99.99%
  • コバルト, ホイル
  • コバルトナノワイヤ
  • コバルト pieces (99.9+%)
  • コバルト powder (99.8%)
  • コバルト powder (99.99%)
  • コバルト foil (99.9%)
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