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Cobalt

History Uses Production Methods
Cobalt
Cobalt structure
CAS No.
7440-48-4
Chemical Name:
Cobalt
Synonyms
COBALT;Kobalt;Aquacat;CO005110;CO000140;CO000150;CO000180;CO000200;CO000170;CO000090
CBNumber:
CB9408267
Molecular Formula:
Co
Formula Weight:
58.93
MOL File:
7440-48-4.mol

Cobalt Properties

Melting point:
1495°C
Boiling point:
2900 °C(lit.)
Density 
1.03 g/mL at 25 °C
storage temp. 
Storage temperature: no restrictions.
solubility 
H2O: soluble
form 
wire
color 
Pink to red to violet
Specific Gravity
8.9
Resistivity
6.24 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Water Solubility 
insoluble
Merck 
13,2452
Exposure limits
TLV-TWA 0.05 mg as Co/m3 (ACGIH)
PEL-TWA: 0.05 mg as Co/m3 (NIOSH, OSHA)
TLV-STEL 0.1 mg as Co/m3 (ACGIH)
IDLH 20 mg as Co/m3 (NIOSH)
.
Stability:
Stable, but pyrophoric in air when finely divided. Incompatible with acetylene, hydrazinium nitrate, oxidizing agents, acids.
CAS DataBase Reference
7440-48-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Cobalt(7440-48-4)
EPA Substance Registry System
Cobalt(7440-48-4)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  T,Xn,F
Risk Statements  45-23/24/25-34-53-42/43-40-36/37-36/38-17-11-15
Safety Statements  53-23-26-36/37/39-45-61-37-24-22-36/37-5-43
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  GF8750000
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  8105 20 00
HazardClass  4.1
PackingGroup  III
Hazardous Substances Data 7440-48-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 orally in Rabbit: 6170 mg/kg
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H228 Flammable solid Flammable solids Category 1
Category 2
Danger
Warning
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Sensitisation, Skin Category 1 Warning P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H334 May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled Sensitisation, respiratory Category 1 Danger P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
H351 Suspected of causing cancer Carcinogenicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H401 Toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 2 P273, P501
H411 Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 2
H413 May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 4
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P284 Wear respiratory protection.
P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P342+P311 IF experiencing respiratory symptoms: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P405 Store locked up.

Cobalt price More Price(784)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 203076 Cobalt granular, 99.99% trace metals basis 7440-48-4 5g $105 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 203076 Cobalt granular, 99.99% trace metals basis 7440-48-4 25g $368 2018-11-13 Buy
Alfa Aesar 000081 Cobalt rod, 12.5mm (0.492in) dia, 99.95% (metals basis) 7440-48-4 25mm $182 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 010454 Cobalt pieces, 99.9+% (metals basis) 7440-48-4 2kg $799 2018-11-16 Buy
Strem Chemicals 27-0040 Cobalt powder (99.8%) 7440-48-4 250g $198 2018-11-13 Buy

Cobalt Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

History

The metal was isolated by Brandt in 1735 and confirmed as an element by Bergman in 1780. Cobalt is widely distributed in nature, but in small concentrations. Its concentration in the earth’s crust is estimated to be about 0.0025% and in the sea water is about 0.02 µg/L. Most cobalt found on earth is diffused into the rocks. It also is found in coal and soils, and at trace concentations in animals and plants. It is an essential element for plants and animals (as vitamin B12). Its absence in animals can cause retarded growth, anemia and loss of apetite. The element has been detected in meteorites and in the atmospheres of the sun and other stars.

Uses

Cobalt has been in use as a coloring agent for glass since ancient times. The most imporant use of cobalt is in the manufacture of various wearresistant and superalloys. Its alloys have shown high resistance to corrosion and oxidation at high temperatures. They are used in machine components. Also, certain alloys are used in desulfurization and liquefaction of coal and hydrocracking of crude oil shale. Cobalt catalysts are used in many industrial processes. Several cobalt salts have wide commercial applications Cobalt oxide is used in glass to impart pink or blue color. Radioactive cobalt–60 is used in radiography and sterilization of food.

