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DIAZOXIDE

DIAZOXIDE 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
364-98-7
상품명:
DIAZOXIDE
동의어(영문):
Eudemine;Sch-6783;mutabase;srg95213;dizoxide;hyperstat;NSC-64198;proglicem;DIAZOXIDE;Diazoxided
CBNumber:
CB8426893
분자식:
C8H7ClN2O2S
포뮬러 무게:
230.67
MOL 파일:
364-98-7.mol

DIAZOXIDE 속성

녹는점
>310°C
밀도
1.3767 (rough estimate)
굴절률
1.6300 (estimate)
저장 조건
Store at RT
용해도
0.1 M NaOH: soluble
산도 계수 (pKa)
pKa 8.5 (Uncertain)
물리적 상태
neat
수용성
Soluble in 0.1M NaOH. Insoluble in water or in methanol.
최대 파장(λmax)
268nm(MeOH)(lit.)
Merck
14,3004
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 22-36/37/38
안전지침서 22-26-36
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 DK8185000
HS 번호 2934990002
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Warning
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
예방조치문구:
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P304+P340 흡입하면 신선한 공기가 있는 곳으로 옮기고 호흡하기 쉬운 자세로 안정을 취하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

DIAZOXIDE C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

White Solid

용도

wound healing agent

용도

Diazoxide reduces status epilepticus neuron damage in diabetes.

정의

ChEBI: A benzothiadiazine that is the S,S-dioxide of 2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine which is substituted at position 3 by a methyl group and at position 7 by chlorine. A peripheral vasodilator, it increases the oncentration of glucose in the plasma and inhibits the secretion of insulin by the beta- cells of the pancreas. It is used orally in the management of intractable hypoglycaemia and intravenously in the management of hypertensive emergencies.

상표명

Hyperstat (Schering); Proglycem (Baker Norton).

Biological Functions

Diazoxide (Hyperstat) is chemically similar to the thiazide diuretics. It is devoid of diuretic activity and causes Na+ and water retention. Diazoxide is a very potent vasodilator and is available only for intravenous use in the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. The mechanism by which diazoxide relaxes vascular smooth muscle is related to its ability to activate potassium channels and produce a hyperpolarization of the cell membrane.

일반 설명

Diazoxide is 7-chloro-3-methyl-4H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine-1,1-dioxide , and is currentlyavailable in the United States only as a 50-mg/mLoral suspension (Proglycem); discontinued formulations includedcapsules for oral administration, and injectable formsthat typically found use for indications other than hypoglycemicconditions. Diazoxide is a cyclic benzenesulfonamide,although the free acid in solution can exist in threetautomeric forms, and the 4H tautomer most likely predominatesto a very high proportion. Partly because of theadditional nitrogen in the quinazoline ring structure, themolecule is somewhat more acidic (pKa~8.4, 8.6)than benzenesulfonamide (pKa~10).

일반 설명

Diazoxide is used as the sodium salt of7-chloro-3-methyl-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide(Hyperstat IV). Diazoxide lowers peripheral vascular resistance,increases cardiac output, and does not compromiserenal blood flow.
This is a des-sulfamoyl analog of the benzothiazine diureticsand has a close structural similarity to chlorothiazide. Itwas developed intentionally to increase the antihypertensiveaction of the thiazides and to minimize the diuretic effect.

생물학적 활성

Antihypertensive, activates ATP-dependent K + channels. Induces activation of PKC ε , an intermediate in the opening of mitoK ATP channels, results in cardioprotection against hypoxia-induced death. Blocks desensitization of AMPA receptors.

Pharmacology

The hemodynamic effects of diazoxide are similar to those of hydralazine and minoxidil. It produces direct relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle with little effect on capacitance beds. Since it does not impair cardiovascular reflexes, orthostasis is not a problem. Its administration is, however, associated with a reflex increase in cardiac output that partially counters its antihypertensive effects. Propranolol and other -blockers potentiate the vasodilating properties of the drug. Diazoxide has no direct action on the heart. Although renal blood flow and glomerular filtration may fall transiently, they generally return to predrug levels within an hour.

Clinical Use

Diazoxide is used by intravenous injection as a rapidly acting antihypertensiveagent for emergency reduction of blood pressurein hospitalized patients with accelerated or malignanthypertension. More than 90% is bound to serum protein, andcaution is needed when it is used in conjunction with otherprotein-bound drugs that may be displaced by diazoxide.The injection is given rapidly by the intravenous route toensure maximal effect. The initial dose is usually 1 mg/kg ofbody weight, with a second dose given if the first injectiondoes not lower blood pressure satisfactorily within 30 minutes.Further doses may be given at 4- to 24-hour intervalsif needed. Oral antihypertensive therapy is begun as soon aspossible.

Clinical Use

In contrast to the acute clinical uses of glucagon, diazoxidefinds use in chronic hypoglycemic conditions: inoperableislet cell adenoma or carcinomas, extrapancreatic malignanciesof insulin-secreting cells, or islet cell hyperplasias. Inchildren, additional indications include congenital hyperinsulinemia124and leucine sensitivity. Experimentally, diazoxideis among an array of ATP-sensitive potassium channel openersbeing studied for intermittently bringing aboutβ-cell rest.

부작용

Since diazoxide is not often used for long-term treatment, toxicities associated with chronic use are rare.The chief concern is the side effects associated with the increased workload on the heart, which may precipitate myocardial ischemia and Na+ and water retention. These undesirable effects can be controlled by concurrent therapy with a β-blocker and a diuretic.
Diazoxide may cause hyperglycemia, especially in diabetics, so if the drug is used for several days, blood glucose levels should be measured. When used in the treatment of toxemia, diazoxide may stop labor, because it relaxes uterine smooth muscle.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

Oral diazoxide is used in canine and ferret medicine for the treatment of hypoglycemia secondary to hyperinsulin secretion (e.g., insulinoma). Insulinomas are apparently very rare in the cat; there is little experience with this drug in that species.
In human medicine, intravenous diazoxide is sometimes used for treating severe hypertension.

신진 대사

Diazoxide lowers blood pressure within 3 to 5 minutes after rapid intravenous injection, and its duration of action may be 4 to 12 hours. Interestingly, if diazoxide is either injected slowly or infused its hypotensive action is quite modest.This is believed to be due to a rapid and extensive binding of the drug to plasma proteins. Both the liver and kidney contribute to its metabolism and excretion.The plasma half-life is therefore prolonged in patients with chronic renal failure.

DIAZOXIDE 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


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