Saccharides

Saccharides are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen three elements. From the chemical structure, carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes, ketones or their polymers. Sugar widely present in the plant kingdom and it is a major component of plant material which plays an important role in physiological and biochemical processes in plants. According to the structure, saccharides can be divided into simple sugars (including glucose, fructose, and galactose), disaccharides (including sucrose, maltose, and lactose etc.) and polysaccharides (including starch, liver glycogen and muscle glycogen, etc.). Monosaccharides are simplest carbohydrates, a polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones which can not be hydrolyzed any more. They are commonly called aldoses and ketoses. For instance, glucose is an aldohexose, fructose is a ketohexose, and ribose is an aldopentose. The number of carbon atoms in the monosaccharide is no more than 10. Naturally occurring monosaccharides are 5 to 6 carbon atoms. Disaccharide is a combination of two monosaccharide molecules by removal of a molecule of H2O. The polysaccharide is made up of hundreds or even thousands of glucose molecules. After complete hydrolysis of polysaccharides, thousands of monosaccharide molecules such as starch cellulose and the like is emerging. Saccharide compounds closely related to human life. sugar is the main source of human energy. Saccharide is also closely related with drugs. For example, the patient needs glucose injection, dextran for plasma preparations;  production of tablets commonly used starch as excipients; saccharides contained in some traditional Chinese medicine has a physiological activity, such as Poria Charges carbohydrate on mice sarcoma S100 which have a strong inhibition PUPS ; lentinan also strong inhibition of tumor.

Saccharides are the major products of photosynthesis of green plants, a major source of energy needed to maintain the life of animals and plants, an indispensable diet for human and animal. Saccharides are also important raw materials on the industry, and they are used in the construction paper pharmaceutical and food sectors. Processing them directly and indirectly can meet the needs of basic necessities of human and other aspects. Recent studies of carbohydrates in two directions:
① carbohydrate chemists dedicated to synthetic compounds, primarily for long-term plans for social development to make human food possible to gradually get rid of dependence on agriculture. This synthetic task is to seek ways to change the current situation of natural photosynthesis in plants alone and to be economically viable.
② To study the relationship of saccharide and life is because proteins, nucleic acids often inseparable from sugar in the body. The mystery carbohydrate compound in the living body will be uncovered.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside 7240-90-6 C14H15BrClNO6
2-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside 2-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside 369-07-3 C12H15NO8
D-Ribose D-Ribose 50-69-1 C5H10O5
L-FUCOSE L-FUCOSE 2438-80-4 C6H12O5
D-Galactose D-Galactose 59-23-4 C6H12O6
D-Mannose D-Mannose 3458-28-4 C6H12O6
β-D-Glucose pentaacetate β-D-Glucose pentaacetate 604-69-3 C16H22O11
Cyclohexapentylose Cyclohexapentylose 10016-20-3 C36 H60 O30
