Herbicide

Herbicide means chemical used  for removing weed crop but generally harmless. The most widely used,and  important herbicide is  organic herbicide , herbicide using is an important measure of modern agricultural chemistry.

The late 19th century, when preventing  European grape downy mildew , it is found that Bordeaux mixture can hurt some of cruciferous weeds without harming the cereal crops.
In late 19th century ,France, Germany, the United States also found the herbicidal effect of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate  and used it for wheat weeding, which is the beginning of farmland chemical weeding . In 1932 ,organic selective herbicide chemox pe was found,and then it entered into the organic chemistry herbicide period. Early 1940s ,there was chemical synthesis of 2,4-D, and it was used for field weeding, it has high biological activity, strong selectivity, broad herbicide spectrum , the herbicidal effect is very obvious,  under the influence of 2,4-D ,   the development of organic  herbicide industry is significantly rapid .In 19 50s, a variety of types of organic herbicides  had been  developed  , the main varieties such as propham of carbamates, chlorpropham; thiocarbamates of EPTC, vernolate, pebulate;    simazine of  s-Triazimnes , atrazine and the like; chloramben of benzoic acid;  diuronof  substituted ureas herbicides  and the like. In 1959, the American Chemical weeding area had reached 21 million hectares. Since the 1960s,  in the development of the new varieties of  pesticides , herbicides have the largest number , such as trifluralin of dinitroanilines ; propanil of amides, alachlor, triallate of thiocarbamates  , molinate , benthiocarb; diphenyl ether types such as herbicide nitrofen, chlornitrofen etc., and pesticide for soil treatment is focused on . A large number of highly efficient,and strongly selective herbicides emergence, causes changes in farming and cultivation system. In the 1970s, the United States put forward the concept of integrated weed management system (IWMS), but the core remains the chemical weed control. In 1971 ,Monsanto synthesized Glyphosate, which has a broad herbicide spectrum , and has no environmental pollution,this is a major breakthrough in organic phosphine herbicide. Coupled with a variety of new formulations and the use of new technology emergence, the herbicidal effect is greatly improved.

Herbicides can remove the weeds on crops and are  harmless or little impact ,the mechanism is very complex, it is generally believed that there are three mechanisms:
① the use of different physiological characteristics that weeds and crops have on certain drugs . Such as simazine which can be used for weed control in corn, because corn has containsdetoxification substance which can break down simazine , as far as absorption is not too much, it will not affect their growth. But cornfield weeds do not have these detoxifying substances, small amounts of simazine can easily kill them to achieve the purpose of weeding.
② use different opportunities that drugs contact or stick all kinds of plant bodies. Such as kerosene which is destuctive agent able to kill  various plants, but the onion leaves are conical upright, outside there are waxy, ejected droplets could not stick, spraying kerosene agents can be used  in onion weed . Usually narrow leaf  accepts less drugs than wide   leaf , erect leaf is less affected by drug than the cross leaf, deep-rooted plant accepts less drugs than  shallow-rooted plant.
③use different ability to absorb agents of plants. various  plants have different epidermal conservation organizations, extent of absorbing agents sprayed on the skin  varies. Thick waxy in cuticle makes it difficult for agents to penetrate ,the plants will not be hurt.

Herbicide mechanisms of action are different, but in general ,it is to have restraining  obstructing or interfering effect on the plant physiological and biochemical processes, such as respiration, photosynthesis, living matter synthesis ,so they can not grow normally and death is caused  . In recent years,  various poisoning mechanism s are being extensively studied to produce more efficient, low toxicity, strong selection of new herbicides. Internationally herbicides account for 40% of the total amount of pesticides, China is only 10 to 20%. The use of herbicides should pay attention to accurate knowledge of the concentration, dose and administration period, otherwise it would cause serious crop injury, abnormal growth of the crop, and even withering death. Some species  are fish, shellfish toxic; when they are used as a soil treatment  ,they will affect the soil microbial reproduction. Long-term use of one kind of herbicides can also cause harm grass  resistance and so on.