Production Methods

Cobalt is obtained from its ores, which are mostly sulfide, arsenic sulfide or oxide in nature. The finely ground ore is subjected to multistep processing, depending on the chemical nature of the ore.
When the sulfide ore carrollite, CuS•Co2S3, is the starting material, first sulfides are separated by flotation with frothers. Various flotation processes are applied. The products are then treated with dilute sulfuric acid producing a solution known as copper-cobalt concentrate. This solution is then electrolyzed to remove copper. After the removal of copper, the solution is treated with calcium hydroxide to precipitate cobalt as hydroxide. Cobalt hydroxide is filtered out and separated from other impurities. Pure cobalt hydroxide then is dissolved in sulfuric acid and the solution is again electrolyzed. Electrolysis deposits metallic cobalt on the cathode.
Production of cobalt in general is based on various physical and chemical processes that include magnetic separation (for arsenic sufide ores), sulfatizing roasting (for sulfide ores), ammoniacal leaching, catalytic reduction, and electrolysis.
Finely divided cobalt particles can be prepared by reduction of cobalt(II) chloride by lithium naphthalenide in glyme.

Chemical Properties

Cobalt is a silvery, bluish-white, odorless, and magnetic metal. The fume and dust of cobalt metal is odorless and black. The appearance and odor of cobalt compounds and their dusts and fumes vary with the compound. Cobalt metal in powdered form is incompatible with fused ammonium nitrate, hydrozinium nitrate, and strong oxidizing agents and should be avoided. It ignites on contact with bromide pentafl uoride. Powdered cobalt ignites spontaneously in air. Exposure to cobalt metal fume and dust can occur through inhalation, ingestion, and eye or skin contact.

Chemical Properties

Cobalt is a silver-gray to black, hard, brittle, magnetic metal. It is relatively rare; the important mineral sources are the arsenides, sulfides, and oxidized forms. It is generally obtained as a by-product of other metals, particularly copper.

Physical properties

Cobalt is a bluish steel-gray metal that can be polished to a bright shine. It is brittle andis not malleable unless alloyed with other metals. It is magnetic, and when alloyed with aluminum and nickel, it is called alnico metal, which acts as a super-magnet with many uses inindustry. Chemically and physically, cobalt acts much as do its two partners, iron (Fe) andnickel (Ni), located on each side of it in period 4 on the periodic table. In particular, iron,cobalt, and nickelare unique in that they possess natural magnetic properties. Cobalt’s meltingpoint is 1,495°C, its boiling point is 2,927°C, and its density is 8.86 g/cm3.

Isotopes

There are 33 isotopes of cobalt, ranging from Co-48 to Co-75, with half-livesranging from a few nanoseconds to 5.272 years for cobalt-60. Cobalt-59 is the onlystable isotope that constitutes almost all (roughly 100%) of the element’s natural presence on Earth. All the other isotopes are radioactive and are created artificially in nuclearreactors or nuclear explosions.

Origin of Name

Cobalt was given the name kobolds (or kolalds, or kololos) by German miners. It means “goblin” (see “History” for more on this story).

Occurrence

Cobalt is the 32nd most abundant element on Earth even though it makes up only 0.003%of the Earth’s crust. It is not found in the free metallic state, despite being widely distributedin igneous rocks as minerals. Its two most common mineral ores are cobaltite (CoAsS) anderythrite [Co3(AsO4)2]. These ores are placed in blast furnaces to produce cobalt arsenide(Co2As), which is then treated with sulfuric acid to remove the arsenic. Finally, the productcobalt tetraoxide (Co3O4) is reduced by heat with carbon (Co3O4 + C → 3Co + 2CO2), resulting in cobalt metal.Cobalt is also found in seawater, meteorites, and other ores such as linnaeite, chloanthite,and smaltite, and traces are found mixed with the ores of silver, copper, nickel, zinc, andmanganese. Cobalt ores are found in Canada and parts of Africa, but most of the cobalt usedin the United States is recovered as a by-product of the mining, smelting, and refining of theores of iron, nickel, lead, copper, and zinc.

