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Tellurium

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Products Intro: Product Name:Tellurium
CAS:13494-80-9
Purity:99% Package:100g,500g,1KG,10KG,100KG
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CAS:13494-80-9
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CAS:13494-80-9
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Products Intro: Product Name:Tellurium, 99.8%, powder, 200 mesh
CAS:13494-80-9
Purity:99.8% Package:100G;25G

Lastest Price from Tellurium manufacturers

  • Tellurium
  • US $1.00 / g
  • 2018-12-19
  • CAS:13494-80-9
  • Min. Order: 50 g
  • Purity: 99.9%
  • Supply Ability: 20kg
Tellurium Basic information
History Uses Production Methods
Product Name:Tellurium
Synonyms:TELLURIUM PLASMA EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STANDARD;TELLURIUM PLASMA EMISSION STANDARD;TELLURIUM, PLASMA STANDARD SOLUTION;TELLURIUM SINGLE ELEMENT PLASMA STANDARD;TELLURIUM SINGLE ELEMENT STANDARD;TELLURIUM SINGLE ELEMENT STANDARD ICP-AES;TELLURIUM STANDARD;TELLURIUM STANDARD SOLUTION
CAS:13494-80-9
MF:Te
MW:127.6
EINECS:236-813-4
Product Categories:Electronic Chemicals;Micro/Nanoelectronics;Pure Elements;Metal and Ceramic Science;Metals;Tellurium;Inorganics;metal or element;Isoquinolines ,Quinuclidines ,Quinoxalines ,Quinolines ,Quinaldines ,Pyrimidines
Mol File:13494-80-9.mol
Tellurium Structure
Tellurium Chemical Properties
Melting point 450 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 990 °C(lit.)
density 6.24 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
form shot
color Silver-white
resistivity5.8-33 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Water Solubility insoluble H2O, benzene, CS2 [MER06]
Merck 13,9201
CAS DataBase Reference13494-80-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes T
Risk Statements 25
Safety Statements 45-28A
RIDADR UN 3288 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany 3
RTECS WY2625000
TSCA Yes
HazardClass 8
PackingGroup III
HS Code 28045000
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
ACROS English
SigmaAldrich English
ALFA English
Tellurium Usage And Synthesis
HistoryThe element was discovered by Muller von Reichenstein in 1782 while investigating a bluish-white ore of gold. The element was isolated from this ore by Klaproth in 1798, who suggested the name “tellurium” after the Latin word tellus, meaning earth. Tellurium occurs in nature only in minute quantities. It is found in small amounts in many sulfide deposits. One of the more common tellurium minerals is calaverite, AuTe2 , in which the metal is combined with gold. Some other tellurium minerals are altaite, PbTe; sylvanite, (Ag,Au)Te2; rickardite, Cu4Te3; tetradymite, Bi2Te2S; petzite, Ag3AuTe2 and coloradoite, HgTe. The metal is found in the native state and also in the form of its dioxide, tellurite, TeO2. The abundance of tellurium in the earth’s crust is estimated to be about 1 µg/kg.
UsesSmall amounts of tellurium are added to stainless steel and copper to improve their machinability. It enhances the strength and hardness of lead and protects lead from the corrosive action of sulfuric acid. Tellurium also is a strong chilling agent in iron castings. It controls the chill and imparts a tough abrasion resistance to the surface.
Tellurium is a curing agent for natural and synthetic rubber. It improves mechanical properties of the rubber imparting resistance to heat and abrasion. Tellurium is a coloring agent in glass, ceramics, and enamels. Traces of tellurium incorporated into platinum catalysts make the catalytic hydrogenation of nitric oxide favorable to forming hydroxylamine. A major application of tellurium is in semiconductor research. Tellurides of lead and bismuth are used in thermoelectric devices for power generation and refrigeration.
Production MethodsTellurium is recovered from the anode slimes produced in electrolytic refining of copper. Other metals present in these slimes are gold, silver, and selenium, which are all recovered as by-products in the extraction of tellurium. Tellurium is leached with caustic soda solution and the leachate upon neutralization precipitates tellurium dioxide, TeO2, in crude and impure form. A part of tellurium remaining in the slimes can be recovered during extraction of gold and silver. In this gold and silver recovery process, tellurium incorporates into the soda slag obtained from roasting the slimes in a furnace. Soda slag is produced when leached with a solution of caustic soda. The liquor is neutralized to form a crude precipitate of tellurium dioxide.
Crude tellurium dioxide is dissolved in a strong solution of caustic soda to form sodium tellurite. Electrolysis of sodium tellurite solution deposits tellurium metal on the stainless steel cathode.
Also, the tellurium metal can be prepared by thermal reduction of dioxide. However, prior to reduction crude dioxide is refined by successive caustic leaching and neutralization steps mentioned above.
