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무수프탈산

무수프탈산
무수프탈산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
85-44-9
한글명:
무수프탈산
동의어(한글):
무수프탈산;1,2-벤젠디카르복실산무수물;억제제AK;에센;푸탈란디온;1,2-벤젠디카르복실무수물;1,3-디옥소푸탈란;1,3-이소벤조푸란디온;1,3-푸탈란디온;프탈무수물;프탈산무수물;프탈산언하이드라이드;프탈무수물;프탈릭안하이드라이드;프탈산언하이드라이드
상품명:
Phthalic anhydride
동의어(영문):
ESEN;Ht 901;tgl6525;wiltrolp;phthalic;Sconoc 7;TGL 6525;NCI-C03601;retarderak;retarderpd
CBNumber:
CB7414905
분자식:
C8H4O3
포뮬러 무게:
148.12
MOL 파일:
85-44-9.mol

무수프탈산 속성

녹는점
131-134 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
284 °C(lit.)
밀도
1,53 g/cm3
증기 밀도
5.1 (vs air)
증기압
<0.01 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
굴절률
1.4500 (estimate)
인화점
152 °C
저장 조건
Store at RT.
용해도
6g/l (slow decomposition)
물리적 상태
Flaky Crystals
색상
White
수소이온지수(pH)
2 (6g/l, H2O, 20℃)
폭발한계
1.7-10.5%(V)
수용성
6 g/L (20 ºC)
감도
Moisture Sensitive
Merck
14,7372
BRN
118515
Henry's Law Constant
6.29 at 20 °C (approximate - calculated from water solubility and vapor pressure)
노출 한도
NIOSH REL: TWA 6 mg/m3 (1 ppm), IDLH 60 mg/m3; OSHA PEL: TWA 12 mg/m3 (2 ppm); ACGIH TLV: TWA 1 ppm (adopted).
안정성
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, moisture, strong acids. Dust may form an explosive mixture with air.
CAS 데이터베이스
85-44-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Phthalic anhydride(85-44-9)
EPA
1,3-Isobenzofurandione(85-44-9)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 22-37/38-41-42/43
안전지침서 23-24/25-26-37/39-46-22
유엔번호(UN No.) 2214
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 TI3150000
F 고인화성물질 10-21
자연 발화 온도 580 °C
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 8
포장분류 III
HS 번호 29173500
유해 물질 데이터 85-44-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in Rabbit: 1530 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit > 3160 mg/kg
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H317 알레르기성 피부 반응을 일으킬 수 있음 피부 과민성 물질 구분 1 경고 P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H334 흡입 시 알레르기성 반응, 천식 또는 호흡 곤란 등을 일으킬 수 있음 호흡기 과민성 물질 구분 1 위험 P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
예방조치문구:
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P284 호흡 보호구를 착용하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P342+P311 호흡기 증상이 나타나면 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

무수프탈산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

용도

프탈산을 가열하여 탈수시키면 프탈산무수물을 얻을 수 있으나, 공업적으로는 오산화바나듐 V2O5을 촉매로 써서 나프탈렌 또는 오쏘자일렌을 기체상에서 산화시켜 제조한다.

용도

페놀프탈레인, 플루오레세인, 에오신, 프탈이미드, 안트라닐산, 기타 색소, 염색 중간체, 향료 등의 합성 원료, 최근 합성 수지 공업에서 알키드 수지, 에스테르계 가소제 등의 제조에 다량 이용되며, 살충제 제조에도 이용된다. 칼륨염으로 변화한 후 이성질화하여 테레프탈산으로 한다.

용도

플라스틱의 가소제로서 쓰이고, 또한 알키드수지·색소(페놀프탈레인)·염료 등의 제조원료로 사용된다.

용도

무수프탈산은 가소제, 불포화폴리에스테르수지, 페인트 등의 주원료로 사용되고 있습니다.

개요

Phthalic anhydride is the organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2O. It is the anhydride of phthalic acid. This colourless solid is an important industrial chemical, especially for the large-scale production of plasticizers for plastics. In 2000, the world wide production volume of phthalic anhydride is estimated to be about 3 232 000 tones per year.