D(+)-GLUCOSE MONOHYDRATE D(+)-GLUCOSE MONOHYDRATE 14431-43-7 C6H14O7
2,3,4,6-TETRA-O-BENZYL-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE 2,3,4,6-TETRA-O-BENZYL-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE 6564-72-3 C34H36O6
2-Deoxy-D-glucose 2-Deoxy-D-glucose 154-17-6 C6H12O5
2,6-DI-O-METHYL-BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN 2,6-DI-O-METHYL-BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN 51166-71-3 C56H98O35
GENTIOBIOSE GENTIOBIOSE 554-91-6 C12H22O11
N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 7512-17-6 C8H15NO6
Uridine Uridine 58-96-8 C9H12N2O6
Chitosan Chitosan 9012-76-4 C6H11NO4X2
Saccharin Saccharin 81-07-2 C7H5NO3S
Isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside Isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside 367-93-1 C9H18O5S
D(+)-Raffinose pentahydrate D(+)-Raffinose pentahydrate 17629-30-0 C18H42O21
D-(-)-Salicin D-(-)-Salicin 138-52-3 C13H18O7
beta-(1,3)-D-Glucan beta-(1,3)-D-Glucan 9012-72-0 C18H30O14X2
1,2:5,6-Bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-D-mannitol 1,2:5,6-Bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-D-mannitol 1707-77-3 C12H22O6
D-Fructose-1,6-diphoshate calcium salt D-Fructose-1,6-diphoshate calcium salt 103213-33-8 C6H16CaO12P2
FERROUS GLUCONATE DIHYDRATE FERROUS GLUCONATE DIHYDRATE 12389-15-0 C12H26FeO16
D-(+)-Cellobiose D-(+)-Cellobiose 528-50-7 C12H22O11
Neosperidin dihydrochalcone Neosperidin dihydrochalcone 20702-77-6 C28H36O15
Pectin Pectin 9000-69-5 C6H12O6
beta-D-Ribofuranose 1-acetate 2,3,5-tribenzoate beta-D-Ribofuranose 1-acetate 2,3,5-tribenzoate 6974-32-9 C28H24O9
L-Threonic acid calcium salt L-Threonic acid calcium salt 70753-61-6 C8H14CaO10
Diacetone-D-glucose Diacetone-D-glucose 582-52-5 C12H20O6
Tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal Tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal 2873-29-2 C12H16O7
Octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside Octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside 29836-26-8 C14H28O6
beta-D-(-)-Arabinose beta-D-(-)-Arabinose 10323-20-3 C5H10O5
Sucrose Sucrose 57-50-1 C12H22O11
D-(+)-Glucono-1,5-lactone D-(+)-Glucono-1,5-lactone 90-80-2 C6H10O6
beta-D-Ribofuranose 1,2,3,5-tetraacetate beta-D-Ribofuranose 1,2,3,5-tetraacetate 13035-61-5 C13H18O9
Mannitol Mannitol 87-78-5 C6H14O6
2-Deoxy-D-ribose 2-Deoxy-D-ribose 533-67-5 C5H10O4
beta-Cyclodextrin methyl ethers beta-Cyclodextrin methyl ethers 128446-36-6 C54H94O35
1,2,3-Triacetyl-5-deoxy-D-ribose 1,2,3-Triacetyl-5-deoxy-D-ribose 62211-93-2 C11H16O7
D(-)-Fructose D(-)-Fructose 57-48-7 C6H12O6
2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin 128446-35-5 C63H112O42
Erythritol Erythritol 149-32-6 C4H10O4
DL-Dithiothreitol DL-Dithiothreitol 3483-12-3 C4H10O2S2
alpha-D-Methylglucoside alpha-D-Methylglucoside 97-30-3 C7H14O6
Arbutin Arbutin 497-76-7 C12H16O7
N-Acetylneuraminic acid N-Acetylneuraminic acid 131-48-6 C11H19NO9
Dipotassium glycyrrhizinate Dipotassium glycyrrhizinate 68797-35-3 C42H63KO16
L-Arabinopyranose L-Arabinopyranose 87-72-9 C5H10O5
SODIUM GLUCOHEPTONATE SODIUM GLUCOHEPTONATE 31138-65-5 C7H15NaO8
D(+)-Xylose D(+)-Xylose 58-86-6 C5H10O5
Amikacin Disulfate Amikacin Disulfate 39831-55-5 C22H45N5O17S
beta-D-Galactose pentaacetate beta-D-Galactose pentaacetate 4163-60-4 C16H22O11
Esculin Esculin 531-75-9 C15H16O9
L-(-)-SORBOSE L-(-)-SORBOSE 87-79-6 C6H12O6
