Pigment is a kind of white or colored fine powdery substance and is insoluble in medium such as water or oil, and can be uniformly dispersed in the medium. In this system, the pigment can be used as dispersed phase with the medium being the continuous phase. When mixed with various kinds of media (including color development agent) together, it enables the coloring of the object, and the pigment itself is not dissolved in coloring matter and can also make the object exhibit a certain color, such substances is called as pigments. Some literature also confine that the pigment should not chemically react with the coloring matter. With the progress of science and technology, this definition has been broken, because there can be certain chemical reaction occurring between some pigments and the coloring matter. As a kind of pigment, it should have appropriate color (including white), coloring strength, hiding capacity, a high degree of dispersion, light stability and vivid color.

Based on the chemical composition, it is divided into inorganic and organic pigments;
According to its color, it is classified into white, red, yellow, black and other pigments;
According to the sources, it can be divided into natural and synthetic pigments; natural pigments can be further divided into animal pigment, plant pigment and mineral pigments. Mineral pigment (inorganic) includes ocher, cinnabar, red clay, realgar and so on. Animal and plant (organisms) type include Garcinia and cochineal red; synthesis pigments also have organic and inorganic pigments, two major categories.
According to the application, it can be divided into coloring pigment, extender pigments and functional pigments. Coloring pigment is the inorganic or organic pigments that endow the media with various kinds of colors; extender pigment is a non-coloring and non-hiding pigments. In early time, it was mainly used to reduce product cost and improve the performance of coatings, plastics, rubber and other products, and thus also being called filler.

Now there are natural products and synthetic products that have processed into ultrafine-grained grade. The synthetic product has low impurity content, fine particles and can be artificially synthesized and further subject to various kinds of surface modification as needed. Owing to these advantages, it can be further used to reduce the usage amount of paint of opacity (such as titanium dioxide) and improve the product performance. Therefore, it is more suitable to call it extender (incremental) pigment. The major varieties of extender pigments are mostly processed natural minerals such as natural calcium carbonate, barite powder, talcum powder, mica powder, diatomaceous earth, quartz powder, clay and asbestos. A small number of them are synthetic products such as precipitated calcium carbonate, precipitated barium sulfate, synthetic silica; functional pigments are pigments to endow the product with particular functions. For example, the temperature-indicating paint can enable the color change of the product according to the temperature; anti-fouling pigment is able to poison and kill the aqueous creatures; luminous pigment can emit in the dark; anti-rust pigment can prevent the corrosion; pearlescent pigments exhibit pearl luster.

