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108-95-2

108-95-2 Structure

108-95-2 Structure
IdentificationMore
[Name]

Phenol
[CAS]

108-95-2
[Synonyms]

AKOS BBS-00004229
BENZENOL
BIOPHENOL
CARBOLIC ACID
CARBOLIC ACID SOLID
FEMA 3223
HYDROXYBENZENE
HYDROXY BENZENE SOLID
KJELDAHL PHENOL REAGENT
LIQUIFIED PHENOL
OXYBENZENE
PHENIC ACID
PHENOL
PHENOL, LIQUEFIED
PHENOL LIQUIFIED
PHENOL REAGENT
PHENOL SATURATED, PH 4.5
PHENOL SINGLE PHASE BUFFER, SATURATED
PHENOL SOLUTION
PHENOL STANDARD
[EINECS(EC#)]

203-632-7
[Molecular Formula]

C6H6O
[MDL Number]

MFCD00002143
[Molecular Weight]

94.11
[MOL File]

108-95-2.mol
Chemical PropertiesBack Directory
[Description]

Phenol is a stable chemical substance and appear as colourless/white crystals with a characteristic, distinct aromatic/acrid odour. It is reactive and incompatible with strong oxidising agents, strong bases, strong acids, alkalis, and calcium hypochlorite. Phenol is flammable and may discolour in light. Phenol is used in the manufacture or production of explosives, fertiliser, coke, illuminating gas, lampblack, paints, paint removers, rubber, perfumes, asbestos goods, wood preservatives, synthetic resins, textiles, drugs, and pharmaceutical preparations. It is also extensively used as a disinfectant in the petroleum, leather, paper, soap, toy, tanning, dye, and agricultural industries.
[Appearance]

Phenol is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid. Sweet, acrid odor. Phenol liquefies by mixing with about 8% water. The Odor Threshold in air is 0.04 ppm and in water is 7.9 ppm.
[Appearance]

White solid
[mp ]

40-42 °C(lit.)
[bp ]

182 °C(lit.)
[density ]

1.071 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
[vapor density ]

3.24 (vs air)
[vapor pressure ]

0.09 psi ( 55 °C)
[refractive index ]

n20/D 1.53
[FEMA ]

3223
[Fp ]

175 °F
[storage temp. ]

2-8°C
[solubility ]

H2O: 50 mg/mL at 20 °C, clear, colorless
[form ]

liquid
[color ]

faintly yellow
[Water Solubility ]

8 g/100 mL
[FreezingPoint ]

41℃
[Sensitive ]

Air & Light Sensitive
[Usage]

Purified for molecular genetics applications
[Merck ]

14,7241
[BRN ]

969616
[Uses]

phenol is frequently used for medical chemical face peels. It may trap free radicals and can act as a preservative. Phenol, however, is an extremely caustic chemical with a toxicity potential. It is considered undesirable for use in cosmetics. even at low concentrations, it frequently causes skin irritation, swelling, and rashes.
[CAS DataBase Reference]

108-95-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Phenol(108-95-2)
[EPA Substance Registry System]

108-95-2(EPA Substance)
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

Phenol is a stable chemical substance of colorless/white crystals with a characteristically distinct aromatic/acrid odor. It is reactive and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, strong acids, alkalis, and calcium hypochlorite. It is flammable and discolors in light. Phenol is used in the manufacture or production of explosives, fertilizer, coke, illuminating gas, lampblack, paints, paint removers, rubber, perfumes, asbestos goods, wood preservatives, synthetic resins, textiles, drugs, and pharmaceutical preparations. It is also used extensively as a disinfectant in the petroleum, leather, paper, soap, toy, tanning, dye, and agricultural industries. Phenol is a systemic poison and constitutes a serious health hazard. The risks of using it in the laboratory must be fully assessed before work begins. Typical MEL 2 ppm; typical OEL 1 ppm.
[General Description]

A solid melting at 110°F. Colorless if pure, otherwise pink or red. Flash point 175°F. Density 9.9 lb/gal. Vapors are heavier than air Corrosive to the skin (turning skin white) but because of its anesthetic quality numbs rather than burn. Lethal amounts can be absorbed through the skin. Used to make plastics and adhesives.
[Reactivity Profile]

PHENOL is a weak acid. Reacts exothermically with bases. Reacts with strong oxidizing agents. Emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes when heated to decomposition. Undergoes, in the presence of aluminum chloride, potentially explosive reactions with nitromethane, butadiene, formaldehyde, peroxodisulfuric acid, peroxosulfuric acid, and sodium nitrite . Reacts violently with sodium nitrate in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 770]. May corrode lead, aluminum and its alloys, certain plastics, and rubber. Phenol may explode in contact with peroxodisulfuric acid (Dns, J. Ber., 1910, 43, 1880; Z. Anorg. Chem., 1911, 73, 1911.) or peroxomonosulfuric acid. (Sidgwick, 1950, 939)
[Air & Water Reactions]

Decomposes slowly in air. Mixtures of 9-10% phenol in air are explosive. Soluble in water
[Health Hazard]

