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o-자일렌

o-자일렌
o-자일렌 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
95-47-6
한글명:
o-자일렌
동의어(한글):
0-자일렌;o-자일렌;o-크실렌;오르소디메틸벤젠,1,2-디메틸벤젠,오르소메틸톨루엔;오르소자일렌;자일렌;1,2-크실렌;1,2-디메틸벤젠;O-메틸톨루엔;O-크실올;O-자일렌
상품명:
o-Xylene
동의어(영문):
YLENE;XYLOL;o-Xylol;XYLENES;2-xylene;O-XYLENE;o-Xylenes;ai3-08197;0-Xylene ;3,4-Xylene
CBNumber:
CB1854693
분자식:
C8H10
포뮬러 무게:
106.17
MOL 파일:
95-47-6.mol

o-자일렌 속성

녹는점
-26--23 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
143-145 °C(lit.)
밀도
0.879 g/mL at 20 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
3.7 (vs air)
증기압
<0.1 atm ( 21.1 °C)
굴절률
n20/D 1.505(lit.)
인화점
90 °F
저장 조건
0-6°C
용해도
water: partially soluble0.1705 g/L at 25°C
물리적 상태
Solid or Crystalline Powder
산도 계수 (pKa)
>15 (Christensen et al., 1975)
색상
Yellow to beige
냄새
Benzene-like; characteristic aromatic.
폭발한계
1.0-7.6%(V)
수용성
Sparingly soluble in water. (0.2g/L)
최대 파장(λmax)
λ: 288 nm Amax: 1.00
λ: 300 nm Amax: 0.40
λ: 325 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 350-400 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck
14,10081
BRN
1815558
Henry's Law Constant
14.0 at 45.00 °C, 16.4 at 50.00 °C, 19.0 at 55.00 °C, 21.3 at 60.00 °C, 26.3 at 70.00 °C (static headspace-GC, Park et al., 2004)
노출 한도
NIOSH REL: 100 ppm (435 mg/m3), STEL 150 ppm (655 mg/m3), IDLH 900 ppm; OSHA PEL: TWA 100 ppm; ACGIH TLV: TWA 100 ppm, STEL 150 ppm (adopted).
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents. Flammable. Hygroscopic.
InChIKey
CTQNGGLPUBDAKN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
95-47-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Benzene, 1,2-dimethyl-(95-47-6)
EPA
Benzene, 1,2-dimethyl-(95-47-6)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn,T,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 10-20/21-38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11
안전지침서 25-45-36/37-16-7
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1307 3/PG 3
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 ZE2450000
자연 발화 온도 867 °F
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 3
포장분류 II
HS 번호 29024100
유해 물질 데이터 95-47-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 Acute oral LD50 in rats is approximately 5 g/kg (quoted, RTECS, 1992).
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H226 인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 3 경고
H304 삼켜서 기도로 유입되면 치명적일 수 있음 흡인 유해성물질 구분 1 위험
H312 피부와 접촉하면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 4 경고 P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H332 흡입하면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 4 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H412 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 유해함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 3 P273, P501
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P331 토하게 하지 마시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P304+P340 흡입하면 신선한 공기가 있는 곳으로 옮기고 호흡하기 쉬운 자세로 안정을 취하시오.

o-자일렌 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

colourless liquid

물리적 성질

Clear, colorless liquid with an aromatic odor. An odor threshold concentration of 380 ppbv was reported by Nagata and Takeuchi (1990).

용도

Preparation of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid; solvent for alkyd resins, lacquers, enamels, rubber cements; manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and insecticides; motor fuels.

정의

ChEBI: A xylene substituted by methyl groups at positions 1 and 3.

일반 설명

A colorless watery liquid with a sweet odor. Less dense than water. Insoluble in water. Irritating vapor.

공기와 물의 반응

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

1,2-Dimethylbenzene may react with oxidizing materials. .

건강위험

Vapors cause headache and dizziness. Liquid irritates eyes and skin. If taken into lungs, causes severe coughing, distress, and rapidly developing pulmonary edema. If ingested, causes nausea, vomiting, cramps, headache, and coma. Can be fatal. Kidney and liver damage can occur.

화재위험

Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.

화학 반응

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Safety Profile

Moderately toxic bj7 intraperitoneal route. Mldly toxic by ingestion and inhalation. An experimental teratogen. A common air contaminant. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. Incompatible with oxidzing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. Emitted from modern building materials (CENEAR 69,22,91). See also other xylene entries.