The differences between pigment and dye are as below: dye can be dissolved in the medium with some of them even being able to be dissolved in the dyed product and can make the dyed product being colored only after the chemical reaction between them occurring. However, they two can sometimes be interoperable, e.g., some of the anthraquinone dyes can be used as both dyes and pigments; sometimes pigments and dyes can be converted to each other; for example, we can convert the dye to insoluble lake to be used as a pigment . Pigment is a kind of indispensable raw material in the painting industry. In addition, it is also widely used in the printing industry, rubber industry, plastics industry, chemical industry, paper industry, ceramic industry, glass industry, ceramic industry, printing and dyeing industry, building materials industry, inks, paints, color lead (wax) pen, makeup pigment and so on. It can endow the products with decorative property, opacity, durability or special function. With advances in technology, various kinds of high performance pigments will be further developed.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Pigment Yellow 14 Pigment Yellow 14 5468-75-7 C34H30Cl2N6O4
Pigment Yellow 83 Pigment Yellow 83 5567-15-7 C36H32Cl4N6O8
Pigment Red 53:1 Pigment Red 53:1 5160-02-1 C34H24BaCl2N4O8S2
Pigment Red 122 Pigment Red 122 980-26-7 C22H16N2O2
Pigment Yellow 65 Pigment Yellow 65 6528-34-3 C18H18N4O6
Quinacridone Quinacridone 1047-16-1 C20H12N2O2
Carbon Black Carbon Black 1333-86-4 C
Pigment Red 49:1 Pigment Red 49:1 1103-38-4 C40H26BaN4O8S2
Pigment Red 4 Pigment Red 4 2814-77-9 C16H10ClN3O3
Pigment Orange 13 Pigment Orange 13 3520-72-7 C32H24Cl2N8O2
Pigment Red 48:2 Pigment Red 48:2 7023-61-2 C18H11CaClN2O6S
Barium chromate Barium chromate 10294-40-3 BaCrO4
Pigment Orange 5 Pigment Orange 5 3468-63-1 C16H10N4O5
Pigment Yellow 3 Pigment Yellow 3 6486-23-3 C16H12Cl2N4O4
Pigment Red 122 Pigment Red 122 16043-40-6 C22H16N2O2
Pigment Blue 29 Pigment Blue 29 57455-37-5 Al6Na8O24S3Si6
Pigment Red 57:1 Pigment Red 57:1 5281-04-9 C18H14N2O6S.Ca
Pigment Yellow 81 Pigment Yellow 81 22094-93-5 C36H32Cl4N6O4
Pigment Red 12 Pigment Red 12 6410-32-8 C25H20N4O4
Pigment Red 63:1 Pigment Red 63:1 6417-83-0 C21H12CaN2O6S
Pigment Red 13 Pigment Red 13 6535-47-3 C25H20N4O4
Pigment Red 48:1 Pigment Red 48:1 7585-41-3 C18H15BaClN2O6S
Butyl 2-[[3-[[(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl]azo]benzoate Butyl 2-[[3-[[(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl]azo]benzoate 31778-10-6 C29H25N5O5
Permanent Yellow 2GS Permanent Yellow 2GS
Pigment Red 175 Pigment Red 175 6985-92-8 C26H19N5O5
Acetylene black Acetylene black
Pigment Red 21 Pigment Red 21 6410-26-0 C23H16ClN3O2
Pigment Red 49:2 Pigment Red 49:2 1103-39-5 C40H26CaN4O8S2
Pigment Yellow 180 Pigment Yellow 180 77804-81-0 C36H32N10O8
Pigment Yellow 17 Pigment Yellow 17 4531-49-1 C34H30Cl2N6O6
Pigment Red 48:3 Pigment Red 48:3 15782-05-5 C18H11ClN2O6SSr
Talc Talc 14807-96-6 3MgO.4O2Si.H2O
Pigment Blue 27 Pigment Blue 27 12240-15-2 C6Fe2KN6
Copper(II) Phthalocyanine (α-form) Copper(II) Phthalocyanine (α-form) 147-14-8 C32H16CuN8
Pigment Yellow 12 Pigment Yellow 12 5102-83-0 C36H34Cl2N6O4
TALC TALC 13376-74-4 H2Mg3O12Si4
Fast Yellow G Fast Yellow G 2512-29-0 C17H16N4O4
Pigment Red 176 Pigment Red 176 12225-06-8 C32H24N6O5
Calcium chromate Calcium chromate 13765-19-0 CaCrO4
Pigment Red 170 Pigment Red 170 2786-76-7 C26H22N4O4
Permanent Violet RL Permanent Violet RL 6358-30-1 C35H23Cl2N3O2
Pigment Violet 3 Pigment Violet 3 1325-82-2 C24H27N3
Molybdate chrome red Molybdate chrome red
Pigment Yellow 139 Pigment Yellow 139 36888-99-0 C16H9N5O6
CI NO 77605 CI NO 77605 12656-85-8 PbCrO4,PbMoO4,PbSO4
Ketjen Black carbon Ketjen Black carbon
Lithopone Lithopone 1345-05-7 BaO5S2Zn2
Pigment Red 5 Pigment Red 5 6410-41-9 C30H31ClN4O7S
Pigment Yellow 13 Pigment Yellow 13 6358-85-6 C32H26Cl2N6O4
Pigment Red 8 Pigment Red 8 6410-30-6 C24H17ClN4O4
Pigment Red 2 Pigment Red 2 6041-94-7 C23H15Cl2N3O2
Pigment Green 36 Pigment Green 36 14302-13-7 C32Br6Cl10CuN8
