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레세르핀

레세르핀
레세르핀 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
50-55-5
한글명:
레세르핀
동의어(한글):
레세르핀
상품명:
Reserpine
동의어(영문):
METHYL RESERPATE;Sandril;Rau-sed;Serpate;serpine;regroton;renese-r;serpalan;Serpasil;Hiserpia
CBNumber:
CB4206679
분자식:
C33H40N2O9
포뮬러 무게:
608.69
MOL 파일:
50-55-5.mol

레세르핀 속성

녹는점
~265 °C (dec.)
알파
D23 -118° (CHCl3); D26 -164° (c = 0.96 in pyridine); D26 -168° (c = 0.624 in DMF)
끓는 점
655.12°C (rough estimate)
밀도
1.2336 (rough estimate)
굴절률
177 ° (C=1, DMF)
인화점
22℃
저장 조건
Inert atmosphere,Room Temperature
용해도
Practically insoluble in water, very slightly soluble in ethanol (96 per cent).
물리적 상태
neat
산도 계수 (pKa)
6.6(at 25℃)
색상
Off-white
optical activity
[α]20/D 123±3°, c = 1% in chloroform
수용성
Soluble in water.
Merck
14,8145
BRN
102014
안정성
Stable, but darkens slowly in light. Combustible. Incompatible with strong acids, reducing agents, oxidizing agents.
InChIKey
QEVHRUUCFGRFIF-MDEJGZGSSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
50-55-5
IARC
3 (Vol. 24, Sup 7) 1987
NIST
Reserpine(50-55-5)
EPA
Reserpine (50-55-5)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn,Xi
위험 카페고리 넘버 22-67-36-10
안전지침서 22-36/37/39-26
유엔번호(UN No.) 3077
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 ZG0350000
F 고인화성물질 10-23
TSCA Yes
포장분류 II
HS 번호 29399990
유해 물질 데이터 50-55-5(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 oral in rat: 420mg/kg
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H336 졸음 또는 현기증을 일으킬 수 있음 특정표적장기 독성 물질(1회 노출);마취작용 구분 3 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 암을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P308+P313 노출 또는 접촉이 우려되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
NFPA 704
1
2 0

레세르핀 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Reserpine causes release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin at neuronal termini. It weakens the intracellular uptake of biogenic amines and decreases the ability to store them in vesicles.

화학적 성질

Reserpine is a white to pale buff to slightly yellow crystalline substance that darkens on exposure to light.

물리적 성질

Appearance: crystalline powder, colorless to yellowish brown, darker in case of light. Solubility: soluble in chloroform, slightly soluble in acetone, and almost insoluble in water, methanol, ethanol, or ether. Melting point: 264–265 °C. Specific optical rotation: ?117.7°.

역사

In 1931, Indian scholar Sen discovered Indian Rauvolfia have the antihypertensive and antipsychotic effects. The following studies in medicinal chemistry and pharmacology found that the main active ingredient is reserpine and clarified th mechanism of lowering blood pressure. In 1952, reserpine was first isolated and won an important status in treating hypertension and neurological and psychiatric disorders because of its remarkable physiological attributes. The structure analysis of reserpine peaked in 1955.The total synthesis of reserpine is completed in 1956.
There are no effective antihypertensive drugs in clinic at the initial stage in our country, and the reserpine imported from India was scarce and expensive, which could not meet the urgent needs of patients. In 1958, the Bureau of Drug Administration of Ministry of Health presided over the work of identifying the total alkaloids in Rauvolfia and approved the first Chinese antihypertensive drug commercially named “Verticil”. Large scales of studies about Chinese Rauvolfia as well as the numerous participants promote the rapid progress of natural medicine. It can be taken as the earliest study in plant medicine since the founding of China, providing valuable experience to our later studies.

용도

An indole alkaloid found in Rauwolfia serpentina. Inhibits vesicular uptake of catecholamines and serotonin. Reserpine is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. Antihypertensive.

정의

ChEBI: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria.

Biological Functions

Reserpine (Serpasil) is the prototypical drug interfering with norepinephrine storage. Reserpine lowers blood pressure by reducing norepinephrine concentrations in the noradrenergic nerves in such a way that less norepinephrine is released during neuron activation. Reserpine does not interfere with the release process per se as does guanethidine.
Reserpine also interferes with the neuronal storage of a variety of central transmitter amines such that significant depletion of norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) occurs. This central transmitter depletion is responsible for the sedation and other CNS side effects associated with reserpine therapy. The depletion of brain amines also may contribute to the antihypertensive effects of reserpine.

