Caionic surfactants

Cationic surfactant can be dissociated in water, having a molecular structure of surface activity and partially exhibit hydrophobic cationic behavior. At as early as 1896, F. Kraft et al has found the hydrochloride of hexadecylamine having the foaming properties of soaps, but it was not until after 1928 before the cationic surfactant had been adopted in the industry such as being used as fabric softeners, antistatic agent, water-repellent agents, dyeing auxiliaries, flotation and germicides. But its consumption amount is lower than the anionic surfactant and non-ionic surfactants and is mainly used in some special applications such as reducing the friction and sterilization effect.

The cationic surfactants can dissociate cation of surface activity in the water with its charge being contrary to an anionic surfactant, thus being often called "inverse soap." In term of its chemical structure, it contains at least one long-chain hydrophobic group and a positively charged hydrophilic group. The hydrophobic group of the long-chain is usually derived from fatty acids or petroleum chemicals. The positive charge of the cationic surfactants is generally carried by the nitrogen atom, alternatively may also be carried by the sulfur and phosphorus atoms. However, among hundreds of cationic surfactants of commercialized value, most of them contain a positively charged nitrogen atom. Thus, fatty amine is an important raw material of cationic surfactant.

The cationic surfactants, similar as other types of surfactant, after being absorbed on the surface or the interface to a certain concentration (the critical micelle concentration, i.e., CMC) will form micelles in solution, thereby reducing the surface tension of the solvent, exhibit surface activity. It has emulsifying, solubilizing, wetting, rinsing and dispersion effects. The rinsing effect of the cationic surfactant is limited with its antibacterial activity and the adhesion affinity to a hard surface being more prominent. In general, hard surface contains negative charge with the positively charged cationic surfactants having a very significant activity on it. The cationic surfactants can be easily absorbed by human skin, hair and teeth. They can be used as sanitizing agent, antiseptic disinfectant, germicides, fungicides, antistatic agents, textile softener, corrosion inhibitor, anti-foaming agent and flotation agents and so on. In cosmetic application, it is mainly used for sterilization, antibacterial agents, hair conditioners, skin softener and anti-caries additives. In the late 1980s, the cationic surfactant can account for about 8% to 10% of the total sales of surfactants.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Tetramethylammonium acetate Tetramethylammonium acetate 10581-12-1 C6H15NO2
Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate 32503-27-8 C16H37NO4S
Dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride Dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride 112-00-5 C15H34ClN
Benzalkonium chloride Benzalkonium chloride 8001-54-5 C17H30ClN
Tetramethylammonium fluoride Tetramethylammonium fluoride 373-68-2 C4H12FN
Dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride Dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 107-64-2 C38H80ClN
N-Hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride N-Hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride 112-02-7 C19H42ClN
Benzyltriethylammonium chloride Benzyltriethylammonium chloride 56-37-1 C13H22ClN
Tetraethylammonium bromide Tetraethylammonium bromide 71-91-0 C8H20BrN
Trimethylstearylammonium Chloride Trimethylstearylammonium Chloride 112-03-8 C21H46ClN
Tetrabutylammonium perchlorate Tetrabutylammonium perchlorate 1923-70-2 C16H36ClNO4
Stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride Stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride 122-19-0 C27H50ClN
Methyl trioctyl ammonium chloride Methyl trioctyl ammonium chloride 5137-55-3 C25H54ClN
Cetrimide Cetrimide 1119-97-7 C17H38BrN
Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 7173-51-5 C22H48ClN
Tetramethylammonium iodide Tetramethylammonium iodide 75-58-1 C4H12IN
Tetrabutyl ammonium chloride Tetrabutyl ammonium chloride 1112-67-0 C16H36ClN
Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide 1119-94-4 C15H34BrN
N,N-Dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-2-propen-1-aminium chloride polymer with 2-propenamide N,N-Dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-2-propen-1-aminium chloride polymer with 2-propenamide 108464-53-5 (C8H16ClN)n.(C3H5NO)m
Tridodecyl methyl ammonium chloride Tridodecyl methyl ammonium chloride 7173-54-8 C37H78ClN
Benzalkonium chloride Benzalkonium chloride 85409-22-9
Tetrabutylammonium cyanoborohydride Tetrabutylammonium cyanoborohydride 43064-96-6 C17H39BN2
alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (n=14) alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (n=14)
Behenyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride Behenyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride 4292-25-5 C22H45(CH3)3NCl
Flocculant ST Flocculant ST
Benzyltrimethylammonium iodide Benzyltrimethylammonium iodide 4525-46-6 C10H16IN
Tetrabutylammonium chloride monohydrate Tetrabutylammonium chloride monohydrate 88641-55-8 C16H36ClNH2O
Octadecylamine N-oleoyl Sarcosinate Octadecylamine N-oleoyl Sarcosinate C39H78N2O3
N,N-Dihexadecyl-N-methyl-1-hexadecanaminium chloride N,N-Dihexadecyl-N-methyl-1-hexadecanaminium chloride 52467-63-7 C49H102N.Cl
benzyltrimeehyl ammonium chloride benzyltrimeehyl ammonium chloride C10H16ClN
Tetrabutylammonium fluoride Tetrabutylammonium fluoride 429-41-4 C16H36FN
Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide 3700-67-2 C38H80BrN
Tetramethylammonium sulfate Tetramethylammonium sulfate 14190-16-0 C8H24N2O4S
Octadecy trimethyl ammonium bromide Octadecy trimethyl ammonium bromide 1120-02-1 C21H46BrN
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