Characteristics

Cobalt has the highest Curie point of any metal or alloy of cobalt. The Curie point is thetemperature at which an element will lose its magnetism before it reaches its melting point.Cobalt’s Curie point is 1,121°C, and its melting point is 1,495°C. About 25% of all cobaltmined in the world is used as an alloy with other metals. The most important is the alloyalnico, which consists of nickel, aluminum, and cobalt. Alnico is used to make powerful permanent magnets with many uses, such as CT, PET, and MRI medical instruments. It is alsoused for electroplating metals to give a fine surface that resists oxidation.

History

Cobalt occurs in the mineral cobaltite, smaltite, and erythrite, and is often associated with nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores, from which it is most frequently obtained as a by-product. It is also present in meteorites. Important ore deposits are found in Congo-Kinshasa, Australia, Zambia, Russia, Canada, and elsewhere. The U.S. Geological Survey has announced that the bottom of the north central Pacific Ocean may have cobalt-rich deposits at relatively shallow depths in waters close to the Hawaiian Islands and other U.S. Pacific territories. Cobalt is a brittle, hard metal, closely resembling iron and nickel in appearance. It has a magnetic permeability of about two thirds that of iron. Cobalt tends to exist as a mixture of two allotropes over a wide temperature range; the β-form predominates below 400°C, and the α above that temperature. The transformation is sluggish and accounts in part for the wide variation in reported data on physical properties of cobalt. It is alloyed with iron, nickel and other metals to make Alnico, an alloy of unusual magnetic strength with many important uses. Stellite alloys, containing cobalt, chromium, and tungsten, are used for high-speed, heavy-duty, high-temperature cutting tools, and for dies. Cobalt is also used in other magnet steels and stainless steels, and in alloys used in jet turbines and gas turbine generators. The metal is used in electroplating because of its appearance, hardness, and resistance to oxidation. The salts have been used for centuries for the production of brilliant and permanent blue colors in porcelain, glass, pottery, tiles, and enamels. It is the principal ingredient in Sevre’s and Thenard’s blue. A solution of the chloride (CoCl2 · 6H2O) is used as sympathetic ink. The cobalt ammines are of interest; the oxide and the nitrate are important. Cobalt carefully used in the form of the chloride, sulfate, acetate, or nitrate has been found effective in correcting a certain mineral deficiency disease in animals. Soils should contain 0.13 to 0.30 ppm of cobalt for proper animal nutrition. Cobalt is found in Vitamin B-12, which is essential for human nutrition. Cobalt of 99.9+% purity is priced at about $250/kg. Cobalt-60, an artificial isotope, is an important gamma ray source, and is extensively used as a tracer and a radiotherapeutic agent. Single compact sources of Cobalt-60 vary from about $1 to $10/curie, depending on quantity and specific activity. Thirty isotopes and isomers of cobalt are known.

Uses

For alloys; manufacture of cobalt salts; in nuclear technology. Since 60Co can be encapsulated compactly, it has replaced radium in experimental medicine and cancer research. Cobalt is also used in the cobalt bomb, a hydrogen bomb surrounded by a cobalt metal shell. When the nuclear explosion occurs 60Co is formed from 59Co by neutron capture. Considered a "dirty bomb" because of long half-life and intense b- and g radiation. Max permissible concentration of 60Co in air: 10-7mCi/cc, Natl. Bur. Stand. Handb. 69, 31 (1959).