화학적 성질

white crystalline solid with choking odour

화학적 성질

Phthalic Anhydride is moderately flammable, white solid (flake) or a clear, colorless, mobile liquid (molten) Characteristic, acrid, choking odor

물리적 성질

Colorless to pale cream crystals with a characteristic, choking odor. Moisture sensitive. Odor threshold concentration is 53 ppb (quoted, Amoore and Hautala, 1983).

용도

Intermediate for Plastizers, Paints, Dyes and Pigments, Polyester Resins

용도

Phthalic Anhydride is an organic compound and the anhydride of phthalic acid (P384480). Phthalic Anhydride is an important industrial chemical commonly used in large-scale production of plasticizers f or plastics. Recent research have also evaluated Phthalic Anhydride as potential antibacterial agent.

용도

manufacture of phthaleins, phthalates, benzoic acid, synthetic indigo, artificial resins (glyptal).

정의

ChEBI: The cyclic dicarboxylic anhydride that is the anhydride of phthalic acid.

일반 설명

A colorless to white lustrous solid in the form of needles with a mild distinctive odor. Moderately toxic by inhalation or ingestion and a skin irritant. Melting point 64°F Flash point 305°F. Forms a corrosive solution when mixed with water. Used in the manufacture of materials such as artificial resins.

공기와 물의 반응

Reacts, usually slowly with water to form phthalic acid and heat [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. The phthalic acid is somewhat soluble in water.

반응 프로필

Phthalic anhydride reacts exothermically with water. The reactions are sometimes slow, but can become violent when local heating accelerates their rate. Acids accelerate the reaction with water. Incompatible with acids, strong oxidizing agents, alcohols, amines, and bases. Undergoes exothmeric nitration with fuming nitric acid-sulfuric acid and may give mixtures of the potentially explosive phthaloyl nitrates or nitrites or their nitro derivatives [Chem. & Ind. 20:790. 1972]. Phthalic anhydride reacts violently with CuO at elevated temperatures [Park, Chang-Man, Richard J. Sheehan. hthalic Acids and Other Benzenepolycarboxylic Acids Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005]. Mixtures of Phthalic anhydride and anhydrous CO2 explode violently if heated [eaflet No. 5, Inst. of Chem., London, 1940].

건강위험

Solid irritates skin and eyes, causing coughing and sneezing. Liquid causes severe thermal burns.

화재위험

Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. Substance will react with water (some violently) releasing flammable, toxic or corrosive gases and runoff. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Phthalic anhydride reacted with cellulose acetate forms cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a common enteric coating excipient that has also been shown to have antiviral activity. Phthalic anhydride is a degradation product of CAP.

색상 색인 번호

Phthalic anhydride is used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyesters and as a curing agent for epoxy resins. When used as a pigment, it can be responsible for sensitization in ceramic workers. Phthalic anhydride per se is not responsible for the sensitization to the resin used in nail varnishes phthalic anhydride/trimellitic anhydride/ glycols copolymer.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion. Experimental teratogenic effects. A corrosive eye, skin , and mucous membrane irritant. A common air contaminant. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidzing materials. Moderate explosion hazard in the form of dust when exposed to flame. The production of ths material has caused many industrial explosions. Mixtures with copper oxide or sodium nitrite explode when heated. Violent reaction with nitric acid + sulfuric acid above 80℃. To fight fire, use CO2, dry chemical. Used in plasticizers, polyester resins, and alkyd resins, dyes, and drugs. See also ANHYDRIDES.

Chemical Synthesis

Phthalic anhydride is a precursor to a variety of reagents useful in organic synthesis. Important derivatives include phthalimide and its many derivatives. Chiral alcohols form half-esters (see above), and these derivatives are often resolvable because they form diastereomeric salts with chiral amines such as brucine. A related ring - opening reaction involves peroxides to give the useful peroxy acid:
C6H4(CO)2O + H2O2 → C6H4(CO3H)CO2H.

