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히드록실아민

히드록실아민
히드록실아민 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7803-49-8
한글명:
히드록실아민
동의어(한글):
히드록실아민;히드록실아민수용액;히드록실알루민Free베이스(50%수용액);하이드록실아민
상품명:
HYDROXYLAMINE
동의어(영문):
NH2OH;FH-50;FH-50TM;Oxyammonia;Oxammonium;Hydroxyamine;azinous acid;HYDROXYLAMINE;HYDROXYLAMINE Joyce;hydroxylaminefree-base
CBNumber:
CB3345090
분자식:
H3NO
포뮬러 무게:
33.03
MOL 파일:
7803-49-8.mol

히드록실아민 속성

녹는점
7°C
끓는 점
>100 °C
밀도
1.078 g/mL at 25 °C
증기압
9 mm Hg ( 40 °C)
굴절률
n20/D 1.393
RTECS 번호
NC2975000
저장 조건
Store below +30°C.
물리적 상태
white flakes or needles
산도 계수 (pKa)
pK (20°) 7.97
수용성
Miscible with water, liquid ammonia and methanol. Slightly miscible with ether, benzene, carbon disulfide and chloroform.
Merck
13,4853
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, potassium dichromate, chromium trioxide, zinc, calcium, copper, sodium, ammonia, carbonyls, phosphorus halides, pyridine, hypochlorites.
InChIKey
AVXURJPOCDRRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
7803-49-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Hydroxylamine(7803-49-8)
EPA
Hydroxylamine (7803-49-8)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn,N
위험 카페고리 넘버 5-22-37/38-41-43-48/22-50-40-21/22
안전지침서 23-26-36/37/39-47-61-22-46
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3082 9/PG 3
WGK 독일 3
F 고인화성물질 4.8
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 8
포장분류 II
HS 번호 28251090
유해 물질 데이터 7803-49-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 i.p. in mice: 1.83 mmol/kg (Smith, Layne)
기존화학 물질 KE-20595
유해화학물질 필터링 97-1-411
함량 및 규제정보 물질구분: 유독물질; 혼합물(제품)함량정보: 히드록실아민과 그 염류 및 그 중 하나를 1% 이상 함유한 혼합물
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H290 금속을 부식시킬 수 있음 금속 부식성물질 구분 1 경고 P234, P390, P404
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H313 피부와 접촉하면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 5 P312
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H317 알레르기성 피부 반응을 일으킬 수 있음 피부 과민성 물질 구분 1 경고 P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H351 암을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H371 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 2회 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P264, P270, P309+P311, P405,P501
H373 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P314, P501
H400 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
NFPA 704
0
2 3

히드록실아민 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Hydroxylamine was first synthesized by Wilhem Clemens Lossen in 1865 in the laboratory of Wilhelm Heinrich Heintz while working in Halle. The Lossen synthesis originally generated hydroxylamine in aqueous solution. Anhydrous hydroxylamine was prepared later by Lobry de Bruyn and Crismer in 1891. The free base is extremely volatile, and industrial-scale production has been fraught with problems, including large explosions at facilities in the United States and Japan. Much of the hydroxylamine produced and transported is in salt form or as a dilute aqueous solution.

화학적 성질

slightly yellow liquid

물리적 성질

White crystalline solid; orthogonal plates or needles; unstable; density 1.21g/cm3at 20°C; melts at 33°C; vaporizes at 58°C; very soluble in water, liquidammonia and lower alcohols; sparingly soluble in most other organic solvents;decomposes in hot water; pKa5.94 at 25°C.

용도

Reducing agent used in photographic processing, leather tanning, manufacturing of nylon and other polymers; as a stabilizer for natural rubber; to prevent the development of objectionable tastes and odors during the refining of fatty materials.

용도

Hydroxylamine is used as a reducing agent in photography, in synthetic and analytical chemistry, as an antioxidant for fatty acids and soaps, and as a dehairing agent for hides. In addition, hydroxylamine is used in the production of cyclohexanone oxime, an isomer of caprolactam, which is an intermediate in the production of nylon-6. In the semiconductor industry, hydroxylamine can be a component of a solution that dissolves a photoresist following lithography. Hydroxylamine can also be used to selectively cleave asparaginyl-glycine peptide bonds.

용도

Reducing agent, organic synthesis.

정의

ChEBI: The simplest hydroxylamine, consisting of ammonia bearing a hydroxy substituent. It is an intermediate in the biological nitrification by microbes like bacteria.