Uses

Cobalt has many practical uses.Historically, as well as today, different compounds of cobalt have been used for their colorsknown as cobalt blue, cerulean, new blue, smalt, cobalt yellow, and green.For many centuries cobalt was used to color glass, pottery, and porcelain and as an enamel.It is also used as a dye and paint pigment.As mentioned, cobalt alloyed with iron and nickel is used to make powerful permanentmagnets that are used in many industries.A major use is as an alloy with chromium to produce high-speed machine-cutting toolsthat are resistant to high temperatures.A cobalt alloy of copper and tungsten, called “stellite,” also maintains its hardness at hightemperatures, making it an ideal alloy for high-speed drills and cutting tools.The radioisotope cobalt-60, with a half-life of 5.27 years (1925.3 days) through beta (β)emission, decays to form the stable element nickel-60. It is used to test welds and metal castsfor flaws, to irradiate food crops to prolong freshness, as a portable source of ionizing gamma(γ) radiation, for radiation research, and for a medical source of radiation to treat cancers andother diseases.Cobalt is an important trace element for proper human nutrition. It is also a natural component of vitamin B12.

Uses

Cobalt is used in steel alloys, cementedcarbide abrasives and jet engines.

Definition

cobalt: Symbol Co. A light-greytransition element; a.n. 27; r.a.m.58.933; r.d. 8.9; m.p. 1495°C; b.p.2870°C. Cobalt is ferromagneticbelow its Curie point of 1150°C.Small amounts of metallic cobalt arepresent in meteorites but it is usuallyextracted from ore deposits workedin Canada, Morocco, and Za?re. It ispresent in the minerals cobaltite,smaltite, and erythrite but also associatedwith copper and nickel as sulphidesand arsenides. Cobalt ores areusually roasted to the oxide and thenreduced with carbon or water gas.Cobalt is usually alloyed for use. Alnicois a well-known magnetic alloyand cobalt is also used to make stainlesssteels and in high-strength alloysthat are resistant to oxidation at hightemperatures (for turbine blades andcutting tools).
The metal is oxidized by hot airand also reacts with carbon, phosphorus,sulphur, and dilute mineralacids. Cobalt salts, usual oxidationstates II and III, are used to give abrilliant blue colour in glass, tiles,and pottery. Anhydrous cobalt(II)chloride paper is used as a qualitativetest for water and as a heat-sensitiveink. Small amounts of cobalt salts areessential in a balanced diet for mam-mals. Artificiallyproduced cobalt–60 is an importantradioactive tracer andcancer-treatment agent. The elementwas discovered by Georg Brandt(1694–1768) in 1737.

Definition

ChEBI: A cobalt group element atom that has atomic number 27.

Definition

A lustrous silveryblue hard ferromagnetic transition metal occurring in association with nickel. It is used in alloys for magnets, cutting tools, and electrical heating elements and in catalysts and some paints.

brand name

C.i. 77320;Cobalt-59;Impromin;Inter-con;Kometileneamin;Levacide-c;Orkomin;Panacur;Sofracaps;Tasvite;Trelenium.

World Health Organization (WHO)

WHO Comment(non-radioactive forms): The World Health Organization has no information further to the above regarding preparations containing cobalt or to indicate that they are still commercially manufactured.

Air & Water Reactions

Burns brilliantly when exposed to air [Mellor 14:453(1946-1947)]. Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Pyrophoric Cobalt is a reducing agent. Decomposes acetylene in the cold as the metal becomes incandescent [Mellor 14:513(1946-1947]. Incompatible with oxidizing agents such as ammonium nitrate, bromine pentafluoride, and nitryl fluoride.

Hazard

A possible carcinogen. Toxic by inhalation. Dust is flammable. Asthma, myocardial effects, and pulmonary function impairment.