Chemical herbicides application leads to great social and economic benefits, but also produces different degrees of injury for some of the crops (especially in recent years the development of applications such as ultra-efficient herbicide sulfonylurea  causes  injury to afterreap crop ) and changes of weed populations, resulting in varying degrees of economic losses. To this end, the domestic  researches  and develops  new varieties, while strengthens  the research and development of the herbicide compound formulation.Among 1996.8 - 1997.7  90 patents related to herbicide applications in China, there are more than 80 patents on herbicide compound. In addition, herbicide antidotes, synergists, herbicide mechanism of action, selectivity principle and rational use of technologies  are  being carried out in-depth research.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Ethoxyamine hydrochloride Ethoxyamine hydrochloride 3332-29-4 C2H8ClNO
3,3-Dimethyl-2-oxobutyric acid 3,3-Dimethyl-2-oxobutyric acid 815-17-8 C6H10O3
Halosulfuron methyl Halosulfuron methyl 100784-20-1 C13H15ClN6O7S
Cyclopropylamine Cyclopropylamine 765-30-0 C3H7N
4-Chlorobenzotrichloride 4-Chlorobenzotrichloride 5216-25-1 C7H4Cl4
2,6-Dichlorobenzothiazole 2,6-Dichlorobenzothiazole 3622-23-9 C7H3Cl2NS
2-Benzoxazolinone 2-Benzoxazolinone 59-49-4 C7H5NO2
FLORASULAM FLORASULAM 145701-23-1 C12H8F3N5O3S
2-Amino-4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine 2-Amino-4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine 1668-54-8 C5H8N4O
2,6-Dichlorobenzoxazole 2,6-Dichlorobenzoxazole 3621-82-7 C7H3Cl2NO
2-Aminosulfonyl-N,N-dimethylnicotinamide 2-Aminosulfonyl-N,N-dimethylnicotinamide 112006-75-4 C8H11N3O3S
2-AMINO-4-CHLOROBENZOTHIAZOLE 2-AMINO-4-CHLOROBENZOTHIAZOLE 19952-47-7 C7H5ClN2S
3-Chloro-4-methylaniline 3-Chloro-4-methylaniline 95-74-9 C7H8ClN
Fenclorim Fenclorim 3740-92-9 C10H6Cl2N2
2-Chlorobenzyl chloride 2-Chlorobenzyl chloride 611-19-8 C7H6Cl2
Quinolinic acid Quinolinic acid 89-00-9 C7H5NO4
2-Chloronicotinic acid 2-Chloronicotinic acid 2942-59-8 C6H4ClNO2
2-Benzothiazolol 2-Benzothiazolol 934-34-9 C7H5NOS
Triclopyr Triclopyr 55335-06-3 C7H4Cl3NO3
MONURON MONURON 150-68-5 C9H11ClN2O
Fluridone Fluridone 59756-60-4 C19H14F3NO
Butylate Butylate 2008-41-5 C11H23NOS
Fenoxaprop-P Fenoxaprop-P 113158-40-0 C16H12ClNO5
2,4-Dichloro-5-nitrophenol 2,4-Dichloro-5-nitrophenol 39489-77-5 C6H3Cl2NO3
Chloramben Chloramben 133-90-4 C7H5Cl2NO2
Diclofop-methyl Diclofop-methyl 51338-27-3 C16H14Cl2O4
Methyl isothiocyanate Methyl isothiocyanate 556-61-6 C2H3NS
Imazapyr acid Imazapyr acid 81334-34-1 C13H15N3O3
Pendimethalin Pendimethalin 40487-42-1 C13H19N3O4