Chemical Synthesis

Phthalic anhydride is a versatile intermediate in organic chemistry, in part because it is bi functional and cheaply available. It undergoes hydrolysis and alcoholysis. Hydrolysis by hot water forms ortho-phthalic acid. This process is reversible: Phthalic anhydride reforms upon heating the acid above 180 °C. Hydrolysis of anhydrides is not typically a reversible process. However, phthalic acid is easily dehydrated to form phthalic anhydride due to the creation of a thermo dynamically favorable 5-membered ring.

Chemical Synthesis

Phthalic anhydride was first reported in 1836 by Auguste Laurent. It is presently obtained by catalytic oxidation of ortho-xylene and naphthalene ("Gibbs phthalic anhydride process"):
C6H4(CH3)2 + 3 O2→C6H4(CO)2O + 3 H2O
C10H8 + 4.5 O2→ C6H4(CO)2O + 2 H2O + 2 CO2 The catalyst that is used for the oxidation of xylene is a modified vanadium pent oxide (V2O5). When separating the phthalic anhydride from byproducts such as o-xylene in water, or maleic anhydride, a series of “switch condensers” is required. Phthalic anhydride can also be prepared from phthalic acid:.

잠재적 노출

Phthalic anhydride is used in plasticizers; in the manufacture of phthaleins; benzoic acid; alkyd and polyester resins; synthetic indigo; and phthalic acid;which is used as a plasticizer for vinyl resins. To a lesser extent, it is used in the production of alizarin, dye, anthranilic acid; anthraquinone, diethyl phthalate; dimethyl phthalate; erythrosine, isophthalic acid; methylaniline, phenolphthalein, phthalamide, sulfathalidine, and terephthalic acid. It has also found uses as a pesticide intermediate.

환경귀착

Chemical/Physical. Reacts with water to form o-phthalic acid (Kollig, 1993; Windholz et al., 1983). Based on an observed rate constant of 7.9 x 10-9/sec, the hydrolysis half-life is 88 sec (Hawkins, 1975).
Pyrolysis of phthalic anhydride in the presence of polyvinyl chloride at 600 °C for 10 min gave the following compounds: biphenyl, fluorene, benzophenone, 9-fluorenone, o-terphenyl, 9-phenylfluorene, and three unidentified compounds (Bove and Dalven, 1984).

운송 방법

UN2214 Phthalic anhydride with>.05 % maleic anhydride, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Purification Methods

Distil the anhydride under reduced pressure. Purify it from the acid by extracting with hot CHCl3, filtering and evaporating. The residue is crystallised from CHCl3, CCl4 or *benzene, or sublimed. Fractionally crystallise it from its melt. Dry it under vacuum at 100o. [Saltiel J Am Chem Soc 108 2674 1986, Beilstein 17/11 V 253.]

Precursor to dyestuffs

Phthalic anhydride is widely used in industry for the production of certain dyes. A well-known application of this reactivity is the preparation of the anthroquinone dye quinizarin by reaction with parachloro phenol followed by hydrolysis of the chloride.

Preparation of phthalate esters

As with other anhydrides, the alcoholysis reaction is the basis of the manufacture of phthalate esters, which are widely used (and controversial - see endocrine disruptor) plasticizers. In the 1980s, approximately 6.5×109 kg of these esters were produced annually, and the scale of production was increasing each year, all from phthalic anhydride. The process begins with the reaction of phthalic anhydride with alcohols, giving the monoesters:
C6H4(CO)2O + ROH → C6H4(CO2H)CO2R
The second esterification is more difficult and requires removal of water:
C6H4(CO2H)CO2R + ROHC6H4(CO2R)2 + H2O
The most important di ester is bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate ("DEHP"), used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride.

비 호환성

Dust forms an explosive mixture with air. Phthalic anhydride reacts exothermically with water. The reactions are sometimes slow, but can become violent when local heating accelerates their rate. Acids accelerate the reaction with water. Incompatible with acids, strong oxidizing agents, alcohols, amines, and bases. Converted to phthalic acid in hot water. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. caustics, ammonia, amines, water. Reacts violently with copper oxide or sodium nitrite 1 heat.

폐기물 처리

Use a licensed professional waste disposal service to dispose of this material. Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.

무수프탈산 준비 용품 및 원자재

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