일반 설명

Reserpine (Serpasil, Reserpoid, Rau-Sed, Sandril) is a white to light yellow, crystalline alkaloid,practically insoluble in water, obtained from various speciesof Rauwolfia. In common with other compounds with anindole nucleus, it is susceptible to decomposition by lightand oxidation, especially when in solution. In the dry state,discoloration occurs rapidly when reserpine is exposed tolight, but the loss in potency is usually small. In solution,reserpine may break down with no appreciable color changewhen exposed to light, especially in clear glass containers;thus, color change cannot be used as an index of the amountof decomposition.

공기와 물의 반응

Insoluble in water. Reacts slowly with air and water. Darkens slowly on exposure to light.

반응 프로필

Reserpine is a weak base and can form salts with strong acids. Incompatible with oxidizing agents and reducing agents.

위험도

Questionable carcinogen.

건강위험

Reserpine produces sedative, hypotensive,
LD50 value, intraperitoneal (mice): 5 mg/kg
LD50 value, oral (mice): 200 mg/kgand tranquilizing effects. This is due to itsactions of causing depletion of monoaminesfrom presynaptic nerve terminals in central and peripheral nervous systems. Theadverse side effects are drowsiness, nightmare, depression, excessive salivation, nausea, diarrhea, increased gastric secretion,abdominal cramps, and hypotension.

화재위험

Flash point data for Reserpine are not available; however, Reserpine is probably combustible.

생물학적 활성

Binds the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and inhibits transport of biogenic amines into adrenal chromaffin granules and synaptic vesicles. Causes depletion of biogenic amine stores. Antihypertensive and antipsychotic.

Mechanism of action

Reserpine acts to replace and deplete the adrenergic neurons of their stores of norepinephrine by inhibiting the active transport Mg-ATPase responsible for sequestering norepinephrine and dopamine within the storage vesicles. The norepinephrine and dopamine that are not sequestered in vesicles are destroyed by MAO. As a result, the storage vesicles contain little neurotransmitter, adrenergic transmission is dramatically inhibited, and sympathetic tone is decreased, leading to vasodilation. Reserpine has the same effect on epinephrine storage in the adrenal medulla. Reserpine readily enters the CNS, where it also depletes the stores of norepinephrine and serotonin. The CNS neurotransmitter depletion led to the use of reserpine in treating certain mental illnesses.

Pharmacokinetics

Limited information is available regarding the pharmacokinetics of reserpine. Peak blood concentrations for reserpine occur within 2 hours following oral administration, and the full effects for reserpine usually are delayed for at least 2 to 3 weeks. Both CNS and cardiovascular effects may persist for several days to several weeks after chronic oral therapy is discontinued. Reserpine appears to be widely distributed in body tissues, especially adipose tissue; crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta; and is distributed into milk. The elimination of reserpine appears to be biphasic, with a plasma half-life averaging 4.5 hours during the first phase and approximately 11.3 days during the second phase. Reserpine is metabolized to unidentified inactive compounds. Unchanged reserpine and its metabolites are excreted slowly in urine and feces, with an average of 60% reserpine recovered in feces within 96 hours after oral administration of 0.25 mg of radiolabeled reserpine.

Pharmacology

Reserpine causes a breakdown of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in neuron endings. It weakens intracellular uptake of biogenic amines and reduces the ability if storing them in vesicles. It is possible that reserpine acts on membrane vesicles, irreversibly inhibiting ATP-Mg2 (adenosinetriphosphate) requiring process that is responsible for the uptake of biogenic amines in interneuronal vesicles. Breakdown of catecholamines is expressed by a decreased number of intraneuronal serotonin and dopamine.

Clinical Use

Reserpine is effective orally and parenterally for thetreatment of hypertension. After a single intravenous dose,the onset of antihypertensive action usually begins in about1 hour. After intramuscular injection, the maximumeffect occurs within approximately 4 hours and lasts about10 hours. When it is given orally, the maximum effectoccurs within about 2 weeks and may persist up to 4 weeksafter the final dose. When used in conjunction with otherhypotensive drugs in the treatment of severe hypertension,the daily dose varies from 100 to 250μg.