1-ISOPROPYL-4-NITROBENZENE 1-ISOPROPYL-4-NITROBENZENE 1817-47-6 C9H11NO2
Bromacil Bromacil 314-40-9 C9H13BrN2O2
1-(5-tert-Butyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea 1-(5-tert-Butyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea 34014-18-1 C9H16N4OS
2,2-Dichloropropionic acid 2,2-Dichloropropionic acid 75-99-0 C3H4Cl2O2
4-Methoxy-N,6-dimethyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine 4-Methoxy-N,6-dimethyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine 5248-39-5 C6H10N4O
2,3,6-TRICHLOROBENZOIC ACID 2,3,6-TRICHLOROBENZOIC ACID 50-31-7 C7H3Cl3O2
Sethoxydim Sethoxydim 74051-80-2 C17H29NO3S
PROMETON PROMETON 1610-18-0 C10H19N5O
Flumetsulam Flumetsulam 98967-40-9 C12H9F2N5O2S
Ethyl 2-sulfamoylbenzoate Ethyl 2-sulfamoylbenzoate 59777-72-9 C9H11NO4S
Fluroxypyr Fluroxypyr 69377-81-7 C7H5Cl2FN2O3
2,3-Dichloropropionitrile 2,3-Dichloropropionitrile 2601-89-0 C3H3Cl2N
2,6-Dichloroquinoxaline 2,6-Dichloroquinoxaline 18671-97-1 C8H4Cl2N2
2,5-Dichlorophenol 2,5-Dichlorophenol 583-78-8 C6H4Cl2O
DMC DMC 616-38-6 C3H6O3
2-Hydroxy-6-chloroquinoxaline 2-Hydroxy-6-chloroquinoxaline 2427-71-6 C8H5ClN2O
2-AMINO-4,6-DIMETHOXY-1,3,5-TRIAZINE 2-AMINO-4,6-DIMETHOXY-1,3,5-TRIAZINE 16370-63-1 C5H8N4O2
Fluoroglycofen-ethyl Fluoroglycofen-ethyl 77501-90-7 C18H13ClF3NO7
Terbutryn Terbutryn 886-50-0 C10H19N5S
4,6-Dinitro-2-sec-butylphenol 4,6-Dinitro-2-sec-butylphenol 88-85-7 C10H12N2O5
Iodosulfuron methyl sodium Iodosulfuron methyl sodium 144550-36-7 C14H13IN5NaO6S
3-Chloroaniline 3-Chloroaniline 108-42-9 C6H6ClN
2-Chlorobenzothiazole 2-Chlorobenzothiazole 615-20-3 C7H4ClNS
2,4-Dichlorobenzoyl chloride 2,4-Dichlorobenzoyl chloride 89-75-8 C7H3Cl3O
1,3-Dimethylpyrazole 1,3-Dimethylpyrazole 694-48-4 C5H8N2
2-Chloro-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide 2-Chloro-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide 1131-01-7 C10H12ClNO
2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid 94-74-6 C9H9ClO3
2,3-Dichloropropene 2,3-Dichloropropene 78-88-6 C3H4Cl2
(4-CHLORO-2-METHYLPHENOXY)ACETIC ACID METHYL ESTER (4-CHLORO-2-METHYLPHENOXY)ACETIC ACID METHYL ESTER 2436-73-9 C10H11ClO3
ISOXAFLUTOLE ISOXAFLUTOLE 141112-29-0 C15H12F3NO4S
N-Methylmethanamine 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate N-Methylmethanamine 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate 2008-39-1 C10H13Cl2NO3
DICLOSULAM DICLOSULAM 145701-21-9 C13H10Cl2FN5O3S
2-Ethylacrylaldehyde 2-Ethylacrylaldehyde 922-63-4 C5H8O
Paraquat dichloride Paraquat dichloride 1910-42-5 C12H14Cl2N2
CLORANSULAM-METHYL CLORANSULAM-METHYL 147150-35-4 C15H13ClFN5O5S
