Polysaccharide

Polysaccharides are the sugars that can be hydrolyzed into many monosaccharide sugar molecules or its derivative, which are macromolecular compounds formed by the condensation and dehydration of 20 to tens of thousands of monosaccharide molecules. Some polysaccharides may be made by the condensation of one monosaccharide, such as starch, cellulose, which are called homopolysaccharide; Others may be formed by the condensation of different monosaccharides or derivatives thereof, such as hemicellulose, which are called hetero polysaccharides. The plants, animals and microorganisms in nature all contain polysaccharides. In addition to the free state, polysaccharide can also exist in the form combined with the protein. The common characters of plant polysaccharide include natural, health value and unique characteristics of the water-soluble colloids, which make the food have higher nutritional value, stable and palatable organizational structure, exquisite appearance, distinctive taste and extended shelf life. Natural plant polysaccharides are more secure, easily-absorbed, highly-utilized for human body. Water-soluble plant polysaccharides have excellent health value, such as konjac glucomannan that have the highest hydrated viscosity of soluble dietary fiber and have the healthy functions of full belly, reducing blood fat, lowering blood sugar and constipation. Plant polysaccharides do not provide calories, but have the balanced nutrition role for high-calorie, high-fat and high-protein diet. For hydrophilic plant polysaccharides, people used to call them the plant gum. Their hydrophilic colloid characteristics make the food production appear thickener, a gel (excipients), film formers, emulsifiers and other food stabilizers. The effective development and utilization of plant polysaccharides will help to improve the quality of human life and the level of human health, and enrich human food resources to create more economic value to the world food industry.

Starch is the polysaccharide stored in plants, and it is composed of two components, namely amylose and amylopectin. In the starch granules, amylose often only make up 20 to 28%, and the rest is amylopectin.250-300 D-glucose molecules link to a linear and then curl into a spiral via α-1,4-glycosidic bond to form the amylose, in which  there is a non-reducing end and a reducing end. The molecular weight of amylose exist big difference, even from thousands to 150,000. Amylose can reacts with iodine to appear blue because the amylose is suspended in water, and its internal helical crimp of molecular is occupied by iodine (I2) .

Amylopectin structure is composed of 24-30 D-glucose molecules, which form short-chains viaα-1,4 glycosidic bond and then link short-chains into to bushes-like  structure via α-1,6- glycosidic bond. The α-amylase in digestive tract of animals ,which present in saliva and pancreatic juice, can optionally be applied to work on α-1,4 glycosidic bond to hydrolyze linear amylose and form maltose and glucose. The β- amylase in plants can act on the non-reducing end of amylose to form maltose. Amylopectin can also be acted by α and β-amylase, but the α-1,4 glycosidic bond and α-1,6 glycosidic bond close to the branching point can’t be hydrolyzed by these enzymes. In the combined effect of amylase and α-1,6glucosidase, pullulan can be completely hydrolyzed to glucose and maltose.