Hazard

Cobalt is found in most natural foods. Although a necessary trace element, it is toxic to humans if ingested in large amounts. The human body does excrete in urine excessive amounts of cobalt compounds such as found in vitamin B12.
Cobaltous chromate (CoCrO4) is brownish-yellow to grayish-black (the color depends on its purity) is a dangerous carcinogen (causes cancer).
Some years ago, a cobalt additive was used by some beer makers to maintain a foam head on their beer. Those who imbibed excessively developed what is known as beer drinkers syndrome, which caused some deaths from enlarged and flabby hearts.

Health Hazard

Cobalt is an essential element. Its deficiencycan result in pernicious anemia. It is present invitamin B12. Excessive intake of this elementmay result in polycythemia or overproductionof erythrocytes and heart lesions. Exposure toits dusts can produce cough and respiratoryirritation. Chronic inhalation of its dusts orfumes can decrease pulmonary functions andmay cause diffuse nodular fibrosis and otherpulmonary diseases. Skin contact may inducedermal hypersensitivity reactions, producingan allergy-type dermatitis.
Co(II) ion is reported to be genotoxicin vitro and in vivo and carcinogenic inrodents (De Boeck et al. 2003) Occupationalexposure to hard metal (cemented carbide)dust is linked to an increased risk of lungcancer.
.

Health Hazard

Acute exposure to cobalt metal, dust, and fume is characterized by irritation of the eyes and, to a lesser extent, irritation of the skin. In sensitized individuals, exposure causes an asthma-like attack, with wheezing, bronchospasm, and dyspnea. Ingestion of cobalt may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and a sensation of heat. Human exposures to cobalt and cobalt compounds cause cough, tight chest, pain in chest on coughing, dyspnea, malaise, ache, chills, sweating, shivering, and aching pain in back and limbs. After further days of exposures to high concentrations of cadmium, the worker develops more severe pulmonary responses such as severe dyspnea, wheezing, chest pain and precordial constriction, persistent cough, weakness and malaise, anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, nocturia, abdominal pain, diffuse nodular fi brosis, respiratory hypersensitivity, asthma, abdominal pain, cardiomyopathy, lung damage, hemoptysis, prostration, and death. Cobalt metal, dust, and fume are pulmonary toxins and respiratory and skin sensitizers. Inhalation of cobalt metal fume and dust may cause interstitial fi brosis, interstitial pneumonitis, myocardial and thyroid disorders, and sensitization of the respiratory tract and skin. Chronic cobalt poisoning may also produce polycythemia and hyperplasia of the bone marrow. Myocardial disorders have also been observed in cobalt production workers. Chronic exposure to cobalt metal, dust, or fume may cause respiratory or dermatologic signs and symptoms. Following skin sensitization, contact with cobalt causes eruptions of dermatitis in creases and on frictional surfaces of the arms, legs, and neck. Chronic cobalt poisoning may cause polycythemia, hyperplasia of the bone marrow and thyroid gland, pericardial effusion, and damage to the alpha cells of the pancreas.

Fire Hazard

Literature sources indicate that the dust of Cobalt is flammable.

Agricultural Uses

Cobalt (Co), a metallic element with an atomic weight of 58.94, is one of the transition elements belonging to the Group 9 (formerly Group VIII ) of the Periodic Table. However, in extremely low concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10parts per billion (ppb), cobalt have been observed to improve growth, transpiration and photosynthesis of cotton, mustard and beans. Cobalt is required by symbiotic micro-organisms (e.g., rhizobia) for the fixation of elemental nitrogen through the formation of vitaminB12.
Cobalt forms a complex with nitrogen atoms of the porphyrin ring structure and provides a prosthetic group for association with nucleotides in vitamin B12 co-enzyme. This complex is called cobamide. Other cobalt functions include leghemoglobin metabolism and ribonucleotide reductase in Rhizobium, and activation of enolase, lecithinase and succinic kinase.
The concentration of cobalt in dry matter of plants ranges from 0.02 to 0.5 ppm. One ppb of cobalt in nutrient solution was found adequate for nitrogen fixation in alfalfa. The water content and catalase activity in leaves increased and the concentration of the cell sap decreased with cobalt application.
Cobalt content in soil is low and variable. In India, for instance, it ranges from 4 to 80ppm. The humus content of the soil influences the availability of cobalt in it. The nature of clay affects the absorption of cobalt from solutions, in the order muscovite > hematite > bentonite = kaolin. An increase in the pH of the soil decreases the availability of cobalt. Cobalt deficiency is more pronounced in coarse sandy soils and under high rainfall conditions. To overcome deficiency, cobalt fertilization with 100to 200g/ha as cobaltous sulphate (CoSO,) is recommended.

