Surfactant

Surfactant is a kind of substance that can significantly change the liquid surface tension or interfacial tension between two phases. It is a class of novel chemical product that had emerged together with plastics, synthetics rubber and synthetic fibers with the development of petrochemical industry. Its molecule contains hydrophilic polar group (such as hydroxyl, sulfate, sulfonate) and hydrophobic or lipophilic, atmophile non-polar group (such as a hydrocarbon group, being a long chain hydrocarbon) two parts. It gathers in the interface between the liquid and the other phase, forming a thin layer of molecule membrane, making the concentration of the surface layer of the solution much greater than that of the internal solution, further greatly reducing its surface tension and causing many effects such as wetting, emulsifying, dispersion and bubbling. There are many types of surfactants. They are generally divided into anionic type (e.g., alkylbenzene sulfonate), cationic type (e.g. octadecylamine hydrochloride, etc.), nonionic (e.g. glyceryl stearate, etc.), and amphoteric surfactant.

This product has a wide range of applications. In daily life, the most commonly used surfactant is detergent. The detergent take advantages of its lipophilic group to make the oil staining in the clothing gradually rolled into oil beads and leave the surface of the substance, further being dispersed, suspended in the medium and removed after rinsing.

Besides being used in family life for washing, in the field of industrial and agricultural production, it is often used as wetting agents, emulsifying agents, dispersing agents, penetrating agents, foaming agents and microbicides.

In the field of environmental protection, it can be used for sea oil pollution treatment, wastewater treatment, flotation separation, anti-dust, fire distinguishing and so on.

Photographic emulsions mostly take anionic surfactants such as nekal and diisooctyl ester sulfonate. They can make the emulsion coating be uniformly, and also has various kinds of effects such as antiseptic, anti-foaming and preventing the occurrence of defects such as comet spots and dots. It can also used to stabilizing solution for developing.

During the process of galena flotation, the surfactants (such as sodium xanthan) in the flotation agent can be adsorbed on the surface of galena, generating lead xanthan. Acid group can bound to the metal on the solid surface. The hydrocarbon tails can be outwardly arranged so the wettability of the galena is reduced wettability, attaching to the bubble and floating up to achieve the purpose of being separated from the surface to be enriched.

In agriculture, the leaf fertilizer containing surfactants can be applied to the leaves of crops with property of fast fertilizing effect, low cost and significant efficacy of increasing the yield. It has been widely used in crops such as tea, watermelon and grapes. Since there is a layer of wax contained in the crop leaf surface, it is not easy for water droplets to spread. Adding this foliar fertilizer can enable to rapid spread of the droplet on the leaf surface so that the nutrients in the water can be absorbed by crops.

Artificially synthetic surfactants can enter into coastal water areas together with sewage, and is a type of marine pollutants. The situation is particularly severe in the coastal zone of industrial countries. Such contaminants can gather on the ocean surface and can not only affect the sea - air interface process but also cause the deterioration of oxygen-containing condition of the coastal waters, thereby threatening the marine ecosystems.

There are some kinds of naturally existing organic substances in seawater that have surface activity such as fatty acids, long chain alcohols, proteinoids and some kinds of water humus. They tend to be absorbed in the sea - air and sea - particles interfaces in the seawater, further forming surface membrane on the ocean surface. This kind of membrane can have direct impact on the physical and chemical properties, interfacial properties, material exchange in sea - air interface and the formation of the marine aerosols.