Agarose is an important component of agar, which formed by the repeating condensation of D-galactose and 3,6 -anhydrogalactose. Agarose can dissolve in boiling water in large numbers, but when the temperature drop to below 40 ℃, agarose changes into insoluble gel. This agarose gel is commonly used as a support for the chromatography, but it is unstable in acid environment due to the cross-linked galactosidase is formed via hydrogen bonds but not the coordinate bonds.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Chitosan Chitosan 9012-76-4 C6H11NO4X2
beta-(1,3)-D-Glucan beta-(1,3)-D-Glucan 9012-72-0 C18H30O14X2
Pectin Pectin 9000-69-5 C6H12O6
2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin 128446-35-5 C63H112O42
INULIN INULIN 9005-80-5 C18H32O16
Agar Agar 9002-18-0 C14H24O9
Chitin Chitin 1398-61-4 C6H11NO4X2
Hydroxypropyl cellulose Hydroxypropyl cellulose 9004-64-2 C3H7O*
Xanthan gum Xanthan gum 11138-66-2 C8H14Cl2N2O2
Microcrystalline cellulose Microcrystalline cellulose 9004-34-6 H2
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 9004-32-4 C6H7O2(OH)2CH2COONa
XYLAN XYLAN 9014-63-5 C5H10O5
Ethyl cellulose Ethyl cellulose 9004-57-3 C23H24N6O4
CARBOXYMETHYL BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN CARBOXYMETHYL BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN
BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN 7585-39-9 C42H70O35
Starch Starch 9005-25-8 (C6H10O5)n
AMYLOPECTIN AMYLOPECTIN 9037-22-3 C30H52O26
AMYLOSE AMYLOSE 9005-82-7 C18H30O16X2
HEPARIN LITHIUM SALT HEPARIN LITHIUM SALT 9045-22-1 n.a.
Maltodextrin Maltodextrin 9050-36-6 C12H22O11
SEPHADEX(R) G-200 SUPERFINE, FOR CHROMAT OGRAPHY SEPHADEX(R) G-200 SUPERFINE, FOR CHROMAT OGRAPHY
LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI
LIPOPHILIC SEPHADEX LIPOPHILIC SEPHADEX 9041-37-6 C9H8N2O3S
SEPHADEX G-15 SEPHADEX G-15 11081-40-6 NULL
CELLULOSE TRIACETATE CELLULOSE TRIACETATE 9012-09-3 C40H54O27
AGAROSE AGAROSE 9012-36-6 C10H15N3O3
Starch soluble Starch soluble 9005-84-9 (C6H10O5)n
Methyl 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose Methyl 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose 9032-42-2 C2H6O2·xCH4O·x
Carboxymethyl cellulose Carboxymethyl cellulose 9000-11-7 C6H12O6
Dextrin Dextrin 9004-53-9 C18H32O16
GLYCOPROTEIN, ALPHA1-ACID HUMAN GLYCOPROTEIN, ALPHA1-ACID HUMAN 66455-27-4 NULL
CITRATE SYNTHASE CITRATE SYNTHASE 9027-96-7 C6H5O7-3
GLYCOGEN GLYCOGEN 9005-79-2 (C6H10O5)n
CELLULOSE ACETATE BUTYRATE CELLULOSE ACETATE BUTYRATE 9004-36-8 N/A
CAROB GALACTOMANNAN CAROB GALACTOMANNAN 11078-30-1
Carrageenan Carrageenan 11114-20-8 C24H36O25S2-2
Sulglycotide Sulglycotide 54182-59-1
DIETHYLAMINOETHYL CELLULOSE DIETHYLAMINOETHYL CELLULOSE 9013-34-7 C20H23NO5
CELLULOSE ACETATE CELLULOSE ACETATE 9004-35-7 [C6H7O2(OH)3-m(OOCCH3)m],m=0~3
AGAROSE AGAROSE 39346-81-1 C24H38O19
SEPHADEX G-75 SEPHADEX G-75 37224-29-6 NULL
IRISH MOSS IRISH MOSS 9062-07-1 C24H34O31S4-4
Pullulan Pullulan
CARBOXYMETHYL SEPHADEX CARBOXYMETHYL SEPHADEX 62886-59-3
CYANOETHYL CELLULOSE CYANOETHYL CELLULOSE 9004-41-5 C6H8N2O
CARRAGEENAN CARRAGEENAN 9000-07-1 NULL
Pullulan Pullulan 9057-02-7 C20H36O16
SP SEPHADEX SP SEPHADEX 61840-62-8 N/A
CARBOXYMETHYL SEPHADEX CARBOXYMETHYL SEPHADEX 9047-08-9
CELLULOSE ACETATE PROPIONATE CELLULOSE ACETATE PROPIONATE 9004-39-1 C76H114O49
Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate 9050-31-1 C14H16N4
Dextran Sulfate Sodium Salt Dextran Sulfate Sodium Salt 9011-18-1 (C6H7Na3O14S3)n
6-IODONORDIHYDROCAPSAICIN 6-IODONORDIHYDROCAPSAICIN 859171-97-4 C17H26INO3
GAMMA-CYCLODEXTRIN HYDRATE GAMMA-CYCLODEXTRIN HYDRATE 91464-90-3 C48H82O41
SEPHADEX G-100 SEPHADEX G-100 9050-94-6 NULL
DEXTRIN PALMITATE DEXTRIN PALMITATE 83271-10-7 C34H64O18
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