2-[4-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]oxyphenoxy]propanoic acid 2-[4-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]oxyphenoxy]propanoic acid 69806-34-4 C15H11ClF3NO4
3,6-DICHLORO-2-HYDROXY BENZOIC ACID 3,6-DICHLORO-2-HYDROXY BENZOIC ACID 3401-80-7 C7H4Cl2O3
Ethoxysulfuron Ethoxysulfuron 126801-58-9 C15H18N4O7S
Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 71283-80-2 C18H16ClNO5
PEBULATE PEBULATE 1114-71-2 C10H21NOS
1,1-DICHLOROPINACOLIN 1,1-DICHLOROPINACOLIN 22591-21-5 C6H10Cl2O
2-Bromopropane 2-Bromopropane 75-26-3 C3H7Br
Amicarbazone Amicarbazone 129909-90-6 C10H19N5O2
7-CHLORO-8-METHYLQUINOLINE 7-CHLORO-8-METHYLQUINOLINE 78941-93-2 C10H8ClN
3-Chlorophenyl isocyanate 3-Chlorophenyl isocyanate 2909-38-8 C7H4ClNO
Propham Propham 122-42-9 C10H13NO2
Bladex Bladex 21725-46-2 C9H13ClN6
Tralkoxydim Tralkoxydim 87820-88-0 C20H27NO3
2,4-D isooctyl ester 2,4-D isooctyl ester 25168-26-7 C16H22Cl2O3
2,4-DICHLORO-5-ISOPROPOXYANILINE 2,4-DICHLORO-5-ISOPROPOXYANILINE 41200-96-8 C9H11Cl2NO
Linuron Linuron 330-55-2 C9H10Cl2N2O2
Ethofumesate Ethofumesate 26225-79-6 C13H18O5S
[3-[[(Phenylamino)carbonyl]oxy]phenyl]carbamic acid ethyl ester [3-[[(Phenylamino)carbonyl]oxy]phenyl]carbamic acid ethyl ester 13684-56-5 C16H16N2O4
2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 149-30-4 C7H5NS2
Fluorochloridone Fluorochloridone 61213-25-0 C12H10Cl2F3NO
Bromoxynil octanoate Bromoxynil octanoate 1689-99-2 C15H17Br2NO2
2,4-Bis(isopropylamino)-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine 2,4-Bis(isopropylamino)-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine 139-40-2 C9H16ClN5
Terbutylazine Terbutylazine 5915-41-3 C9H16ClN5
Oryzalin Oryzalin 19044-88-3 C12H18N4O6S
Triasulfuron Triasulfuron 82097-50-5 C14H16ClN5O5S
4-Choro-2(3H)-benzothiazolone 4-Choro-2(3H)-benzothiazolone 39205-62-4 C7H4ClNOS
Bromoxynil Bromoxynil 1689-84-5 C7H3Br2NO
2-CHLORO-4,6-DIAMINO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE 2-CHLORO-4,6-DIAMINO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE 3397-62-4 C3H4ClN5
Trifloxysulfuron-sodium Trifloxysulfuron-sodium 199119-58-9 C14H13F3N5NaO6S
Methyl 2-chloromethylbenzoate Methyl 2-chloromethylbenzoate 34040-62-5 C9H9ClO2
2-Amino-2,3-dimethylbutyramide 2-Amino-2,3-dimethylbutyramide 40963-14-2 C6H14N2O
2,3-Quinoline dicarboxylic acid 2,3-Quinoline dicarboxylic acid 643-38-9 C11H7NO4
o-Carbomethoxybenzyl sulfonamide o-Carbomethoxybenzyl sulfonamide 112941-26-1 C9H11NO4S
Imazaquin acid Imazaquin acid 81335-37-7 C17H17N3O3
1,4-DIMETHYLPYRAZOLE 1,4-DIMETHYLPYRAZOLE 1072-68-0 C5H8N2
Clodinafop-propargyl Clodinafop-propargyl 105512-06-9 C17H13ClFNO4
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