In the ground water, the surfactants can be degraded by organisms. However, upon a concentration exceeding 4 mg/mL, it is toxic to the aquatic creatures and fishes. Moreover, it can even cause eutrophication of the water. Sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) has teratogenic effects on animals. Upon a concentration of 10 mg/L in water, the fish can hardly survive; in a concentration of 45mg / L, the growth of rice will be severely affected.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
LITHIUM DODECYL SULFATE LITHIUM DODECYL SULFATE 2044-56-6 C12H25LiO4S
POE (20) ISOHEXADECYL ETHER POE (20) ISOHEXADECYL ETHER 9004-95-9 C56 H114 O21
Sodium octyl sulfate Sodium octyl sulfate 142-31-4 C8H17NaO4S
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOOLEYL ETHER POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOOLEYL ETHER 9004-98-2 C38H76O11
Tetramethylammonium acetate Tetramethylammonium acetate 10581-12-1 C6H15NO2
Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate 32503-27-8 C16H37NO4S
TRILAURIN TRILAURIN 538-24-9 C39H74O6
Span 80 Span 80 1338-43-8 C24H44O6
Dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride Dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride 112-00-5 C15H34ClN
Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride 8001-54-5 C17H30ClN
Decyltrimethylammonium chloride Decyltrimethylammonium chloride 10108-87-9 C13H30ClN
Glycerol tristearate Glycerol tristearate 555-43-1 C57H110O6
Tetramethylammonium fluoride Tetramethylammonium fluoride 373-68-2 C4H12FN
Dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride Dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 107-64-2 C38H80ClN
CETYLDIMETHYLETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE CETYLDIMETHYLETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE 124-03-8 C20H44BrN
Potassium oleate Potassium oleate 143-18-0 C18H33KO2
Sorbitan monopalmitate Sorbitan monopalmitate 26266-57-9 C22H42O6
Benzyltriethylammonium chloride Benzyltriethylammonium chloride 56-37-1 C13H22ClN
Sodium dodecyl sulfate Sodium dodecyl sulfate 151-21-3 C12H25NaO4S
Sodium pentanesulfonate Sodium pentanesulfonate 22767-49-3 C5H11NaO3S
N-Hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride N-Hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride 112-02-7 C19H42ClN
Tetraethylammonium bromide Tetraethylammonium bromide 71-91-0 C8H20BrN
BUTYLNAPHTHALENESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT BUTYLNAPHTHALENESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT 25638-17-9 C14H15NaO2S
TRIOLEIN TRIOLEIN 122-32-7 C57H104O6
Aliquat 7 Aliquat 7 112-03-8 C21H46ClN
Tetrabutylammonium perchlorate Tetrabutylammonium perchlorate 1923-70-2 C16H36ClNO4
MONOOLEIN MONOOLEIN 111-03-5 C21H40O4
Span 60 Span 60 1338-41-6 C24H46O6
ANTISTATIC AGENT ANTISTATIC AGENT
Span 20 Span 20 1338-39-2 C18H34O6
Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose 9004-65-3 C3H7O *
Stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride Stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride 122-19-0 C27H50ClN
Tween 60 Tween 60 9005-67-8 C64H126O26
Tween 20 Tween 20 9005-64-5 C18H34O6
Sodium 1-butanesulfonate Sodium 1-butanesulfonate 2386-54-1 C4H9NaO3S
4-Morpholineethanesulfonic acid 4-Morpholineethanesulfonic acid 4432-31-9 C6H13NO4S
Docosanamide Docosanamide 3061-75-4 C22H45NO
SODIUM DECYL SULFATE SODIUM DECYL SULFATE 142-87-0 C10H21NaO4S
Methyl trioctyl ammonium chloride Methyl trioctyl ammonium chloride 5137-55-3 C25H54ClN
LIGNOSULFONIC ACID, CALCIUM SALT LIGNOSULFONIC ACID, CALCIUM SALT 8061-52-7 C20H24CaO10S2
Polyoxyethylene stearate Polyoxyethylene stearate 9004-99-3 C34H70O9
SORBITAN TRIOLEATE SORBITAN TRIOLEATE 26266-58-0 C60H108O8
Polyoxyethylene lauryl ether Polyoxyethylene lauryl ether 9002-92-0 C58H118O24
Tetrabutyl ammonium chloride Tetrabutyl ammonium chloride 1112-67-0 C16H36ClN
Sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate Sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate 25155-30-0 C18H29NaO3S
Sodium stearate Sodium stearate 822-16-2 C18H35NaO2
Magnesium stearate Magnesium stearate 557-04-0 C36H70MgO4
Cetrimide Cetrimide 1119-97-7 C17H38BrN
Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 7173-51-5 C22H48ClN
Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate 9005-66-7 C22H42O6.(C2H4O)n
1-DODECANESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT 1-DODECANESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT 2386-53-0 C12H25NaO3S
Tetramethylammonium iodide Tetramethylammonium iodide 75-58-1 C4H12IN
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Hydroxyethyl Cellulose 9004-62-0
Sodium allylsulfonate Sodium allylsulfonate 2495-39-8 C3H5NaO3S
3-(N,N-Dimethylpalmitylammonio)propanesulfonate 3-(N,N-Dimethylpalmitylammonio)propanesulfonate 2281-11-0 C21H45NO3S
LDAO LDAO 1643-20-5 C14H31NO
Tween 80 Tween 80 9005-65-6 C24H44O6
Sodium poly[(naphthaleneformaldehyde)sulfonate] Sodium poly[(naphthaleneformaldehyde)sulfonate] 9084-06-4 (C11H7O4SNa)n
Tween 85 Tween 85 9005-70-3 C24H44O6
Dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide Dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide 1119-94-4 C15H34BrN
Tetrabutylammonium fluoride Tetrabutylammonium fluoride 429-41-4 C16H36FN
1-HEXADECANESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT 1-HEXADECANESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT 15015-81-3 C16H33NaO3S
Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide 3700-67-2 C38H80BrN
Ammonium lauryl sulfate Ammonium lauryl sulfate 2235-54-3 C12H29NO4S
Sodium lignosulfonate Sodium lignosulfonate 8061-51-6 C20H24Na2O10S2
Dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid Dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid 27176-87-0 C18H30O3S
Octadecy trimethyl ammonium bromide Octadecy trimethyl ammonium bromide 1120-02-1 C21H46BrN
Pentaerythrityl tetrastearate Pentaerythrityl tetrastearate 115-83-3 C77H148O8
Isopropyl myristate Isopropyl myristate 110-27-0 C17H34O2
MONOLAURIN MONOLAURIN 142-18-7 C15H30O4
Sodium lauryl polyoxyethylene ether sulfate Sodium lauryl polyoxyethylene ether sulfate 9004-82-4 C12H25NaO3S
Isooctyl palmitate Isooctyl palmitate 1341-38-4 C24H48O2
Tetramethylammonium sulfate Tetramethylammonium sulfate 14190-16-0 C8H24N2O4S
CETYL LACTATE CETYL LACTATE 35274-05-6 C19H38O3
BETAINE CITRATE BETAINE CITRATE 17671-50-0 C11H19NO9
Lauryl betaine Lauryl betaine 683-10-3 C16H33NO2
CALCIUM DODECYLBENZENE SULFONATE CALCIUM DODECYLBENZENE SULFONATE 26264-06-2 C36H58CaO6S2
MONOCAPRYLIN MONOCAPRYLIN 26402-26-6 C11H22O4
Benzyltrimethylammonium iodide Benzyltrimethylammonium iodide 4525-46-6 C10H16IN
SORBITAN SESQUIOLEATE SORBITAN SESQUIOLEATE 8007-43-0 C66H126O16
SORBITAN TRISTEARATE SORBITAN TRISTEARATE 26658-19-5 C60H114O8
Hydroxyaluminum distearate Hydroxyaluminum distearate 300-92-5 C36H71AlO5
LY 171883 LY 171883 88107-10-2 C16H22N4O3
MYRISTYL MYRISTATE MYRISTYL MYRISTATE 3234-85-3 C28H56O2
Tridodecyl methyl ammonium chloride Tridodecyl methyl ammonium chloride 7173-54-8 C37H78ClN
Sulfonated castor oil Sulfonated castor oil 8002-33-3 C18H32Na2O6S
Propyleneglycol alginate Propyleneglycol alginate 9005-37-2 (C9H14O70n
Tetrabutylammonium cyanoborohydride Tetrabutylammonium cyanoborohydride 43064-96-6 C17H39BN2
POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) (N) DISTEARATE POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) (N) DISTEARATE 9005-08-7 C40H78O5
Sodium hydroxymethyl glycinate Sodium hydroxymethyl glycinate 70161-44-3 C3H6NNaO3
SULFONATED ALIPHATIC POLYESTER SULFONATED ALIPHATIC POLYESTER 1639-66-3 C52H111Na3O7S
SODIUM-N-METHYL-N-OLEYL TAURATE SODIUM-N-METHYL-N-OLEYL TAURATE 137-20-2 C21H40NNaO4S
Dibasic Lead Stearate Dibasic Lead Stearate 56189-09-4 C36H70O6Pb2
TETRAMETHYLAMMONIUM FLUORIDE TETRAHYDRATE TETRAMETHYLAMMONIUM FLUORIDE TETRAHYDRATE 17787-40-5 C4H20FNO4
DECYL OLEATE DECYL OLEATE 3687-46-5 C28H54O2
BRIJ(R) 76 BRIJ(R) 76 9005-00-9 C58H118O21
Sucrose stearate Sucrose stearate 25168-73-4 C30H56O12
NONAFLUORO-3,6-DIOXAHEPTANOIC ACID NONAFLUORO-3,6-DIOXAHEPTANOIC ACID 151772-58-6 C5HF9O4
1-PENTANESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT MONOHYDRATE 1-PENTANESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT MONOHYDRATE 207605-40-1 C5H11O3S.Na
DIMETHYLSTEARYLAMINE OXIDE DIMETHYLSTEARYLAMINE OXIDE 2571-88-2 C20H43NO
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