Industrial uses

Cobalt (symbol Co) is a lustrous, silvery-bluemetallic chemical element, resembling nickelbut with a bluish tinge instead of the yellow ofnickel. It is rarer and costlier than nickel andits price has varied widely in recent years.Although allied to nickel, it has distinctive differences.It is more active chemically thannickel. It is dissolved by dilute H2SO4, HNO3,or HCl acids, and is attacked slowly by alkalis.The oxidation rate of pure cobalt is 25 timesthat of nickel. Its power of whitening copperalloys is inferior to that of nickel, but smallamounts in Ni–Cu alloys will neutralize theyellowish tinge of the nickel and make themwhiter. The metal is diamagnetic like nickel, buthas three times the maximum permeability.Like tungsten, it imparts red-hardness to toolsteels. It also hardens alloys to a greater extentthan nickel, especially in the presence of carbon,and can form more chemical compoundsin alloys than nickel.
Its chemical properties resemble, in part,those of both nickel and iron. Cobalt is themetal with the highest Curie temperature(1121°C) and the lowest allotropic transformationtemperature (399°C). Below 421°C, cobaltis close-packed hexagonal; above, it is facecenteredcubic.

Safety Profile

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic and tumorigenic data. Poison by intravenous, intratracheal, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Inhalation of the dust may cause pulmonary damage. The powder may cause dermatitis. Ingestion of soluble salts produces nausea and vomiting by local irritation. Powdered cobalt igmtes spontaneously in air. Flammable when exposed to heat or flame. Explosive reaction with hydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate + heat, and 1,3,4,7-tetramethylisoindole (at 39OOC). Ignites on contact with bromine pentafluoride. Incandescent reaction with acetylene or nitryl fluoride. See also COBALT COMPOUNDS.

Potential Exposure

Possible risk of forming tumors, Suspected reprotoxic hazard. Nickel-aluminumcobalt alloys are used for permanent magnets. Alloys with nickel, aluminum, copper, beryllium, chromium, and molybdenum are used in the electrical, automobile, and aircraft industries. Cobalt is added to tool steels to improve their cutting qualities and is used as a binder in the manufacture of tungsten carbide tools. Various cobalt compounds are used as pigments in enamels, glazes, and paints; as catalysts in afterburners; and in the glass, pottery, photographic, electroplating industries. Radioactive cobalt (60Co) is used in the treatment of cancer. Cobalt has been added to beer to promote formation of foam but cobalt acts with alcohol to produce severe cardiac effects at concentrations as low as 1.2-1.5 mg/L of beer. Cobalt is part of the vitamin B12 molecule and as such is an essential nutrient. The requirement of humans for cobalt in the form of vitamin B12 is about 0.13 μg/day.

storage

Cobalt metal dust (powdered metal) should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA standards. Containers of cobalt metal dust should be protected from physical damage and ignition sources, and should be stored separately from strong oxidizers.

Shipping

UN3189 Metal powder, self-heating, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.2; Labels: 4.2-Spontaneously combustible material

Waste Disposal

Cobalt metal may be recovered from scrap and cobalt compounds from spent catalysts as alternatives to disposal.

Cobalt Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Cobalt Suppliers

Global( 178)Suppliers
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