Dithioerythritol Dithioerythritol 6892-68-8 C4H10O2S2
1,6-ANHYDRO-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE 1,6-ANHYDRO-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE 498-07-7 C6H10O5
Gluconic acid Gluconic acid 526-95-4 C6H12O7
L(+)-Rhamnose monohydrate L(+)-Rhamnose monohydrate 10030-85-0 C6H14O6
MUCIC ACID MUCIC ACID 526-99-8 C6H10O8
Diacetonefructose Diacetonefructose 20880-92-6 C12H20O6
3,4,6-Tri-O-acetyl-D-galactal 3,4,6-Tri-O-acetyl-D-galactal 4098-06-0 C12H16O7
Xanthan gum Xanthan gum 11138-66-2 C8H14Cl2N2O2
2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-D-ribofuranose 2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-D-ribofuranose 97614-43-2 C26H21FO7
Microcrystalline cellulose Microcrystalline cellulose 9004-34-6 (C12H20O10)n
D-(+)-Maltose monohydrate D-(+)-Maltose monohydrate 6363-53-7 C12H24O12
D(+)-Trehalose dihydrate D(+)-Trehalose dihydrate 6138-23-4 C12H22O11·2H2O
4-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside 4-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside 3150-24-1 C12H15NO8
6-O-ALPHA-MALTOSYL-BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN HYDRATE 6-O-ALPHA-MALTOSYL-BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN HYDRATE 104723-60-6 C54H90O45
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 9004-32-4 C6H7O2(OH)2CH2COONa
XYLAN XYLAN 9014-63-5 C5H10O5
D-tagatose D-tagatose 87-81-0 C6H12O6
D-Galactal D-Galactal 21193-75-9 C6H10O4
2-Deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-erythro-pentafuranous-1-ulose-3,5-dibenzoate 2-Deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-erythro-pentafuranous-1-ulose-3,5-dibenzoate 122111-01-7 C19H14F2O6
Ethyl cellulose Ethyl cellulose 9004-57-3 C23H24N6O4
INULIN INULIN 9005-80-5 C18H32O16
GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID TRISODIUM SALT HYDRATE GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID TRISODIUM SALT HYDRATE 71277-78-6 C42H61Na3O17
Agar Agar 9002-18-0 C14H24O9
2-Deoxy-L-ribose 2-Deoxy-L-ribose 18546-37-7 C5H10O4
ALLOXAN MONOHYDRATE ALLOXAN MONOHYDRATE 2244-11-3 C4H4N2O5
1,3,5-Tri-O-benzoyl-D-ribofuranose 1,3,5-Tri-O-benzoyl-D-ribofuranose 22224-41-5 C26H22O8
D-Glucal D-Glucal 13265-84-4 C6H10O4
L-Arabinose L-Arabinose 5328-37-0 C5H10O5
Trehalose Trehalose 99-20-7 C12H22O11
Ribose Ribose 24259-59-4 C5H10O5
Naringin Naringin 10236-47-2 C27H32O14
Amygdalin Amygdalin 29883-15-6 C20H27NO11
1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosyluracil 1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosyluracil 3083-77-0 C9H12N2O6
Lactobionic acid Lactobionic acid 96-82-2 C12H22O12
Maltitol Maltitol 585-88-6 C12H24O11
Apramycin sulfate Apramycin sulfate 65710-07-8 C21H43N5O15S
2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide 572-09-8 C14H19BrO9
1-DEOXY-1-(OCTYLAMINO)-D-GLUCITOL 1-DEOXY-1-(OCTYLAMINO)-D-GLUCITOL 23323-37-7 C14H31NO5
Sucralose Sucralose 56038-13-2 C12H19Cl3O8
D(+)-Galactosamine hydrochloride D(+)-Galactosamine hydrochloride 1772-03-8 C6H14ClNO5
4-NITROPHENYL-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIDE 4-NITROPHENYL-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIDE 2492-87-7 C12H15NO8
D-Glucurone D-Glucurone 32449-92-6 C6H8O6
Glucose pentaacetate Glucose pentaacetate 604-68-2 C16H22O11
Cyclooctapentylose Cyclooctapentylose 17465-86-0 C48H80O40
Chitin Chitin 1398-61-4 C6H11NO4X2
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