Source

Detected in distilled water-soluble fractions of 87 octane gasoline (3.83 mg/L), 94 octane gasoline (11.4 mg/L), Gasohol (8.49 mg/L), No. 2 fuel oil (1.73 mg/L), jet fuel A (0.87 mg/L), diesel fuel (1.75 mg/L), military jet fuel JP-4 (1.99 mg/L) (Potter, 1996), new motor oil (16.2 to 17.5 μg/L), and used motor oil (294 to 308 μg/L) (Chen et al., 1994). The average volume percent and estimated mole fraction in American Petroleum Institute PS-6 gasoline are 2.088 and 0.01959, respectively (Poulsen et al., 1992). Schauer et al. (1999) reported o-xylene in a diesel-powered medium-duty truck exhaust at an emission rate of 830 μg/km. Diesel fuel obtained from a service station in Schlieren, Switzerland contained o-xylene at a concentration of 223 mg/L (Schluep et al., 2001).
California Phase II reformulated gasoline contained o-xylene at a concentration of 19.7 g/kg. Gas-phase tailpipe emission rates from gasoline-powered automobiles with and without catalytic converters were 5.41 and 562 mg/km, respectively (Schauer et al., 2002).
Thomas and Delfino (1991) equilibrated contaminant-free groundwater collected from Gainesville, FL with individual fractions of three individual petroleum products at 24–25 °C for 24 h. The aqueous phase was analyzed for organic compounds via U.S. EPA approved test method 602. Average m+p-xylene concentrations reported in water-soluble fractions of unleaded gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel were 8.611, 0.658, and 0.228 mg/L, respectively. When the authors analyzed the aqueous-phase via U.S. EPA approved test method 610, average m+p-xylene concentrations in water-soluble fractions of unleaded gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel were lower, i.e., 6.068, 0.360, and 0.222 mg/L, respectively. Based on laboratory analysis of 7 coal tar samples, o-xylene concentrations ranged from 2 to 2,000 ppm (EPRI, 1990). A high-temperature coal tar contained o-xylene at an average concentration of 0.04 wt % (McNeil, 1983).
Schauer et al. (2001) measured organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds, gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds, and particle-phase organic compounds from the residential (fireplace) combustion of pine, oak, and eucalyptus. The gas-phase emission rate of o-xylene was 18.1 mg/kg of pine burned. Emission rates of o-xylene were not measured during the combustion of oak and eucalyptus.
Drinking water standard (final): For all xylenes, the MCLG and MCL are both 10 mg/L. In addition, a DWEL of 70 mg/L was recommended (U.S. EPA, 2000).

환경귀착

Biological. Reported biodegradation products of the commercial product containing xylene include α-hydroxy-p-toluic acid, p-methylbenzyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, 4-methylcatechol, mand p-toluic acids (Fishbein, 1985). o-Xylene was also cometabolized resulting in the formation of o-toluic acid (Pitter and Chudoba, 1990). In anoxic groundwater near Bemidji, MI, o-xylene anaerobically biodegraded to the intermediate o-toluic acid (Cozzarelli et al., 1990). In gasolinecontaminated groundwater, methylbenzylsuccinic acid was identified as the first intermediate during the anaerobic degradation of xylenes (Reusser and Field, 2002).
Photolytic. Cox et al. (1980) reported a rate constant of 1.33 x 10-11 cm3/molecule?sec for the reaction of gaseous o-xylene with OH radicals based on a value of 8 x 10-12 cm3/molecule?sec for the reaction of ethylene with OH radicals.
Surface Water. The evaporation half-life of o-xylene in surface water (1 m depth) at 25 °C is estimated to be 5.18 h (Mackay and Leinonen, 1975).
Groundwater. Nielsen et al. (1996) studied the degradation of o-xylene in a shallow, glaciofluvial, unconfined sandy aquifer in Jutland, Denmark. As part of the in situ microcosm study, a cylinder that was open at the bottom and screened at the top was installed through a cased borehole approximately 5 m below grade. Five liters of water was aerated with atmospheric air to ensure aerobic conditions were maintained. Groundwater was analyzed weekly for approximately 3 months to determine o-xylene concentrations with time. The experimentally determined firstorder biodegradation rate constant and corresponding half-life following a 7-d lag phase were 0.1/d and 6.93 d, respectively.
Photolytic. When synthetic air containing gaseous nitrous acid and o-xylene was exposed to artificial sunlight (λ = 300–450 nm) biacetyl, peroxyacetal nitrate, and methyl nitrate formed as products (Cox et al., 1980). A n-hexane solution containing o-xylene and spread as a thin film (4 mm) on cold water (10 °C) was irradiated by a mercury medium pressure lamp. In 3 h, 13.6% of the o-xylene photooxidized into o-methylbenzaldehyde, o-benzyl alcohol, o-benzoic acid, and omethylacetophenone (Moza and Feicht, 1989). Irradiation of o-xylene at ≈ 2537 ? at 35 °C and 6 mmHg isomerizes to m-xylene (Calvert and Pitts, 1966). Glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and biacetyl were produced from the photooxidation of o-xylene by OH radicals in air at 25 °C (Tuazon et al., 1986a).
Chemical/Physical. Under atmospheric conditions, the gas-phase reaction of o-xylene with OH radicals and nitrogen oxides resulted in the formation of o-tolualdehyde, o-methylbenzyl nitrate, nitro-o-xylenes, 2,3-and 3,4-dimethylphenol (Atkinson, 1990). Kanno et al. (1982) studied the aqueous reaction of o-xylene and other aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, m- and p-xylene, and naphthalene) with hypochlorous acid in the presence of ammonium ion. They reported that the aromatic ring was not chlorinated as expected but was cleaved by chloramine forming cyanogen chloride. The amount of cyanogen chloride formed increased at lower pHs (Kanno et al., 1982). In the gas phase, o-xylene reacted with nitrate radicals in purified air forming the following products: 5-nitro-2-methyltoluene and 6-nitro-2-methyltoluene, o-methylbenzaldehyde, and an aryl nitrate (Chiodini et al., 1993).

Purification Methods

o-Xylene (4.4Kg) is sulfonated by stirring for 4hours with 2.5L of conc H2SO4 at 95o. After cooling, and separating the unsulfonated material, the product is diluted with 3L of water and neutralised with 40% NaOH. On cooling, sodium o-xylene sulfonate separates and is recrystallised from half its weight of water. [A further crop of crystals is obtained by concentrating the mother liquor to one-third of its volume.] The salt is dissolved in the minimum amount of cold water, then mixed with the same amount of cold water, and with the same volume of conc H2SO4 and heated to 110o. o-Xylene is regenerated and steam distils. The distillate is saturated with NaCl, the organic layer is separated, dried and redistilled. [Beilstein 5 H 362, 5 I 179, 5 II 281, 5 III 807, 5 IV 917.]

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