Refined tellurium contains traces of lead, copper, iron, selenium, and other impurities. Highly pure tellurium can be obtained either by distilling refined tellurium in vacuum or by the zone melting process. The last traces of selenium can be removed as hydride by treating molten tellurium with hydrogen.
Chemical PropertiesTellurium is a grayish or silvery white, lustrous, crystalline, semimetallic element. It may exist in a hexagonal crystalline form or an amorphous powder. It is found in sulfide ores and is produced as a by-product of copper or bismuth refining.
Chemical PropertiesSilvery-white, lustrous solid with metal characteristics. Soluble in sulfuric acid, nitric acid, potassium hydroxide, and potassium cyanide solutions; insoluble in water. Imparts garlic-like odor to breath, can be depilatory. It is a ptype semiconductor and its conductivity is sensitive to light exposure.
HistoryDiscovered by Muller von Reichenstein in 1782; named by Klaproth, who isolated it in 1798. Tellurium is occasionally found native, but is more often found as the telluride of gold (calaverite), and combined with other metals. It is recovered commercially from the anode muds produced during the electrolytic refining of blister copper. The U.S., Canada, Peru, and Japan are the largest producers of the element. Crystalline tellurium has a silvery-white appearance, and when pure exhibits a metallic luster. It is brittle and easily pulverized. Amorphous tellurium is formed by precipitating tellurium from a solution of telluric or tellurous acid. Whether this form is truly amorphous, or made of minute crystals, is open to question. Tellurium is a p-type semiconductor, and shows greater conductivity in certain directions, depending on alignment of the atoms. Its conductivity increases slightly with exposure to light. It can be doped with silver, copper, gold, tin, or other elements. In air, tellurium burns with a greenish-blue flame, forming the dioxide. Molten tellurium corrodes iron, copper, and stainless steel. Tellurium and its compounds are probably toxic and should be handled with care. Workmen exposed to as little as 0.01 mg/m3 of air, or less, develop “tellurium breath,” which has a garlic-like odor. Forty-two isotopes and isomers of tellurium are known, with atomic masses ranging from 106 to 138. Natural tellurium consists of eight isotopes, two of which are radioactive with very long half-lives. Tellurium improves the machinability of copper and stainless steel, and its addition to lead decreases the corrosive action of sulfuric acid on lead and improves its strength and hardness. Tellurium catalysts are used in the oxidation of organic compounds and are used in hydrogenation and halogenation reactions. Tellurium is also used in electronic and semiconductor devices. It is also used as a basic ingredient in blasting caps, and is added to cast iron for chill control. Tellurium is used in ceramics. Bismuth telluride has been used in thermoelectric devices. Tellurium costs about 50¢/g, with a purity of about 99.5%. The metal with a purity of 99.9999% costs about $5/g.
UsesAs coloring agent in chinaware, porcelains, enamels, glass; reagent in producing black finish on silverware; in manufacture of special alloys of marked electrical resistance; in semiconductor research.
DefinitionA nonmetallic element with many properties similar to selenium and sulfur. Atomic number 52; group VIA of the period table; aw 127.60; valences of 2, 4, 6; eight stable isotopes.
General DescriptionGrayish-white, lustrous, brittle, crystalline solid; dark-gray to brown, amorphous powder with metallic characteristics. Used as a coloring agent in chinaware, porcelains, enamels, glass; producing black finish on silverware; semiconductor devices and research; manufacturing special alloys of marked electrical resistance. Improves mechanical properties of lead; powerful carbide stabilizer in cast iron, Tellurium vapor in "daylight" lamps, vulcanization of rubber. Blasting caps. Semiconductor research.
Reactivity ProfileTellurium is attacked by chlorine fluoride with incandescence. When Tellurium and potassium are warmed in an atmosphere of hydrogen, combination occurs with incandescence [Mellor 11:40. 1946-47]. Burning Tellurium produces toxic Tellurium oxide gas. Avoid solid sodium, halogens, interhalogens, metals, hexalithium disilicide. Reacts with nitric acid; reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid forming a red solution. Dissolves in potassium hydroxide in the presence of air with formation of deep red solution; combines with halogens. Avoid antimony and chlorine trifluoride; chlorine trifluoride reacts vigorously with Tellurium producing flame. Fluorine and Tellurium react with incandescence. Lithium silicide attacks Tellurium with incandescence. Reaction with zinc is accompanied by incandescence (same potential with cadmium, only hazard is less). A vigorous reaction results when liquid Tellurium is poured over solid sodium [EPA, 1998].
Hazard(Metal and compounds as tellurium) Toxic by inhalation. Halitosis.
Health HazardCauses central nervous system depression. Moderate skin and eye irritant. Tellurium is capable of doing harm within the body by replacing the essential element sulfur.