제조 방법

Hydroxylamine is unstable as a free base. It is prepared from hydroxy-lamine hydrochloride, NH2OH?HCl, which is obtained by electrolytic reduc-tion of ammonium chloride solution. The hydrochloride undergoes alkalinedecomposition to hydroxylamine, which is collected by vacuum distillation.

정의

hydroxylamine: A colourless solid,NH2OH, m.p. 33°C. It explodes onheating and may be employed as anoxidizing agent or reducing agent. Itis made by the reduction of nitratesor nitrites, and is used in makingnylon. With aldehydes and ketones itforms oximes.

일반 설명

Odorless white crystalline solid. Sinks and mixes with water.

공기와 물의 반응

Decomposes rapidly at room temperature or when dissolved in hot water by internal oxidation-reduction. Reacts with water or steam to produce heat and corrosive liquids.

반응 프로필

HYDROXYLAMINE is a white solid, thermally unstable, decomposes rapidly at room temperature or when dissolved in hot water by internal oxidation-reduction. HYDROXYLAMINE should be stored below 10° C [Bailar, 1973, vol. 2, p. 272]. Explosive reaction with strong oxidizers (chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate) or powdered zinc upon heat. Reaction with zinc or calcium produces explosive bishydroxylamides. HYDROXYLAMINE ignites on contact with cupric sulfate, alkali metals (sodium, potassium), oxidants (e.g., barium oxide, barium peroxide, lead dioxide, potassium permanganate, chlorine), phosphorus trichloride and pentachloride. HYDROXYLAMINE reacts vigorously with hypochlorites, pyridine, carbonyls [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 1875]. On contact with organic materials in thin layer (e.g., crystals on filter paper), HYDROXYLAMINE may ignite spontaneously in air. HYDROXYLAMINE explodes when heated above 70° C [Brauer, 1963, vol. 1, p. 502]. During a distillation process, an explosion occurred. Potassium hydroxide is thought to be involved in the explosion. Employees in the plant complained of chest pains and suffered chemical burns. Five people were killed by the explosion.

위험도

Decomposes rapidly at room temperature, violently when heated, detonates in flame-heated test tube. Irritant to tissue.

건강위험

INHALATION: Moderately toxic by inhalation and oral routes with the following symptoms possible: headache, vertigo, tinnitus, dyspnea, nausea and vomiting, cyanosis, proteinuria and hematuria, jaundice, restlessness, and convulsion. Methemoglobinemia has been reported. EYES: Corrosive - highly irritating. SKIN: Irritating or corrosive to skin. INGESTION: Moderately toxic by inhalation and oral routes with the following symptoms possible; headache, vertigo, tinnitus, dyspnea, nausea and vomiting, cyanosis, proteinuria and hematuria, jaundice, restlessness, and convulsion. Methemoglobinemia has been reported.

색상 색인 번호

Hydroxylamine and its salts are used in various branches of industry, as reducing agents in color film developers or as reagents in laboratories.

Carcinogenicity

Carcinogenicity of hydroxylamine and its salts has not been demonstrated. Several studies have shown a decreased incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors in mice exposed to the sulfate and hydrochloride.3–7 There was some indication of an increase in the incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors when the sulfate was administered to older animals whose mammary glands were already well developed.

환경귀착

The large-scale production and use of hydroxylamine may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Hydroxylamine will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere, and will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 18 h.
Abiotic degradation of hydroxylamine by photochemically produced peroxy radicals is an important environmental fate process in surface waters, with the half-life of the reaction measured at approximately 2 h. An estimated bioconcentration factor of 3 suggests that the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. If released terrestrially, hydroxylamine will most likely exist in its protonated form due to its pKa of 5.94; the protonated form is nonvolatile. Koc estimates of 14 for hydroxylamine suggest that it may have very high mobility in soil.

Purification Methods

Crystallise it from n-butanol at -10o, collect it by vacuum filtration and wash it with cold diethyl ether. Harmful vapours. [Hurd Inorg Synth I 87 1939, Semon in Org Synth Coll Vol I 318 1932.]

Toxicity evaluation

Hydroxylamine acts as a reducing agent when absorbed systemically, producing methemoglobin and the formulation of Heinz bodies in the blood. It can induce hemolytic anemia. It inhibits platelet aggregation and is a nitric oxide vasodilator. Oxylamines such as hydroxylamine and methoxylamine disturb DNA replication and act as potent mutagens, causing nucleotide transition from one purine to another or one pyrimidine to another.
Allergic reactions of the skin following dermal exposure to hydroxylamine resemble contact eczema, or possibly urticaria of Quincke’s edema. The pathogenesis of this reaction appears to be mediated by a delayed type T-lymphocyte reaction.

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