부작용

The most troublesome untoward effects of treatment with reserpine involve the CNS. Sedation and depression are the most common, although nightmares and thoughts of suicide also occur. Reserpine treatment, therefore, is contraindicated in patients with a history of severe depression. The occasional report of reserpine- induced extrapyramidal symptoms, which are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson’ s disease, is believed to be a result of dopamine depletion from neurons in the CNS.
Peripheral nervous system side effects are the result of a reserpine-induced reduction of sympathetic function and unopposed parasympathetic activity; symptoms include nasal congestion, postural hypotension, diarrhea, bradycardia, increased gastric secretion, and occasionally impotence. Because of the increased gastric secretion, reserpine is contraindicated for patients with peptic ulcer. In patients with little cardiac reserve, reserpine must be administered with caution because of its ability to interfere with sympathetic stimulation of the heart.

Safety Profile

Confirmed human carcinogen producing tumors of the sh and brain. Poison by ingestion, intravenous, subcutaneous, and intraperitoneal routes. Mutation data reported. An experimental teratogen. Human and experimental reproductive effects by ingestion: sullbirth, reduced viability, and other neonatal measures or effects. In humans, 0.014 mg/kg causes psychotropic effects. A medicine with side effects. Used as an addltive permitted in the feed and drinking water of animals and/or for the treatment of food-producing animals. Also permitted in food for human consumption. A sedative. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.

잠재적 노출

Reserpine, a pharmaceutical, is a natu- rally occurring substance that is isolated from the roots of the plant rauwolfia serpentina. Insoluble in water. Reserpine is used as a hypertensive for humans and ani- mals; tranquilizer, and sedative. Permitted for use as an additive in food for human consumption, and the feed and drinking water of food-producing animals.

Carcinogenicity

Reserpine is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.

환경귀착

Reserpine is a naturally occurring alkaloid produced by several members of genus Rauwolfia, indigenous to India, Burma, Malaysia, Thailand, Nepal, and Indonesia. The release of reserpine to the environment through several waste streams is possible due to the manufacture of reserpine and/or excretion following therapeutic use. It has a pKb of 6.6 and is expected to be in a partially protonated state in the environment. Reserpine released into air at ambient temperature and pressure exists only in the particulate phase and is removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition. Reserpine released to soil is available in oral dosage forms in combinations with hydralazine (a vasodilator) and/or hydrochlorothiazide (a thiazide diuretic). Occupational exposure would be expected to occur through inhalation or dermal contact.

운송 방법

UN1544 Alkaloids, solid, n.o.s. or Alkaloid salts, solid, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required. UN3077 Environmentally haz- ardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9- Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods

Crystallise reserpine from aqueous Me2CO or Et2O. [Woodward et al. Tertrahedron 2 155 1958, Beilstein 25 III/IV 1319.]

비 호환성

A weak acid; keep away from bases. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoa- cids, epoxides, and strong reducing agents such as hydri- deds and active metals. Compounds of the carboxyl group react with all bases, both inorganic and organic (i.e., amines) releasing substantial heat, water, and a salt that may be harmful. Incompatible with arsenic compounds (releases hydrogen cyanide gas), diazo compounds, dithio- carbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, sulfides (releasing heat, toxic, and possibly flammable gases),thiosulfates, and dithionites (releasing hydrogen sulfate and oxides of sulfur).

폐기물 처리

It is inappropriate and possi- bly dangerous to the environment to dispose of expired or waste drugs and pharmaceuticals by flushing them down the toilet or discarding them to the trash. Household quanti- ties of expired or waste pharmaceuticals may be mixed with wet cat litter or coffee grounds, double-bagged in plastic, discard in trash. Larger quantities shall carefully take into consideration applicable DEA, EPA, and FDA regulations. If possible return the pharmaceutical to the manufacturer for proper disposal being careful to properly label and securely package the material. Alternatively, the waste pharmaceutical shall be labeled, securely packaged and transported by a state licensed medical waste contractor to dispose by burial in a licensed hazardous or toxic waste landfill or incinerator. Consult with environmental regula- tory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/ mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.

참고 문헌

Muller, Schlittler, Bein., Experientia, 8,338 (1952)
Woodward et al., Tetrahedron, 2, 1 (1958)
Jilek e t aI., Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun., 26, 687 (1961)
Hakkesteegt., Pharm. Weekbl., 105,829 (1970)

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