Fire HazardA finely divided suspension of elemental Tellurium in air will explode. Insoluble in water. Burning Tellurium produces toxic Tellurium oxide gas. Avoid solid sodium, halogens, interhalogens, metals, hexalithium disilicide. Reacts with nitric acid; reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid forming a red solution. Dissolves in potassium hydroxide in the presence of air with formation of deep red solution; combines with halogens. Avoid antimony and chlorine trifluoride; chlorine trifluoride reacts vigorously with Tellurium producing flame. Fluorine and Tellurium react with incandescence. Lithium silicide attacks Tellurium with incandescence. Reaction with zinc is accompanied by incandescence (same potential with cadmium, only hazard is less). A vigorous reaction results when liquid Tellurium is poured over solid sodium.
Safety ProfilePoison by ingestion and intratracheal routes. An experimental teratogen. Exposure causes nausea, vomiting, tremors, convulsions, respiratory arrest, central nervous system depression, and garlic odor to breath. Aerosols of tellurium, tellurium dioxide, and hydrogen telluride cause irritation of the respiratory system and may lead to the development of bronchitis and pneumonia. Experimental reproductive effects. Under the proper conditions it undergoes hazardous reactions with halogens (e.g., chlorine, fluorine), interhalogens (e.g., bromine pentafluoride, chlorine fluoride, chlorine trifluoride), metals (e.g., cadmium, potassium, sodium, platinum, tin, zinc), hexalithium disilicide, silver bromate, silver iodate. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Te. See also TELLURIUM COMPOUNDS.
Potential ExposureThe primary use of tellurium is in the vulcanization of rubber and as an additive in ferritic steel production. It is also used as a carbide stabilizer in cast iron, a chemical catalyst; a coloring agent in glazes and glass; a thermocoupling material in refrigerating equipment; as an additive to selenium rectifiers; in alloys of lead, copper, steel, and tin for increased resistance to corrosion and stress, workability, machinability, and creep strength; and in certain culture media in bacteriology. Since tellurium is present in silver, copper, lead, and bismuth ores, exposure may occur during purification of these ores.
First aidIf this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures. Give a slurry of activated charcoal in water to drink. Seek medical attention. Give large quantities of water and inducevomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 24-48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.
ShippingUN3288 Toxic solids, inorganic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.
Purification MethodsPurify it by zone refining and repeated sublimation to an impurity of less than 1 part in 108 (except for surface contamination by TeO2). [Machol & Westrum J Am Chem Soc 80 2950 1958.] Tellurium is volatile at 500o/0.2mm. It has also been purified by electrode deposition [Mathers & Turner Trans Amer Electrochem Soc 54 293 1928].
IncompatibilitiesFinely divided powder or dust may be flammable and explosive. Violent reaction with halogens, interhalogens, zinc and lithium silicide; with incandescence. Incompatible with oxidizers, cadmium; strong bases; chemically active metals; silver bromate; nitric acid.
Tellurium Preparation Products And Raw materials
Preparation ProductsZinc chloride-->Allyl chloride
Raw materialsHydroxylamine hydrochloride-->Sodium sulfide-->SODIUM TETRASULFIDE-->Selenium-->Tellurous acid-->TELLURIUM DIOXIDE
Tag:Tellurium(13494-80-9) Related Product Information
SODIUM TELLURITE TELLURIUM DIOXIDE 99% Tellurium(IV) fluoride Tellurium-131 Tellurium Atomic Absorption Standard Solution, 1 mg/ml Te in 2% KOH TELLURIUM (TE) IN APPROX. 1 M NITRIC ACID Tellurium, tetrakis(diethylcarbamodithioato-.kappa.S,.kappa.S)-, (DD-8-11111111)- TELLURIUM (TE) IN APPROX. 20 % HYDROCHLORIC ACID Tellurium, bis(trimethylsilyl)- Tellurium 128 BISMUTH TELLURIDE MOLYBDENUM TELLURIDE ARSENIC (III) TELLURIDE TELLURIUM(IV) OXIDE, 99.995%,TELLURIUM DIOXIDE, RANDOM PIECES, OPTICAL GRADE,Tellurium(IV) oxide, 99+%,Tellurium(IV)oxide,tech.,Tellurium(IV)oxide,99.995%(metalsbasis),TELLURIUM OXIDE, 99.5%,tellurium(iv) oxide, puratronic,Tellurium(IV)oxide(99.9995%-Te)PURATREM,TELLURIUM DIOXIDE, 99+%,TELLURIUM DIOXIDE, 99.9995%,TELLURIUM OXIDE: 99.9%,Tellurium(IV) oxide, Puratronic(R), 99.9995% (metals basis) POTASSIUM TELLURITE TELLURIUM TETRACHLORIDE, anhydrous, powder, 99.999%,Tellurium(Ⅳ)chloride GALLIUM (III) TELLURIDE dimethyl telluride