Exposures to phenol cause adverse health effects and poisoning. Phenol is absorbed very rapidly through surfaces of the skin, lungs, and stomach. The symptoms of prolonged exposures and poisoning include, but are not limited to, vomiting, diffi culty in swallowing, diarrhea, lack of appetite, headache, fainting, dizziness, mental disturbances, and skin rash. Direct contact with phenol causes burning of the mouth, irritation to the eyes, nose, and dermatitis, discoloration of the skin, and damage to the liver and kidneys. Exposure to phenol in different concentrations is known to cause mental disturbances, depression of the CNS, and coma.
[Health Hazard]

Toxic hazard rating is very toxic: probable oral lethal dose (human) is 50-500 mg/kg. Ingestion of 1 gram has been lethal to humans. Lethal amounts may be absorbed through skin or inhaled. Industrial contact can cause chronic poisoning with kidney and liver damage. Persons affected with hepatic or kidney diseases are at a greater risk.
[Potential Exposure]

Phenol is used as a pharmaceutical, in the production of fertilizer; coke, illuminating gas; lampblack, paints, paint removers; rubber, asbestos goods; wood preservatives; synthetic resins; textiles, drugs, pharmaceutical preparations; perfumes, bakelite, and other plastics (phenolformaldehyde resins); polymer intermediates (caprolactam, bisphenol-A and adipic acid). Phenol also finds wide use as a disinfectant and veterinary drug.
[Fire Hazard]

Flammable vapors when heated. Runoff from fire control water may give off poisonous gases and cause pollution. Mixtures of 9-10% phenol in air are explosive. Avoid aluminum chloride/nitrobenzene mixture, peroxodisulfuric acid, peroxomonosulfuric acid and strong oxidizing agents. Decomposes slowly on air contact. Avoid contact with strong oxidizing agents.
[First aid]

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. If concentrated phenol gets on a large area of the skin, immediately rush victim to shower and use at full blast; remove all contaminated clothing; scrub the contaminated area with soap for at least 10 minutes—water alone may be harmful. If polyethyleneglycol-300 is available, swab exposed area with cotton soaked in it. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Rinse mouth. Give plenty of water and/or vegetable oil to drink. Do not allow the consumption of alcohol. Induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 2448 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.
[Shipping]

UN1671 Phenol, solid, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN2312 Molten phenol, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN2821 Phenol solutions, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
[Incompatibilities]

Vapors may form explosive mixture with air. The aqueous solution is a weak acid. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, calcium hypochlorite; aluminum chloride. acids. Reacts with metals.
[Waste Disposal]

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration.
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

T,C,F,Xn
[Risk Statements ]

R23/24/25:Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R34:Causes burns.
R48/20/21/22:Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, and in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R68:Possible risk of irreversible effects.
R40:Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R39/23/24/25:Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R11:Highly Flammable.
R36:Irritating to the eyes.
R20/21/22:Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R24/25:Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed .
[Safety Statements ]

S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
S28:After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer) .
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes .
S1/2:Keep locked up and out of the reach of children .
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing .
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition-No smoking .
[RIDADR ]

UN 2821 6.1/PG 2
[WGK Germany ]

2
[RTECS ]

SJ3325000
[F ]

8-23
[HazardClass ]

6.1
[PackingGroup ]

II
[HS Code ]

29071100
[Precautions]

Acute poisoning of phenol by ingestion, inhalation or skin contact may lead to death. Phenol is readily absorbed through the skin. It is highly toxic by inhalation. It is corrosive and causes burns and severe irritation effects. During use and handling of phenol, occupational workers should be very careful. Workers should use protective clothing, rubber boots, and goggles to protect the eyes from vapors and spillage.
[Safety Profile]

Human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by ingestion, subcutaneous, intravenous, parenteral, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by skin contact. A severe eye and skin irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. Mutation data reported. An experimental teratogen. Absorption of phenolic solutions through the skin may be very rapid, and can cause death within 30 minutes to several hours by exposure of as little as 64 square inches of skin. Lesser exposures can cause damage to the ladneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen, and edema of the lungs. Ingestion can cause corrosion of the lips, mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach, and gangrene. Ingestion of 1.5 g has lulled. Chronic exposures can cause death from liver and kidney damage. Dermatitis resulting from contact with phenol or phenol-containing products is fairly common in industry. A common air contaminant.Combustible when exposed to heat, flame or oxidizers. Potentially explosive reaction with aluminum chloride + nitromethane (at 1 10°C/lOO bar), formaldehyde, perijxydisulfuric acid, peroxymonosulfuric acid, sodium nitrite + heat. Violent reaction with aluminum chloride + nitrobenzene (at 120℃), sodium nitrate + trifluoroacetic acid, butadiene. Can react with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
[Hazardous Substances Data]

108-95-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Raw materials]

Sodium hydroxide-->Sulfuric acid -->PETROLEUM ETHER-->Sodium sulfate-->Benzene-->Sodium sulfite-->Sulfur dioxide-->PROPYLENE-->Sulfur trioxide-->COAL TAR-->Fiber Glass Wool-->Isoproturon-->Benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt-->Liquefied petroleum ges-->Phenol crude-->CUMENE-->Cumyl hydroperoxide-->4-Isopropylaniline
[Preparation Products]

Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate-->2,4,6-Trichlorophenol-->6-PHENOXYNICOTINONITRILE-->BISPHENOL A DIMETHACRYLATE-->4-NITROPHENYL PHENYL ETHER-->Fenpropathrin-->4-Hydroxycinnamic acid-->Tetrabromophenol Blue-->DIPHENYL PHTHALATE-->Xanthene-->3-PHENOXYANILINE-->4'-Phenoxyacetophenone-->Tris(2,4-ditert-butylphenyl) phosphite-->DL-4-HYDROXYMANDELIC ACID MONOHYDRATE-->High temperature levelling agent BOF-->Seratrodast-->2-Phenoxypropionic acid-->4-Chromanone-->Dispersing agent S-->Sodium pentachlorophenolate-->2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-->NITROFEN-->2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol-->3-CHLORO-4-PHENOXYANILINE-->ALKYLPHENOL DISULFIDE-->synthetic tanning agent No.28-->3-AMINO-1-PHENOXY-2-PROPANOL HYDROCHLORIDE-->4-Hydroxyvalerophenone-->3-Phenoxypropionic acid-->SODIUM PHENOLATE TRIHYDRATE-->4-Phenoxybutanoic acid-->2,4,6-Tri-tert-butylphenol-->Adhesive 706-->Acid Red 111-->Roxatidine acetate-->Antioxidant T502-->Sulphur Indanthrene Blue RNX-->Bisacodyl-->Tri(4-isopropylphenyl) phosphate
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

phenol(108-95-2).msds
Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

Phenol is commonly known as carbolic acid. The chemical properties of phenol are very active, and it turns to reddish crystals in the air or in contact with any impurities. It absorbs the moisture in the air and gradually liquefies in the air. Phenol is slightly soluble in water, soluble in benzene, alkaline solution and organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, chloroform, glycerol, etc. Phenol is weakly acidic and reacts with base to form salt. It appears blue when being dissolved in ferric chloride solution.
[Uses]

Phenol is an important organic chemical raw material, widely used in the production of phenolic resin and bisphenol A, in which bisphenol A is important raw material for polycarbonate, epoxy resin, polysulfone resin and other plastics. In some cases the phenol is used to produce iso-octylphenol, isononylphenol, or isododecylphenol through addition reaction with long-chain olefins such as diisobutylene, tripropylene, tetra-polypropylene and the like, which are used in production of nonionic surfactants. In addition, it can also be used as an important raw material for caprolactam, adipic acid, dyes, medicines, pesticides and plastic additives and rubber auxiliaries.
[Production]

Coal tar was once the main source of phenol, and was extracted from sodium hydroxide solution. In earlier time, people use sulfonation method to produce phenol: react sodium benzene sulfonate with sodium hydroxide to generate the sodium salt of phenol, and then treat it with acid to obtain phenol. In recent years, hydrolyzing chlorobenzene or oxidizing cumene has become the major production method. The by-product acetone in latter method is also an important industrial raw material, so oxidizing cumene is more economic industrially thus widely applied.
Cumene method:
This method generates cumene from propylene and benzene in the presence of aluminum trichloride. It oxidizes to cumene hydroperoxide and then decomposes with cation exchange resin to give phenol and acetone. For each ton of phenol produced, 0.62 tons of acetone can be produced.

Sulfonation method:
se sulfuric acid to sulfonate benzene to generate benzene sulfonic acid, neutralize it with sodium sulfite, and then undergo acidification and vacuum distillation in caustic soda solution.

Hydrogen benzene hydrolysis method: hydrogen benzene is hydrolyzed in caustic soda solution with high temperature and high pressure to generate phenol sodium, which is then neutralized to give phenol.
[Toxicity]

Phenol is highly corrosive and toxic. It mainly affects the central nervous system. The oral lethal dose for adults is 1 g. It can be irritating, numbing or necrotizing to the skin. It is toxic to skin contact, swallowing or inhalation of phenol. Misuse of a small amount of phenol can cause nausea, vomiting, shock, coma and even death in case of respiratory failure. Very few amounts are used as a preservative, so that adverse reactions are rarely found.
Due to its high toxicity, it has been replaced by more effective and less toxic phenolic derivatives.
Spectrum DetailBack Directory
[Spectrum Detail]

Phenol(108-95-2)13CNMR
Phenol(108-95-2)IR3
Phenol(108-95-2)Raman
Phenol(108-95-2)IR1
Phenol(108-95-2)MS
Phenol(108-95-2)1HNMR
Phenol(108-95-2)IR2
Phenol(108-95-2)ESR
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Phenol, extra pure, 99%(108-95-2)
[Alfa Aesar]

Phenol, detached crystals, 99+%(108-95-2)
[Sigma Aldrich]

108-95-2(sigmaaldrich)
[TCI AMERICA]

Phenol,>98.0%(GC)(108-95-2)
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