Pigment Permanent Red F3RK Pigment Permanent Red F3RK
Plastic brown Plastic brown
Pigment Violet 19 Pigment Violet 19 C20H12N2O2
disodium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate  disodium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate 3564-21-4 C18H14ClN2NaO6S
Pigment Permanent Orange R Pigment Permanent Orange R
Pigment Fast Jade Green Lake Pigment Fast Jade Green Lake
Plastic Colouring Agent Plastic Colouring Agent
Pigment Red 32 Pigment Red 32 6410-29-3 C31H24N4O4
Pigment Yellow   6 Pigment Yellow 6 4106-76-7 C16H13ClN4O4
calcium 4-[(4-chloro-3-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate calcium 4-[(4-chloro-3-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate 7538-59-2 C17H13CaClN2O6S
1-(1-naphthylazo)-2-naphthol  1-(1-naphthylazo)-2-naphthol 2653-64-7 C20H14N2O
N-(4-Chloro-2-methylphenyl)-2-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-oxobutanamide N-(4-Chloro-2-methylphenyl)-2-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-oxobutanamide 32432-45-4 C17H14Cl2N4O4
Pearlescent pigment Pearlescent pigment
PIGMENT RED 58:1 PIGMENT RED 58:1 76613-71-3 C17H13BaClN2O6S
C. I. Solvent Yellow 14 C. I. Solvent Yellow 14
Pigment Fast Light Red Lake Pigment Fast Light Red Lake
Manganese, 4-[(4-chloro-3-sulfophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid complex   Manganese, 4-[(4-chloro-3-sulfophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid complex 52233-00-8 C17H9ClMnN2O6S
Spirit Light Fast Yellow GR Spirit Light Fast Yellow GR
Pigment Organic Medium Yellow Pigment Organic Medium Yellow
Kaolinite Kaolinite 1318-74-7 Al2H4O9Si2
3-Hydroxy-4-[(2-methyl-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-methylphenyl)-2-naphthalenecarboxamide 3-Hydroxy-4-[(2-methyl-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-methylphenyl)-2-naphthalenecarboxamide 6655-84-1 C25H20N4O4
barium [29H,31H-phthalocyaninedisulphonato(4-)-N29,N30,N31,N32]cuprate(2-) barium [29H,31H-phthalocyaninedisulphonato(4-)-N29,N30,N31,N32]cuprate(2-) 67340-41-4 C32H14BaCuN8O6S2
aluminum dihydrogen tripolyphosphate aluminum dihydrogen tripolyphosphate 17375-35-8 AlH6O12P3
Pigment Red 9 Pigment Red 9 6410-38-4 C24H17Cl2N3O3
Pigment Organic Lemon Yellow Pigment Organic Lemon Yellow C16H9N4Na3O9S2
Praseodymium-Zircon Yellow Praseodymium-Zircon Yellow ZrSiO4-Pr
Pigment Blue 1 Pigment Blue 1 1325-87-7 C132H161MoN12O11PW
Pigment Red 48:4 Pigment Red 48:4 5280-66-0 C18H11ClMnN2O6S
Pigment Green 8 Pigment Green 8 16143-80-9 C30H18FeN3NaO6
4-[(3-chlorophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-N-phenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide 4-[(3-chlorophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-N-phenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide 6410-27-1 C23H16ClN3O2
Fast Yellow RX Fast Yellow RX
KAOLIN KAOLIN 1332-58-7 H2Al2O8Si2.H2O
Pigment Red 31 Pigment Red 31 6448-96-0 C31H23N5O6
sodium 5-chloro-2-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)toluene-4-sulfonate sodium 5-chloro-2-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)toluene-4-sulfonate 2092-56-0 C17H14ClN2NaO4S
Fast Pink lake Fast Pink lake
Light Fast Rose Red Lake Light Fast Rose Red Lake
Pigment Yellow 5 Pigment Yellow 5 4106-67-6 C16H14N4O4
Pigment Yellow 63 Pigment Yellow 63 14569-54-1 C32H24Cl4N6O4
Benzidine Yellow GR Benzidine Yellow GR 61614-29-7 C36H34Cl2N6O4
Chrom-tin-Pink Stannite Pigment Chrom-tin-Pink Stannite Pigment CaO-SnO2-SiO2(Cr2O3)
Iron oxide brown           Iron oxide brown 52357-70-7 (Fe2O3+FeO)·nH2O
Pigment Red 144 Pigment Red 144 5280-78-4 C40H23Cl5N6O4
Pigment Yellow 16 Pigment Yellow 16 5979-28-2 C34H28Cl4N6O4
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